You are on page 1of 7




The Semantic Web is a joint effort directed by the international standards body, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The standard encourages public data layouts on the World Wide Web. By promising the presence of semantic content in web pages, the Semantic Web targets at altering the current web ruled by unstructured and semi-structured documents into a "web of data". Web Services, given in (figure 1) as it is defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) , is a software system that support Interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network.

Recommender System refers to the specification of a recommender concept. With the massive information, a recommendation system can introduce users to choose the useful information they interested with personalized service [3]. Recommender Systems were introduced as computer-based intelligent technique to deal with the problem of product and information overload [4]. Since information retrieval is a key activity in TEL, the deployment of recommender systems has got enhanced popularity [5]. Content-based recommendation, in CB the user is recommended items related to the ones that he has chosen in the past. Content-based recommendation

systems examines a set of items and descriptions that are preferred by a user earlier, and figure a model or profile of user interests based on the features of these items[6, 7]. There are commonly two types of the recommendation systems i.e Collaborative recommendation, in which the user is recommended items that people with related tastes and preferences liked earlier. Collaborative recommendation (or CF) systems calculate a users interest in new items based on the recommendations of other people with similar interests[8, 9]. Based on the table 1 it has been inferred that CF is approach that has been utilized by many researcher to explore different related issues[10-15] which are : recommendation quality, Sparsity, Scalability, Loss of Neighbor Transitivity, Synonymy, First Rater Problem and Unusual User Problem.



Hybrid technique has been adopted which has primary objective to overcome the problems of the combined methods but the important problem scalability of CF has been left which has a significant effect on the user profile generation using nearest neighbor algorithm ; that will ultimately cause poor QoS prediction while computing similarities using PCC. The analysis has been focused using a single domain i.e. book while for the quality prediction it has to be analyzed on different domain for the better QoS predictions. The user ranking while merging the two approaches (CF and CB ) has been

researched to conduct the empirical analysis of this hybrid approach[16]. In [17] a FA approach has been proposed based on probabilistic matrix factorization to improve the data sparsity and poor prediction accuracy problems by including social contextual information, such as social networks; in order to improve the data sparsity problem in traditional recommender systems, [18] present a novel, efficient, and general recommendation framework combining a user-item rating matrix with social contextual information that apply probabilistic matrix factorization. Online communities and networked learning provide teachers with social learning opportunities to interact and collaborate with others in order to develop their personal and professional skills. In [19] Learning Networks are presented as an open infrastructure to provide teachers with such learning opportunities. However, with the large number of learning resources produced every day, teachers need to find out what are the most suitable resources for them. Keeping in view this situation recommender systems are introduced as a potential solution. Unfortunately, most of the educational recommender systems cannot make accurate recommendations due to the sparsity of the educational datasets. To overcome this problem, a research approach has to be proposed that describes how one may take advantage of the social data which are obtained from monitoring the activities of teachers. researchers. A number of QoS-based models have been functional to the domain of Web service selection[20], Web service automatic composition [1] and so on. The Study [21] focused QoS description of client requirements by extending the WSDL( Web Service Description Language) by giving a new prototype E-WSDL to cover up the issue raised in order to optimize the service composition. The author proposed as future work the extended support of UDDI to EWSDL, monitoring of EWSDL and reduction of cost in the service composition. [22] described a QoS aware selection model for semantic web services in the domain of automating the SOA with improving the semantics. The author highlighted the problem of selection of best web service according to users requests in case when

The international quality standard ISO 8402 (part of the ISO 9000 (ISO9000 2002)) describes quality as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. QoS are defined as nonfunctional properties that affect the quality of services. As a description, the categories are QoS related to runtime, transaction support, configuration management and cost and security. With the rising occurrence of Web services, studies on Quality of Service (QoS) have upraised the concerns of Service-Oriented Computing (SOC)



multiple web services are meeting the QoS criteria as well as users requirements. To accomplish this task the author has at first specified the QoS ontology and its vocabulary based on WSMO (Web Service Modeling Ontology) in order to explain service descriptions with QoS data. Secondly quality attributes are measured along with selection model and at last the results are normalized and analyzed by using optimum normalized algorithm. Machine to machine interaction over a network is supported by interoperable software components known as web services [23]. the increase of Web services, Quality of Service (QoS) is usually measured for unfolding nonfunctional characteristics of Web services[24]. Few of QoS properties are user independent and have same values for the different users with the same functionality (e.g., price, popularity, availability, etc.). The user-independent QoS properties are usually presented by service providers and registered in a repository (e.g., UDDI). As a consequence of fast evolution in web services applications and service providers, the users are facing difficulty in selection of most suitable service provider challenging the QoS in order to distinguish service providers. Ranking and Optimization of web

services / Service providers structure are the interesting areas of research to be given importance in the recognition of web of services domain. In ranking the recommendations generated by the users seek most importance because further it is utilized in the prediction process. This issue has been called by the study [25] as fairness issue in recommendation process. The inconsistency among the ratings given by the users can be calculated using spearmans rank correlation which clearly indicates the degree of correlation due to change in ranking that is if applicable by the re-ranking according to the users satisfaction. By using the Spearmans rank correlation

where d = difference between two rankings given by user And n = no of web services: here in this case n = 10 We get r = 0.84 which indicates that if the re-ranking of the users ratings is to be performed before the prediction process then we can increase the fairness of the prediction quality.

been proposed that is capable to deal with Handling more numbers of requests, CPU usage, Execution Time, and Vulnerability Level utilizing user-based approach and item-based recommendation approach in order to predict the QoS values for the current user by using previous Web Service QoS data from other similar users and similar Web Services[26]. Predicting and evaluation of QoS values several methods are utilized mentioned in table 1 used by different researchers in the client side users [20]

Poor prediction of best web services that falls in the QoS domain of the semantics an improved QoS based web Service Compositions Mechanism has



Based on above idea our proposed framework will be given in figure 3:

Ranking and optimization are widely used to evaluate the semantic quality of automated web service composition by describing web services, semantic links among services and compositions[27]. The Selection of most appropriate web service among the web services fulfilling the QoS leads to development of trustworthy QoS of web services. To achieve this purpose, extension of UDDI frame, PAM Clustering and Event-driven APSM are adopted to collect QoS feedbacks to reduce the load on prediction server by using T-QoS Algorithm to filter out the QoS feedback for the prediction of trustworthy QoS in the domain of Trust worthy computing approach to avoid the influence of malicious attacks, failures operations and false information[28].

After realizing the importance of the re-rating of the services to enhance the issue of fairness in recommendation which leads to prediction trust that falls in the domain of quality of the recommendation system, we will enhance the general recommendation process as given in figure 2 [3] by embedding the re-rating process before the system has to recommend the required services in order to improve the fairness.

Collect User to build Customer Database Feedback[1, 2]

Re-rating of users preference

Recommend according to Database Evaluation Recommendation Results for adjustment

In the proposed system and working procedure given above the processing involves the QoS matching with the users requirements and then on the basis of these ranking will be performed to identify the best matching web services to be provided to the user. For this matching we have to use the selection of web services to be generated according to the requirements that are specified by the user. When web services are selected according to users QoS requirements then composition have to be formed. This applies a constraint for describing QoS requirements on the web services that can be selected for the composition and we refer to this type of constraint as a Q-requirement constraint[29]. The Q-requirement constraints that are applied to individual web services of a composition are referred to as local Q-requirement constraints. These Q-requirement constraints can be matched using peerto-peer matching techniques, as they only require oneto one matching. For ranking of web services different methodologies can be employed for ranking web service compositions i.e. link analysis techniques as a modified PageRank algorithm combined with the QoS data . A service can be ranked high by PageRank algorithm given in [30] , if it is pointed to by many



other web services or points to many other highly ranked web services based on their semantic inputs and outputs. The highly ranked services will be given an index number to be placed in the index array generated at run time , after completing this procedure before the recommendations are to be made the context information according to published QoS will be stored in a data base . Further it will be utilized in re-rating process in order to improve the fairness issue for the

better prediction quality . To accomplish this task the algorithm presented by [31] will be modified according to the idea of semantic matching with the users previous rating and the context of the requirements, specified in query.

The summary of the related work has been given in table 4 that clearly indicates the importance of fairness issue in the prediction quality of services according to users requirements and also the importance of re-rating pointed out by many authors. The study [32] has explored the trust issue and acceptance of the recommendation systems by using a user adaptive system based on content based CHIP system , but in this study only transparency has been given more focus and trust , the more user adaptive systems are recommended as future work. [24] emphasized the importance of impartiality of the QoS evaluation at consumer end during QoS execution by utilizing the CF approach giving the solution as service request model for the specification of consumer side effects and also emphasized the improvement in efficiency of the QoS evaluation to be optimized for the users trust and acceptance.[2] focused the major problem caused in CF i.e. the Sparsity problem and as

solution described a framework based on subjective logic in order to remove the sparsity for the performance improvement. [33] explored the context aware recommendations based on user preferences and feedback but has faced the difficulty for the validation of the real data for the improvement of the efficiency. Trust based web personalized recommender system has been proposed by the [34] focusing major on the user profiling and cold start problem to achieve breakthrough on the social network environment.[30] utilized the concept or re-rating in the movie recommendation system where noise effect the user ratings so this can be extended towards different domains by considering the other factors like semantic matching and user behavior during the rating process which will definitely improve the trust over the recommendation systems by the users.

studies that in the collaborative mechanism while improving the fairness of the predictions the rerating by the users has significance and must be The need of discovering an approach for reliable and trustable automatic web service selection according to users Q-requirements and ranking has been addressed by many researchers. Until now, several attempts have been made in this field for designing techniques and supporting tools to achieve required objectives such as selecting reliable services with guaranteed QoS levels based on collaborative filtering models of web However, offering reliable selection, ranking, service given concentrations as previously focused. In this proposed our main focus will be on the solving fairness issue caused by the rating of user according to their preferences . Currently we are working in depth on this research to be practically implanted and then will be analyzed using public dataset to verify its performance. As future work have plan to develop prototype for the proposed model so that it can be implanted practically and be analyzed using different kinds of publically available datasets.

verification, and evaluation with considering QoS attribute values have been mostly studied with different QoS parameters. In this study we have presented an idea extracted from the previous



I would like to thank Malaysia Ministry of Higher Education and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for the

facilities and support in conducting this research study.

11. 1. El Hadad, J., Maude Manouvrier, and Marta Rukoz., "TQoS: Transactional and QoS-aware selection algorithm for automatic Web service composition. "Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on 3.1 (2010): , 2010: p. 73-85. . Pitsilis, G., and Svein J. Knapskog., "Social Trust as a solution to address sparsity-inherent problems of Recommender systems.". arXiv preprint arXiv:1208.1004 2012. Li, L.H., Hsu, R. W., & Lee, F. M. , Review of Recommender Systems and Their Applications. ,, 2012. 6(1): p. 63-87. Vozalis, E., and Konstantinos G. Margaritis. . "Analysis of recommender systems algorithms.". in Proceedings of the 6th Hellenic European Conference on Computer Mathematics and its Applications (HERCMA-2003), Athens, Greece. 2003. 2003. N. Manouselis, H.D., K. Verbert, and E. Duval, , Recommender Systems for Learning,. 2013: p. pp. 120. G. S. P. Lops, M.d.G., in Content-Based Recommender Systems: State of the Art and Trends, in Recommender Systems Handbook (Springer, Berlin, 2011), . 2011. p. pp. 73105. H. R. V. P. Resnick, Recommender systems. Commun,. ACM 1997. 40(3): p. 56-58. S. S. J.B. Schafer, D.F., J. Herlocker,, Collaborative filtering systems, in The Adaptive Web: Methods and Strategies of Web Personalization, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ed. by P. Brusilovsky, A. Kobsa, W. Neidl (Springer, Berlin), 207: p. 324. J. A. K. M.D. Ekstrand, J.T.R., , Collaborati ve filtering recommender systems. Found. Trends, Hum Comput. Interact. 4(2): p. 81173. Burke, R. Hybrid Recommender Systems: Survey and Experiments,,. in in Proc. of the User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction,. 2002.

Bardul M. Sarwar, G.K., Joseph A. Konstan, and John T. Riedl,, Analysis of recommendation algorithms for e- commerce, in in Electronic Commerce,. 2000. Bardul M. Sarwar, G.K., Joseph A. Konstan, and John T. Riedl,, Sparsity, Scalability, and Distribution in Recommender Systems, . 2001, University of Minnesota. Daniel Billsus and Michael J. Pazzani, Learning collaborative filters, in in 15th International Conference on Machine Learning, . 1998.: Madison, WI, . Bardul M. Sarwar, G.K., Joseph A. Konstan, and John T. Riedl,, a case study, in ACM WebKDD 2000 Web Mining for E-Commerce Workshop,, in Application of dimensionality reduction in recommender systems - 2000. Prem Melville, R.J.M., and Ramadass Nagarajan, , Content-boosted collaborative filtering, in ACM SIGIR Workshop on Recommender Systems, New Orleans, LA, , 2001. Andrew I. Schein, A.P., Lyle H. Ungar, and David M. Pennock, , Methods and metrics for cold start recommendations,. in ACM SIGIR-2002, Tampere, Finland, , 2002. C. Ziegler, Systems.. Semantic Web Recommender















H. Ma, T.C.Z., M. R. Lyu, and I. King,, Improving Recommender Systems by Incorporating Social Contextual Information,. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 2011. 29(2): p. 1-23. S. Fazeli, H.D., F. Brouns, and P. Sloep, , A Trust based Social Recommender for Teachers,. 2012.: p. pp. 4960,. Krishnan, R.B., and N. K. Sakthivel, . "Development of an Efficient QoS based Web Services Compositions Mechanism for Semantic Web.". Research Journal of Applied Sciences 2012. 4. M. A. and T. Risse, Combining global optimization with local selection for efficient qos-aware service composition, in in Proceedings of the 18th








international conference on World wide web, 2009. 2009. 22. Chen, Y.-p., et al, . "Study on qoS driven web services composition." Frontiers of WWW Research and Development-APWeb 2006 2006: p. 702-707. Wang, X., et al., "A qos-aware selection model for semantic web services.". Service-Oriented ComputingICSOC 2006: p. 390-401.


Q. Tao, H.C., C. Gu, and Y. Yi,, A novel prediction approach for trustworthy QoS of web services, Expert Systems with Applications,. 2012. 39(3): p. 3676-3681. Amatriain, X., et al. , "Rate it again: increasing recommendation accuracy by user re-rating." in Proceedings of the third ACM conference on Recommender systems. ACM,. 2009. Gooneratne, N., Zahir Tari, and Gregory Craske. , "A COMPOSITE MATCHING TECHNIQUE FOR SEMANTIC BASED WEB SERVICE DISCOVERY." in Proceedings of the Second Australian Undergraduate Students Computing Conference. 2004. Cramer, H., et al., "The effects of transparency on trust in and acceptance of a content-based art recommender. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 2008: p. 455-496. Chen, D., "A Context-aware Recommender System for Web Service Composition., in Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IIH-MSP Eighth International Conference on. IEEE, 2012. 2012. Zhou, X., et al., "The state-of-the-art in personalized recommender systems for social networking." Artificial Intelligence Review 2012: p. 119-132.



31. 24. Yang, R., et al. , "A QoS evaluation method for personalized service requests." Web Information Systems and Mining 2011: p. 393-402. H. C. L.-J. Zhang, J.Z., Services Computing. Springer and Tsinghua Univ, 2007. L. Zeng, B.B., A.H. Ngu, M. Dumas, J. Kalagnanam,, Qos-Aware Middleware for Web Services Composition, in in IEEE Trans. Software Eng, . 2004. p. 311-327. Zheng, Z., et al., "Qos-aware web service recommendation by collaborative filtering." in Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on 2011. p. 140-152. Lecue, F., and Nikolay Mehandjiev, . "Seeking quality of web service composition in a semantic dimension." in Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on 2011. p. 942-959. 34.







is a PhD student at Faculty of Computing Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, and also Assistant Professor at ICIT, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. His Research area includes Web Services; Recommender Systems and collaborative filtering. He received his MSC from Gomal University. is a senior lecturer at the Department of Information Systems, Faculty of

Computing, and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. She has been servicing UTM for more than 10 years after a few years experience working as a system developer in the industry. Her current research project relates to the development of ontology based data warehousing and data mining model for oral cancer research data repository and improvement of data mining techniques for risk and survival analysis of cancer patients.