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Predicting Consumers Intention to Adopt MCommerce Services: An Empirical Study in the Indian Context
Kanwalvir Singh, Himanshu Aggarwal
Abstract—Mobile Commerce (M-commerce) services are playing a significant role in changing the lives of the common citizens. This paper is an attempt to explore the factors concerning consumer’s intention to adopt Mobile commerce services in the state of Punjab in India. Finding and analyzing these critical factors can lead to the overall healthy growth & advancements involved with the implementation of eGovernance in every country. This empirical study will help in formulating effective strategic planning based on the data analysis of the consumers by statistically analyzing the data. It can really bolster the cause for the development of efficiently and strategically developed information systems for e-Governance projects in any country. This study highlights consumer’s post-adoption evaluation of their current use of M-services to predict their interest in next generation M-commerce services. Index Terms— M-commerce, Consumer adoption, E-governance, M-services.

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T

1 INTRODUCTION
dict the consumer’s adoption of M-commerce/mobile services. The divergent experience with M-services really plays a significant role in the customers enjoying various features and benefits availed while using these services. The more likely adoption of M-commerce services will always be in the cases where customers feel always more satisfied based on their experiences of using or availing these kinds of services. Anckar, B. et al. (2002) pointed that in a study of M-commerce, suggested eight features of mobile services: time-critical, spontaneous, entertainment, efficiency, mobility-related, cost saving, convenience, and familiarity features which determine two groups of M-commerce value, including mobile value and wireless value. Huh, Y.E. et al. (2008) also argued that the future adoption of next technology is better than information on their initial adoption behavior, by focusing on the information on consumers’ continued usage. Their finding implies that consumers’ positive experience with their current mobile phone fosters their adoption of similar but more advanced forms of technological interfaces. The organizational characteristics were explored by Allen et al. (2004) to enable strategic use of IT so that the governance can be improved & found the organizational cultural and architectural factors acting as determinants in related transformations. H. Johann, P. Peter, S. Michael (2011) in their research work examined Austrian municipalities for e-participation services & identified influencing factors to work out on a methodology to assess eparticipation readiness related with municipal e-services.

HE studies concerning surveys having perceptions and opinion of the common citizen’s form the basis for the implementation of e-Governance projects in any part of the world. These need to be analyzed so as to have efficient and modest design for the development of any e-Governance information system. However, there is an urgent need to understand the various dimensions & characteristics related with the latest in technologies which in this case is M-commerce services. Electronic government (e-government) is commonly referred to as the delivery of government information and services through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) [7]. The ERP implementation in the developing countries has been delayed and mainly affected due to their poor and unstable economic status [4]. The citizen’s willingness to adopt e-Governance in various public sectors has been found to be the key aspect for the successfulness of e-Government services. The relative performance of the governments in e-government development can also be identified to formulate effective strategies and policies for improving the performance of e-government [9]. So, it is imperative that the critical factors need to be identified that can predict consumer’s intention to adopt M-commerce services.

2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This section reviews the earlier work done for exploring the consumers’ behavior and their focus to adopt or pr e————————————————

 Kanwalvir Singh is Associate Prof. with the Dept. of CSE & IT, Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Engg. College, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India 140407.  Himanshu Aggarwal is Professor with the Department of Computer Engg., UCOE, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India 147001.

3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

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This research study will determine the awareness, attitude, usage and other features involved in availing the Mcommerce services by the common citizens. The present paper thrusts upon the major factors out of the existing mobile commerce services availed by the common citizens in the state of Punjab.

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Profession Unemployed / Non-working Employed (govt. service/private) Businessman Student Farmer Total

Count 7 66 29 6 292 400

%age 1.8 16.5 7.3 1.5 73.0 100.0

4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This empirical study is concerning 400 randomly selected citizens (respondents) already availing e-Governance services in the various districts & Tehsils/sub-Tehsils of the Punjab state. The questionnaire developed constitutes various demographic profiles for the gender, region, Education qualification, annual income, age and profession. The summating rating method of five point Likert scale (where 5=Strongly agreed, 4=Agreed, 3=Undecided, 2=Disagreed and 1=Strongly disagreed) has been used to gather the responses of the citizens. This method of five point Likert scale is applied in the questionnaire development process. SPSS 18.0 tool has been used for statistically analyzing the data. Thus, the data obtained has been processed and analyzed for citizen’s data and its objective to get the desired results with analysis. For this, two districts and two Tehsils/Sub-Tehsils have been selected from each region of Punjab: From Malwa region Fatehgarh Sahib & Patiala, From Majha region - Amritsar & Gurdaspur and, From Doaba region - Jalandhar & Nawanshahr. The focus of this work is the analysis of the data that has been collected from 400 respondents, in this case citizens who have come for availing e-Governance services at Farad information centre (Fard Kendras) at the selected Tehsils/Sub-Tehsils of the Punjab state. A pilot study for the survey (questionnaire) was done earlier before finally given to the respondents. The needful and vital suggestions for the improvement or modification of the questionnaire have been incorporated in it, to make it highly useful for the respondents. The demographical profiles of respondents (citizens) constitute various professions such as unemployed and farmers also, besides students. Near-about half (49%) out of the total respondents are from rural region. This survey constituted urban, semi-urban and rural citizens in the ratio of 28.3%, 22.8% and 49% respectively. The illiterate persons constituted 22.8% & non-income tax payers constituted 74.3% of the total respondents. The Profession-wise distribution of respondents is as shown in the Table I. TABLE I DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS (PROFESSION WISE)

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ANALYSIS & FINDINGS

The analysis of the various factors has been considered in view of the objectives listed above. Firstly, Mean and Rank methods have been applied in order to see the influence of various factors in this study. Then, T-test & ANOVA tests have been applied for analysis on the data concerning citizens of the Punjab state.

 Description of Factors (Dimensions) The study is further sub-divided into various dimensions for analyzing the critical factors in consumer’s intentions to adopt mobile commerce. The description about the various Dimensions (Dimension 1 to Dimension 4) is as follows. 5.1 Dimension 1: Awareness about availability of M-commerce/Mobile Services The first dimension here depicts the various factors underlying the citizens awareness about availability of Mcommerce/Mobile Services and what do the citizens think about the already existing these kind of services. Table II specifies the mean scores and rank of each item of awareness about availability of M-commerce/Mobile Services (Dimension 1). TABLE II MEAN SCORES AND RANK OF EACH ITEM OF AWARENESS ABOUT AVAILABILITY OF MCOMMERCE/MOBILE SERVICES
Factors Services are hard to find (F1) Understand how it works/ heard about it (F2) Don’t know if mobile can be used for payment? (F3) Innovative method that can change lifestyle (F4) Never heard of it before No need for mobile services (F5) (F6) Mean 2.03 4.15 1.99 4.80 1.77 1.16 Rank R3 R2 R4 R1 R5 R6

Based on the mean and rank score, factor F4 & factor F2 are found to have a higher mean of M=4.80 & M=4.15 respectively, as compared to other factors (F1, F3, F5, F6). Significant factors: Table III reveals that factor F4 and F2 are the significant factors that highlight the importance of M-commerce/mobile services available to the common citizen as average >4.0 for both of these factors. Table IV determines the difference in mean scores of the significant

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factors (F2 & F4) using T-test and ANOVA F-test. Most of the respondents (citizens) in the different subgroups agree with M-commerce/mobile service available as an innovative method that can change lifestyle. Both males and females having age between 18-60 years and living in urban Region also agree with this. Those having Profession as farming and live below poverty line (BPL) have been also found to be more inclined towards M-commerce as an innovative method that can change lifestyle since availing of M-commerce/mobile services will result in convenience, saving time, resources & accessibility of 24x7 (anywhere, anytime). Female citizens who are Matric/10+2 and from semi-urban & rural Region agreed more about that they understood how Mcommerce/mobile services work or they have heard about these services (F2) since females are always found to be more eager and curious towards learning latest technological trends. Those residing in rural Regions bear less opinion about this factor due to their having less of awareness about the latest technologies since they found themselves cut-off from the city life and latest mobile technological advancements. Citizen with matric/10+2 showed more opinion on understand how it works/ heard about it (F2) since the teenaged students in these classes always have more curiosity to learn & keep themselves abreast and updating with latest in the world of mobiles. Employed citizens agreed more on understand how it works/ heard about it (F2) because of their increased know-how & usage of mobile services due to their meetings the customers & daily interaction with other employees in their respective fields. Respondents below 18 year of age & students have been found to be less inclined towards both these factors, F2 and F4 since them being unemployed and dependent on the parents for monetary resources. According to T-test (Table IV), significant T-value has been found for understand how it works/ heard about it(F2) while F-value has been found to be significant for other categories on both factors understand how it works/ heard about it(F2) and innovative method that can change lifestyle (F4). F-value indicates that demographic groups- Age, Income and Profession showed high significant opinion on both factors, F1 and F2. Citizens with age 18-60 years old indicate difference on both factors of M-commerce/mobile services. Farmers showed more opinion on innovative method that can change life (F4) as they also want to upgrade their lives with new technology which can make a real difference in their lifestyle. Those who are illiterate bear more opinion on innovative method that can change life (F4) as they feel that availing and usage of latest technological advancements will result in better standard of living & can bring major change in their lives.

5.2 Dimension 2: Comparison of M-commerce with Internet Dimension 2 here depicts the Comparison of Mcommerce with Internet. Table V based on Mean scores and Rank reveals that factor F1 (M=4.91), factor F2 (M=4.61), factor F4 (M=4.76) & factor F6 (M=4.75) are found to have higher mean (avg. mean>4.0) as compared to other factors (F2, F3, F5, F6). TABLE V MEAN SCORES AND RANK OF EACH ITEM OF COMPARISON OF M-COMMERCE WITH INTERNET
Factors Portable Easy to learn & user-friendly Enhanced security Handy - Lesser keys for navigation High cost of M-commerce services M-commerce services are more efficient (F1) (F2) (F3) (F4) (F5) (F6) Mean 4.91 4.61 4.00 4.76 1.99 4.75 3.98 Rank R1 R4 R5 R2 R7 R3 R6

Still prefer to use Internet for e-commerce (F7)

Significant factors: Table VI depicts that factors: F1, F2, F4 and F6 highlight the importance of factors for comparison of M-commerce with Internet as average>4.0 for all these factors. Table VII determines the difference in mean scores of the significant factors (F1, F2, F4 & F6) using Ttest and ANOVA F-test. In Table VI, Males have been found to be more inclined than females for M-commerce in comparison to the Internet services. This might be due to the reason that India being a male dominant country & males being still the sole bread earning members are likely to use Mcommerce services e.g. for paying utility bills or for availing e-Government services. Respondents belonging to semi-urban regions and having 18-60 year of age are also found to have the same opinion. Matric/10+2 & BPL respondents also favor more for M-commerce services than internet services since most of them are having mobile than PC’s (desktop or laptop) and they think they can avail M-commerce services on their cell phones (24x7). Services (employed) class respondents bear more agreed opinion on M-commerce as compared to the other categories of Profession for all factors of comparison. They agreed that M-commerce is portable and efficient than internet because mobile being handy, low weight and size can be carried anywhere & internet and mobile banking can also be availed in an efficient manner. In Table VII, Gender showed significant T-value on Easy to learn & user-friendly (factor F2). F value has been found to be significant on many factors of Mcommerce in comparison to Internet services. All demographic groups except Gender have been found to be highly significant on Factor, F1. F-value indicates that demographic groups- Region and Qualification showed high significance of opinion on factors: F1, F2, F3 and F4. Respondents in 18-60 years of age group have been found

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to be more agreed with all factors as compared to citizens below 18 years and above 60 years (as their mean scores was less). They also agreed that M-commerce is more portable as compared to internet since they are mostly laced with mobile handsets and are availing mobile services. Respondents with matric/10+2 and residing in semi-urban Region have been found to be more agreed than other categories. BPL (below poverty line) respondents showed more opinion on all factors than other categories of income. Respondents under BPL income found M-commerce more portable, handy, easy to learn and efficient method as compared to internet. This might be due to the reason of mobile handset availability even with BPL citizens.

5.3 Dimension 3: Functionality of M-commerce System Dimension 3 here depicts the Functionality of Mcommerce System. Table VIII represents the Mean scores and Rank of each item of Dimension 3, the mean of factor F1 (M=4.67), factor F2 (M=4.69), factor F3 (M=4.47), factor F4 (M=4.19) & factor F6 (M=4.17) is found to be high as avg. mean>4.0. Based on the mean, it is found that the above mentioned factors having mean>4 are considered to be more important factors of functionality. Only, factor F5 (M=3.18) is found to have mean score<4.0 TABLE VIII MEAN SCORES AND RANK OF EACH ITEM OF FUNCTIONALITY OF M-COMMERCE SYSTEM
Factors Banking/Financial services Entertainment Information and News Ticket booking/ reservation E-mail/communication M-payment services (F1) (F2) (F3) (F4) (F5) (F6) Mean 4.67 4.69 4.47 4.19 3.18 4.17 Rank R2 R1 R3 R4 R6 R5

money transfer. Mean score of Employed (govt. service/private) indicate that they have been more readily using the services for M-commerce since they are more aware, literate and trained than other classes of Profession. In Table X, Gender showed significant difference on factors F2 and F3 & non-significant difference have been obtained on factors F1, F4 and F6 with T-test. F value for age, region and profession levels of respondents showed significant difference on all factors. Therefore, it is concluded that according to different levels, majority of the respondents have different opinion on all factors. All demographic groups have been found to be highly significant on Factor, F2. F-value indicates that demographic group, Region showed high significance of opinion on factors: F1, F2, F3, F4 and F6. Mean score indicated that majority of the respondents below 18 years & from semiurban Regions showed significant difference on all factors. Respondents from semi-urban regions indicated using M-commerce for reservation of tickets & M-payment as they might find mobile services – convenient, efficient and available at their doorstep thus saving their time and resources. Majority of the respondents showed more significant difference of opinions on Entertainment (F2) & Information and News (F3) factors.

5.4 Dimension 4: Preferred Tool for M-payment Dimension 4 here depicts the Preferred Tool for Mpayment. Table XI represents the Mean scores and Rank of each item for preferred tool for M-payment. Based on the mean scores and rank, the factor F2 (mobile) having mean score of M=3.02 is found to be higher in comparison to the other factors (F1, F3 and F4). TABLE XI MEAN SCORES AND RANK OF EACH ITEM OF PREFERRED TOOL FOR M-PAYMENT
Factors Internet Mobiles (F1) (F2) Mean 2.58 3.02 2.79 2.42 Rank R3 R1 R2 R4

Significant factors: Table IX represents the distribution of factors of functionality of M-commerce system. Most of categories agreed on factors having average >4.0.Table X determines the difference in mean scores of the significant factors (F1, F2, F3, F4 & F6) using T-test and ANOVA Ftest. In Table IX, female respondent’s opinion showed that M-commerce system is used by them for Banking/Financial services, Information and News and Mpayment services. This might be due to the reason that females are found to be more employed in the banking or financial sectors & they are in constant touch with or are availing mobile payment services. Respondents with 1860 years old have been found to use M-commerce for banking and entertainment services due to the teenagers enjoying entertainment services, using social networking on mobile & others availing internet (net) banking and mbanking facilities for fund transfer, shares or third party

Card payment (credit cards, debit cards) (F3) Other specific cards-railway/bank/petro cards (F4)

Significant factors: Table XII represents the highlighting factors for preferred tool for M-payment. Table XIII determines the difference in mean scores of the significant factors (F1, F2, F3 & F4) using T-test and ANOVA F-test. Table XII signifies that the mean score of females indicate that they bear more opinion on preferred tools for M-payment. Majority of females have been found to be more agreed on mobile as the preferred tool for Mpayment which might be due to the convenience and portability features of mobiles. Respondents below 18 years of age are found to be regularly availing all kind of tools for M-payment since them being school or college students, are more receptive and have more craze to-

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wards the latest technological trends related with mobile technologies. Graduate respondents staying in rural regions also prefer to use mobile for M-payment since they are residing in technology deprived Regions and mobiles might be the only way to have 24x7 connectivity and affordable service. Majority of respondents agreed on mobile and credit cards as the main tools of M-payment. Mean scores of BPL respondents showed less awareness about internet service due to the lack of training or guidance of how to use it. Mean score of businessmen indicated mobile and credit or debit cards being the preferred M-payment tool since they are using credit facilities in interconnection with banking or financial services & might also be availing m-banking facilities also. From T-test in Table XIII, All demographic groups have been found to be highly significant on Factor, F4. Fvalue indicates that demographic groups: Age and Region showed high significance of opinion on factors: F1, F2, F3 and F4. It has been found that Gender showed significant difference on factors: F1, F2 and F4. Mean score of female indicated that females preferred mobile and credit card for M-payment services. F-value for age, region, qualification, income and Profession levels of respondents showed significant difference on majority of factors. Therefore, it is concluded that according to different levels, majority of respondents have different opinion on all factors. F-value of age showed significant values on all factors of preferred tools of M-payment. Mean score indicated that majorities of respondent below 18 years showed significant difference on all factors. Majority of the respondents agreed on mobile and credit cards as the main tools of M-payment. F-value of qualification and region showed significant values on factors. This indicated that majority of graduate respondents who stay in rural Region showed mobile and credits payment as the preferred tools of payment. F-value of income and Profession showed significant difference on factors of Mpayment tools. Majority of respondents who are under BPL showed Mobile as the preferred tool for M-payment because of its being affordable, convenient, easy to use and having instant connectivity, anytime-anywhere (24x7).

6 CONCLUSIONS
The main conclusions from this study concerning the exploring of the factors concerning consumer’s intention for the adoption of Mobile commerce services are as mentioned:  The significant point to note in this research study is the farmers constituting majority of the total respondents (about 73%).  Majority of the respondents consider Mcommerce/mobile services to be an innovative method that can change lifestyle. The increased know-how and daily interaction with other colleagues may be the major

reason for employed citizens bearing high opinion on understanding how mobile services work or heard about it. Farmers considered M-commerce to be an innovative method that can change lives since they feel M-commerce services can really solve the problems in their day to day lives & consider it to be a lifestyle changing technology.  BPL (below poverty line) respondents being part of the oppressed and secluded section of the society have been found to be more curious about mobile technologies & see it as light in their otherwise hand-to-mouth living. They found mobile services/M-commerce to be more portable, handy, easy to learn and efficient method in comparison to internet services because of mobile phone availability with BPL citizens. Males have more liking for mobile services than because of their availing more of mobile services in utility payments or banking transactions. Matric/10+2 respondents have been found to have more liking for M-commerce than internet due to their likeliness for latest mobiles trends & technologies and accessing M-services on their mobiles (24x7).  Female have been found to be using various types of services like Banking/Financial services, Information, News & M-payment services because of females being more employed in the banking & financial sectors. Respondents with 18-60 years of age, being the next generation group have been using & availing entertainment services, internet (net) banking, m-banking facilities or fund transfer, etc. The employed group because of their awareness has been availing M-commerce services in their lives.  Mobile is considered as the preferred tool for Mpayment by majority of BPL respondents because of its various beneficial features such as accessibility, convenience and efficiency for the users. Majority of the females also agreed on mobile as the preferred tool for Mpayment because of its added features and utility. Respondents below 18 years of age have been making use of various tools for M-payment because of their curiosity to make use of latest available mobile services. Graduate in rural regions preferred using mobile for M-payment because of the various utility features of mobile services & instant anytime, anywhere (24x7) connectivity. The mobile and credit cards have been found to be the main tools of M-payment. The opinion of the common citizens for Mcommerce can be particularly useful in the design of eGovernance projects. So, there is dire need to implement e-Governance effectively so as to improve the standard of lives of the common citizen & to build faith and reduce (if not initiate) corruption to a great extent.

7 SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
Following are some of the recommendations based on the conclusions of this study and analysis in determining

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the critical factors of consumers’ perception towards m obile commerce in e-governance implementation.  More the awareness about the mobile banking and net banking services more will be the saving of time and resources. So, the awareness about the mobile services needs to be created in the minds of the citizens.  The bold initiatives need to be taken for providing efficient services associated with e-Governance of various public sectors. This can result in the reduction of traditional procedural hassles faced by citizens, ultimately leading to the saving of time and resources of the citizens. The Indian passport office is leading the way in such eInitiatives in India. It has an online mechanism (epassport) for citizens availing any type of passport related services through passport website & accessing these services anywhere, anytime (24x7) which has lead to faster processing of services & saving time of the citizens.  The computer literacy rate should be high. Since most of the e-Governance projects are going for automation & so that all sections of the society get maximum benefits of such e-Initiatives, the technical knowledge and knowhow of computer is a must. The scholarship incentives could be given by Punjab Govt. & computer functioning related competitions could be organized so as make citizens more aware about e-Governance Projects. Recently announcement by Punjab Govt. to provide mini Laptops (Tabs) to the students studying in Government schools is a wise step in this direction which will increase the curiosity of students about e-Governance projects.  Another problem is most of the content available is region or language-specific. So, most of the common people residing in different states are unable to cope up with and adapt to the changing scenarios. Thus, there are language constraint problems resulting in the contents not being updated in other regional languages. So, there is need to use Unicode-fonts (common fonts for all languages) for Internet (website) purposes & for developing mobile applications.  Additional services can be given free which can lead to acquaintance improvement. Some retail chains like Big Bazaar recently have come up with offers like a new mobile SIM is given free of cost with limited talk time (based on the purchased units by the customer). So, such initiatives could also be taken by the Punjab Government, which will result in more usage and adoption of mobile commerce/mobile services. Also, in case of e-Tax (online paying of Income Tax), the tax invasion has also reduced and Punjab Government has reaped the benefits of this awareness about technology as its revenue has increased by manifolds.

8 LIMITATIONS & FUTURE SCOPE
The consumer perceptions about M-commerce services can make really great impact in the development of e-Governance projects. Although the study offers some interesting insight into consumer’s perceptions, still it can further be extended to other states of India & other parts of the world in order to develop a model or framework of M-commerce in e-Governance projects. Many such studies can be carried out related with this work and this study is a just a small step in this direction. The study can be replicated if wider range of sample of citizens having different perspectives about mobile commerce could be taken for extended analysis and further cross-cultural aspects could also be generalized since it is based on the Punjab state of India only. India being still a male dominant country, women in India have less empowerment, freedom, have far less access to technology, Qualification at grass-root level & are less aware of e-Governance facilities existing in the country. More female respondents could be taken for further study. So, the reasons concerning this could also be analyzed to study the patterns of female citizens reaching less for availing government services available at help centres than males. These findings will surely have future implications for both researchers and marketers.

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TABLE III SIGNIFICANT FACTORS OF AWARENESS ABOUT AVAILABILITY OF M-COMMERCE/MOBILE SERVICES Gender Factors Age Region Semi-Urban Qualification Matric/10+2 Income Income tax-payer Not income taxpayer Unemployed Profession Businessman Employed

Graduate

Above 60

Below 18

Illiterate

Student 4.0 4.0 Businessman Student 4.0 4.0 5.0 4.0

Female

F2 F4

4.1 4.8

4.8 4.8

4.0 4.0

4.2 4.9

4.0 4.4

4.0 4.9

4.2 4.8

4.2 4.8

4.0 4.8

4.3 4.8

4.0 4.9

4.0 5.0

4.1 4.9

4.2 4.6

4.0 4.4

4.3 4.8

4.0 4.6

4.1 4.9

TABLE IV DIFFERENCE IN MEAN SCORES OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS (T-TEST & ANOVA F-TEST) Gender Age Region Qualification Matric/10+2 Income Not income tax-payer Income tax-payer Profession

Factors

Unemployed

Businessman

Semi-Urban

Employed

Graduate

Above 60

Below 18

Illiterate

Student

F2 F4

-9.35** -0.39

5.01** 33.76**

10.46** 4.75*

40.99** 4.53*

17.4** 11.32**

3.93** 11.47**

** Significant at 0.01;* Significant at 0.05 level

TABLE VI SIGNIFICANT FACTORS OF COMPARISON OF M-COMMERCE WITH INTERNET Gender Factors Age Region Semi-Urban Qualification Matric/10+2 Income Income tax-payer Not income taxpayer Unemployed Profession

Farmer

Female

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

BPL

Employed

Graduate

Above 60

Below 18

Illiterate

Female

Farmer 4.9 4.6 4.7 4.7 Farmer

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

F1 F2 F4 F6

4.9 4.6 4.8 4.7

4.8 4.1 4.8 4.8

5.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

5.0 4.7 4.9 4.9

4.4 3.7 4.0 3.7

4.9 4.9 4.9 4.9

5.0 4.6 5.0 4.9

4.9 4.4 4.6 4.6

4.8 4.5 4.6 4.5

5.0 4.6 4.8 4.9

4.9 4.8 4.9 4.9

5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

BPL

BPL

5.0 4.7 4.8 4.8

4.8 4.4 4.7 4.6

4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4

5.0 4.7 4.9 5.0

4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6

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TABLE VII DIFFERENCE IN MEAN SCORES OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS (T-TEST & ANOVA F-TEST) Gender Age Region Semi-Urban Qualification Matric/10+2 Income Not income tax-payer BPL (below poverty line) Income tax-payer Profession Unemployed/Non working Employed (govt. service/private) Businessman

Factors

Graduate

Above 60

Below 18

Illiterate

Student Employed

F1 F2 F4 F6

1.35 4.86** -0.89 -0.84

110.87** 102.75** 127.13** 237.84

6.08** 21.24** 30.85** 22.21**

9.73** 11.18** 17.96** 30.40**

6.91** 2.65 19.12** 33.28

33.85** 2.15* 5.71** 9.07**

** Significant at 0.01;* Significant at 0.05 level TABLE IX SIGNIFICANT FACTORS OF FUNCTIONALITY OF M-COMMERCE SYSTEM Gender Factors Below 18 Age Above 60 Region Semi-Urban Qualification Matric/10+2 Graduate Illiterate Income Unemployed Income taxpayer Not income tax-payer Profession Businessman

Farmer Student 4.0 4.0 5.0 2.0 2.0

Female

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

F1 F2 F3 F4 F6

4.7 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1

4.8 4.1 4.9 4.2 4.8

5.0 5.0 4.0 5.0 5.0

4.7 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.3

4.2 3.9 4.3 3.0 3.2

4.7 4.9 4.5 4.5 4.1

4.8 4.8 4.7 5.0 5.0

4.6 4.5 4.3 3.7 3.8

4.5 4.6 4.2 4.0 4.0

4.7 4.7 4.6 4.3 4.3

4.9 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.2

5.0 5.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

4.7 4.7 4.4 4.3 4.2

4.6 4.8 4.8 4.0 4.0

4.4 4.0 4.6 5.0 4.4

4.8 4.9 4.9 4.7 4.7

4.7 4.7 4.3 3.6 3.6

4.7 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1

TABLE X DIFFERENCE IN MEAN SCORES OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS (T-TEST & ANOVA F-TEST) Gender Age Region Qualification Matric/10+2 Income Unemployed/Non -working Income tax-payer Not income taxpayer Profession

Factors

Businessman

Semi-Urban

Employed

Graduate

Above 60

Below 18

Illiterate

Student

F1 F2 F3 F4 F6

-1.46 5.70** -3.96** 0.14 -2.97

17.37** 84.62** 3.13* 52.02** 29.65**

8.80** 18.75** 12.20** 105.35** 55.81**

15.74** 8.18** 24.53** 6.48** 2.71

2.08 28.85** 3.81* 1.58 1.12

3.20* 8.44** 15.41** 21.85** 18.36**

** Significant at 0.01;* Significant at 0.05 level

Farmer

Female

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

BPL

Farmer

Female

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

BPL

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

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TABLE XII SIGNIFICANT FACTORS OF PREFERRED TOOL FOR M-PAYMENT Gender Age Region Qualification Matric/10+2 Income Income tax-payer Not income taxpayer Profession

Factors

Businessman

Unemployed

Semi-Urban

Employed

Graduate

Above 60

Below 18

Illiterate

Student Employed

Female

F1 F2 F3 F4

2.57* -3.48** -1.32 -3.29**

14.24** 18.37** 26.38** 95.95**

85.54** 23.41** 20.18** 19.81**

5.01* 46.51** 48.18** 8.68**

1.00 17.93** 0.61 15.77**

5.73** 2.23 9.42** 4.87**

TABLE XIII DIFFERENCE IN MEAN SCORES OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS (T-TEST & ANOVA F-TEST) Gender Factors Age Region Semi-Urban Qualification Matric/10+2 Income Income tax-payer Not income taxpayer Unemployed Profession Businessman

Graduate

Above 60

Below 18

Illiterate

Farmer Student

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

BPL

F1 F2 F3 F4

2.6 3.0 2.8 2.4

2.2 3.9 3.0 3.0

5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

2.6 2.9 2.7 2.6

2.5 4.0 3.3 1.1

2.4 2.9 2.7 2.8

3.4 2.3 2.4 2.4

2.3 3.4 3.0 2.2

2.4 3.8 3.3 2.3

2.7 2.5 2.5 2.3

2.5 3.0 2.7 2.8

2.0 4.0 3.0 3.0

2.6 3.1 2.9 2.4

2.5 2.9 2.4 2.4

3.9 3.3 3.9 2.1

2.7 2.8 2.4 2.6

2.6 3.5 2.9 2.7

3.0 4.0 2.0 1.0

2.5 3.0 2.9 2.4

** Significant at 0.01;* Significant at 0.05 level

REFERENCES
[1] S. Yonghee, J. Hyori, and C. Munkee, ―Analysis of the consumer Preferences towards M-commerce Applications Based on Empirical study‖, IEEE International Conference on Hybrid Information Technology (ICHIT), IEEE Press, Volume 1,2006, pp. 5-12. [2] O. Ana, and Santiago, ―M-Modeler: A Framework Implementation for Modeling M-commerce Applications‖, 6th ACM International conference on Electronic commerce(ICEC), ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, The Netherlands, Vol. 60, 2004, pp. 596- 602. [3] H. Johann, P. Peter, and M. Sachs, ―E-participation readiness of Austrian municipalities‖, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Emerald Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 32-44. [4] Z. Huang and P.Palvia, ―ERP Implementation Issues In Advanced and Developing Countries‖, Business Process Management Journal, 7, 3, 2001, pp. 276-284. [5] M. Rehman, V. Esichaikul, and M. Kamal, "Factors influencing egovernment adoption in Pakistan", Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Emerald Journal, Vol. 6, Issue 3, 2012,

Farmer

Female

Urban

Rural

18-60

Male

BPL

JOURNAL OF COMPUTING, VOLUME 5, ISSUE 2, FEBRUARY 2013, ISSN (Online) 2151-9617 https://sites.google.com/site/journalofcomputing WWW.JOURNALOFCOMPUTING.ORG

35

pp. 258-282. [6] B. Allen, L. Juillet, M. Miles, G.Paquet, J.Roy and K.Wilkins, ―The organizational culture of digital government: technology, accountability and shared governance‖, in Pavlichev, A. and Garson, G.D. (Eds), Digital Government: Principles and Best Practices, Idea Publishing Group, Hershey, 2004, pp. 78-96. [7] T.A.Horan, and T.Abhichandani , ―Evaluating user satisfaction in an e-government initiative: results of structural equation modeling and focus group discussion‖, Journal of Information Technology Management, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2006, pp. 33-44. [8] J.Bend, ―Public value and e-health‖, Institute of Public Policy Research, London, available at: www.ippr.org/ uploadedFiles/ projects/ Bend_Public Valueande Health_ippr.pdf, 2004. [9] H.Deng, “Towards objective benchmarking of electronic government: an inter-country analysis”, Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Emerald Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2008, pp. 162-76. [10] I.Kearns, “Public value and e-government”, Institute of Public Policy Research, London, available at: www.ippr.org, 2004. [11] F.D.Schoorman, R.C.Mayer and J.H.Davis, ―An integrative model of organizational trust: past, present, and future‖, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2007, pp. 344-54. [12] A.Vance,C. Alie-Dit-Cosaque, and D.Straub, ―Examining trust in information technology artifacts: the effects of system quality and culture‖, Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2008, pp. 73-100. [13] G.S.Cheema and D.A.Rondinelli, ―From government decentralization to decentralized governance‖, Decentralizing Governance: Concepts and Practices, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 2007, pp. 1-20. [14] Y.E. Huh, and Kim, ―Do Early Adopters Upgrade Early? Role of post-adoption behavior in the purchase of next-generation products‖, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2008, pp. 40-46. [15] Anckar, B. and D. D’Incau, “Value Creation in Mobile Commerce: Findings from a Consumer Survey,” Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, Vol. 4, No. 1:43-64, 2002.

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