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Fictions of the Pose: Facing the Gaze of Early Modern Portraiture Author(s): Harry Berger, Jr. Source: Representations, No.

46 (Spring, 1994), pp. 87-120 Published by: University of California Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 29/04/2013 05:41
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Fictions of the Pose: Facing the Gaze of Early Modern Portraiture
forMaryPrice The mind. ofthe faceis theindex -Old verity There's no art face. construction in the the mind's Tofind -Shakespeare's Duncan

A PAINTING OUGHT TO CHANGE as you look at it,and as you think, talk, and writeabout it.' The storyit tells will never be more than part of the as theyare storiesyou and others tell about it. The stories-or interpretations, the iconosometimes called-come in different genres, such as the formalist, the contextual,and graphic,the connoisseurial,the genetic,the conservatorial, genres are in various mixturesof these and other genres.2These interpretive turnconditionedbythe different genrestheytellstoriesabout, and in the present essay the generic parametersof the storyI tellwillbe adjusted to-or by-those that move the portraitgenre through the changing chronotope of the Early knownas the Renaissance) in fifteenthand sixteenth-century Modern (formerly Italy. My story will also be conditioned by its opposition to a psychological whichI shall baptize the because physiognomic subgenre of geneticinterpretation, in other genres (the formalist, it organizes a variable mix of the data constituted iconographic,and contextual)in the serviceof a venerable and familiarproject: reading the face as the index of the mind. of theirsitters, visual narratives Portraits tellstories:theyare interpretations and paintersare, in varyingdegrees, responsible.In forwhichwe assume sitters that sense they are representationsof both the sitter'sand the painter's selfsince art history has been going on fora long time, Additionally, representation. and selfrepresentations, they come to us framed withinthe interpretations, representationsof art historians.The storiesthat constitutethe physiognomic strandsof commentary: species are woven of fourdifferent


46 * Spring 1994 (C THE




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social, political,and/orprofessionalstatus,and on his or her character, a) on the sitter's "inner being," moral quality,and state of mind (mood and emotion, "gli personality, affetti"); and the means bywhichhe produces it; b) on the painter'scharacterization pose and appearance as the medium of characterization; c) on the sitter's or fillout interpreused to confirm d) on the archivaldata that provide the information (or speculation)about thelives,behavior, tationsof a), b), and c)-historical information and painters. and practicesof sitters Abbreviating these to a) character, b) painter, c) image, and d) archive, we may identify the physiognomic narrative as an ecphrastic practice based on the claim that character may be inferred from image. This claim, which presupposes the possibility that formal and physiognomic indicators may be correlated to produce a determinate interpretation of character, thinlydisguises the extent to which the art historian's ecphrasis is influenced and indeed overdetermined by the archive. Consider, for example, the following comments on Rembrandt's painting of Jan Six: at the time-makes him seem look in his eye-he was thirty-six The shrewd,worldly-wise as free and natural as possible. He much older than his years. His attitudeis unaffected, has just come in fromthe streetand, enteringhis friend'sstudio, is takingoffhis gloves and cape. Thus Rembrandtobserved him,and thus revealed his innermostbeing.3 a certainquality is an epitomeof] Rembrandt's ideals-dignified masculinity, [The portrait warmth.Rembrandtendowed the living of cool correctness mingledwithan irrepressible Jan Six was life,for in reality subject of his art withtraitsof an activeand contemplative both a successfulpoet and a politician .... The automaticgesture of puttingon a glove prefaceshis going out into the streets .... The actual public face has not as yetbeen "put on" or arranged, but the subject'sfeaturesare relaxed in a momentaryunawareness of othersas his mind is absorbed in gentlereverie.4 These and many other accounts of the portrait are organized around the information that Six was a businessman and politician on the one hand and a poet on the other, and epithets describing him are drawn from the conventional stock of qualities attributed to these types of the "active and contemplative life."5 Six's character is thus produced by treating the image as an index of the archive. This procedure is identical with that based on the physiognomic formula, the face or body is the index of the mind or soul; only here the face or body is replaced by the image, the mind or soul by the archive, and the divine or natural or social source by the painter. The example of Rembrandt throws a special light on the physiognomic story because, even more than Titian, he is praised and damned for portraits that are hard to read. As Gary Schwartz uncharitably puts it in a comment on Rembrandt's

of of the 1650s and 1660s, they"combinethe attractions anonymoushalf-lengths with a and unassailable artistic reputation,"providing"the viewer inscrutability on the meaning fuzzymirrorfor his own most profound reflections flatteringly

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in turn. the image to an with.that it can be revealed.192. the substance. The physiognomic recorded about his or her activity. This makes the portrait characteras it was generallymanifestedin the life reflectedfromthe the sitter's archive-an epitome of the being. fortheyrelyon the same rhetoricand resortto the same conjecI may not read the painted face as an index of of representation.The effectof reading the thatfocuses image as the allegoryof the archiveor the painteris a commentary the lives they the kinds were-in are-that is.the aim of converting to come into conflict allegoryof the archiveor of the painter.204. The portraitis an effect interof the commentator's of the soul. they on the kinds of people sitters momentsduring which they lived apart fromthose rare. "Thus Rembrandtobservedhim [Six]. seems often art history however. tural strategy and painter"have the sitter's mind. second.First. however.perhaps unaware that the painter is extracting of the painter's the true nature fromthe appearance. and normsof scrutability.behavior. and restricted In the discussionthatfollowsI shall reversethe emphasis sat for theirportraits. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .an effect interpretation an epitome of pretationof formaland archivalevidence. of theact of portrayal delimitsthe thatseverely stipulation Second.that my critiqueof the rhetoricof phyis a boomerang thatcirclesback and slices throughmy siognomicinterpretation own ecphrases. that such an entityexists. is motivated bya commitment But such criticism of life.but since I do read itas an index of whatsitter I on the observer.inferredfromwhat has been status. mystoriesfocuson the representation ferenceis important and thusdepend less on thearchiveand more on theimage. It will soon become clear.and thusrevealed his innermost being": Benesch's statementseems based on a chain of presuppositions-first."6 face an index of his or a belief thatthe paintercan and should make the sitter's her mind.if not to serve.the difin tworespects. achieveEmphasis on the painter combined withthe notion that the artist's is construed suggeststhatthe sitter mentconsistsin revealingcharacterstrongly as the passive site of revelation. as an index-an effect on the portrait and concentrate of the physiognomic story and painter'sperformancein the act of and representation-solely of the sitter's of the image theactbecomes boththe referent of attention. and fourth. third. that it can be known." an expression of their designs appealing to the veryconventionsof inferenceI object to. The writeris obviouslyless interestedin Six's characterthan in Rembrandt'saccomis to draw the charphysiognomy the aim of art-historical plishment. physiognomic acter out of the image. the particularselflimitedagencyin constructing construalthus allows the sitter representationthat provides the basis of inference. In thisshift portrayal. Nevertheless. I sayitseems isolated the grammaticalsense of the statementfromits rhetoricalforce. can hardly avoid in mind.that Benesch knows it and can recognize it when Rembecause I have to be based on thesepresuppositions brandtreveplsit. whichis. the storiesare based on a theoretical Fictions ofthePose 89 This content downloaded from 62. special.and so on.Explicitly.85 on Mon. Implicitly.

In otherwords. The death mask as image of origin: both the profound insightof the standard storyand its blindness may be grasped by framingthis image in the followingpassage from an unlikelyand apparently Lucida.85 on Mon. ..192.theone I want others to think I am. Sj~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. Berlin.. each timeI am (or letmyself I imitating myself. Fourimagerepertoires intersect here.. In terms .I am at thesametime: opposeand distort eachother.204. invariably sometimes ofimposture.. suffer from a sensation ofinauthenticity. anachronistic source... 90 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. it needn't have occurred in thatmanner. thePhotograph that subtle moment totell very when.1. Gemaldigegalerie.. In front ofthelens. FIGURE F. Cardinal Ludovico Trevisan. the portraitonlypretends to represent the manner in which it was produced.. This is what was implied above in the statementthat I read the image as an index of what sitterand painter "havein mind" ratherthan what they"had in mind. represents ofimage-repertoire. Most of the standard storiesart historians tell about Early Modern portraiture trace its emergence fromthe family archive thatincludes such commemorative icons as the death mask."The reasons for thisstipulationare complicatedand willbe discussed below.S theact of portrayal mode of representation: representedbythe image is a fiction. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. IE .theone thephotographer I am. be) photographed.. 145860.and the thinks his art. a strange one he makesuse of to exhibit action:I do notstop and becauseof this. Roland Barthes'sCamera The portrait-photograph is a closedfield offorces. . theone I think I am. Andrea Mantegna...

"" Is the face painted by Mantegna the index of thisqualityof mind as well as the others? If we had the same face archivaldata could we adjust our reading of the face to accommoand different fromMantegna to Bellini. There mustbe a reason ofthePose Fictions 91 was "a warrior prelate who .but theyalso exercisecommendable judgmentsof thissortpretty prudence in theirrefusalto elaborate. are "mortiferous."the painting"does fulljustice to the Cardinal's sternand resolute character.. he could have extracted some of his informationfrom the archive. anotherscholardid. and "itsironicalcompressionof the mouth. Withthe painter'shelp.204..8JohnPope-Hennessey followsVasari in being a littlecriticalof Mantegna'senthusiasmfora paintingstyle"based on the Roman bust" and for his abilityto turn men to stone." become livingsubjectsby seeming eitherto icons. The cardinal. he tells us. In this bydivergingfromand of subjectivity produce effects paintersand sitters reversal. More personality. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a specter. rather and Roman air. : I am truly a micro-version I then experience as My storyaims to recuperate this spectraldeathlike process of objectification baseline of Early Modern portraiture.death-bearing.on what To shift story? date a different physiognomic of Doge Loredan is "a convincing claim thatthe portrait grounds does one writer presentationof his character"and another thatthe portraitof Jorg Fugger is a "penetratingdepiction of the sitter'sphysiognomy"?'2 Art historiansdispense openhandedly.. sitters or to failto achieve it."is commemorative" withitspetrific findsthatthisportrait. .85 on Mon. theinside knowledgethat enables them to read the face as an index of the mind. and the sitter san.192. resistobjectivity I begin thisjourney toward Barthes'sinsightin mediasreswith a scatterof to physiognomic commitment quotationsthatsuggestthepervasiveand uncritical among mainstreamart historians."He adds that "although the portraitis to rendermood or expression.forit suggeststhe strength Cardinal's record the more than image does that of will.He also could have found. pointand the continuing both the starting the historyof which plays out a kind of reversal of Barthes's schema. the disillusionedexperience of affairs had stamped the countenance of this exceptional object: he is becoming whofeels buta subject norobject I am neither subject thetruth.. thatCardinal Trevisan "began as a simple physicianand rose to be" the pope's chamberlain thanksin part to his "unscrupulous managerial skills.Figure 1 is an early work by interpretation is Cardinal Ludovico TreviMantegna.dated around 1459 or 1460.or share withus. conventionsthat for subjects. conventions objectifying alluding to an initialsetof into because theyturnsitters as Barthesputsit."9 thananalytical"and is designed to isolate Mezzarota'shistoric thatwithitsevocation"of a Roman bust" Ronald Lightbownhas written recently." and he This content downloaded from 62. . owned a famous collection of antiques.''0 Now-to pop the moneyquestion thatwilllead to the restof thisessay-just how does he know all that? Obviously. Mantegna's in thatthereis no attempt objective. also knownas Mezzarota Scarampo.the severe habitof command.7 becoming ofdeath.

"New effects presentinghimself and posing "remindobserversthatthe portraitin frontof them is the resultof of one person by another.192."as a consequence painted. of the bearing" (see fig. His investigation his people slightly was not of the surface of the faces. for the first eye forthem. saw the sitter.. or herselfto be painted. how is he using thatword? There is a clue in his comment showed of the precedinggenerationbyBellini: the painter"normally on portraits frombelow.2). continue to give whygood art historians."' But how does Huse know what the sitter's-any sitter's-essential nature or objective realityis? As I read his analysis. Entirelynew provincesof the psychecame into view for painting. observer . We meet with nervousness.theyfound artistswho had an tainlyexisted before. saw the sitter. The attentive foranother. ... froma perspectiveof respect.they only as he saw thembut also as they wanted to be seen being seen. 'as he or she reallyis..""Possibly. but of the person's essential nature"-this presumablyamounts to sayingthat Bellini representedeach sitter"'objectively' . on the "closed.but now.People like these had certime. but as Palma. 3]. Signs of 92 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. is kept aware of the situationthatone person is sitting of lighting."''3 be are inconsistent. as Palma. And he goes on to argue thatthe portraits obligatory with the way early sixteenthcenturyreveal "the younger men's dissatisfaction he speculates. and I want to suggest what it may be by glancing at the practice of another historian of Venetian painting.." theirfathers had themselves crisis Venice moral that and its ruling class passed of the grave political and fromthese years reveal a the portraits throughat the beginningof the century.and so does not show the the artisticinterpretation not 'as he or she reallyis'. to back up a step. and thesitter didn't show the sitter"objectively"how does the criticknow the new portraits or. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . uniformwayin whichup to about 1500 the rulingclass typeand an portrait thanksto an obligatory had presenteda calm. for example.And So we should add. Giorgione. or Lotto sitter'objectively'.who clearlyknowwhat theyare doing.204.85 on Mon. serious front. composition. Lotto.and resignation. the new on individual "statesof mind"tellsus less about theeffects fashionin representing of a new fashion thanabout theeffects psychesof "gravepoliticaland moralcrisis" in representingthe act of portrayal-the act of posing and painting. as he suggests.thatis."Huse connectsthischange withan increasein formalreflexiveness: the new portraits "give away more about how theywere produced. Why should creditfor the new effects These statements assigned exclusivelyto the painter if it is true that the painter shows sittersnot wanted to be seen? And. themselvespermissionto read faces as indices of mind. Giorgione. farmore restless group of people than thoseof the precedinggeneration[see fig. aware of posing for paintersand observers.Huse comments. One of the manyvaluable featuresof NorbertHuse's excellentcontribution is the attentionhe pays Venice TheArtofRenaissance to his and WolfgangWolters's to generational shiftsof style and taste in portraiture.melancholy.

melancholy.192. Fictions ofthePose 93 This content downloaded from 62. They do thisusing an undigested mix of archivalevidence.204. 31. London. or merely tedious.theyneedn'tbe more than that. 1990).posing. Reproduced bypermission."innovationsin posingjointlyarrived at by sitter and painter.thatart historians oftendon't hesitateto guide us through the faces of long-dead sitters and into theirmindsand souls.the intuitions of lay psychology. then. Kunsthistorisches Curtain. 3 (right). From Lorne Campbell.GiovanniBellini.85 on a word. 1501. however laconic or impressionistic. and thattheirown physiognomic interpretations.The aim of such representation may be insightnot into the psychology of the sitterbut into the psychologyof selfrepresentation and scopic encounter. for example-that often strike even them-the art historiansthemselves-as quaint. theymay flag the decision to dramatize "new provincesof the psyche. significant mainlyas researchopportunities. National Gallery. Young Man Against a White 1506-8. It appears. belong to a code in whichthe membersof the profession exchange information about matters otherthanthesitters' characters.Those FIGURE FIGURE 2 (left). and the record of past beliefs-physiognomy.Lorenzo Lotto. Museum. Renaissance Portraits (New Haven. and resignation" may be intended to representreactions to more direct scopic encounter.Doge Leonardo c. plate 39. Vienna. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."nervousness. bizarre. Loredan. obsolete.I thinkwe should assume thattheyaren'tmerelyindulgingin metaphysical fantasies but makingsome kind of descriptivesense.

images that commemoratethe individual as the model.The approach consistsin redirecting traiture of and performance style the to fromthe styleand performanceof the painter naturalized fiction as sitter-that is. do.The art historiansare more other mattersare obviouslyart-historical and if of paintersthan in the charactersof sitters. techniques in representational dramatic improvement is the factor aesthetic main centuryon.of the status. subjectsto imagine and representthemselves. in the family to store rate resemblances for exemplaryimages. of normalization. My purpose in this essay is to unpack an alternativeapproach to porattention and to show how itworks. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and at the most general level. To reduce 14 They provide embodiments personality. more generally. of what Lacan calls the gaze. of soul. is. call ego ideals. mimetic and more importantly. the increased in Italyfromthe earlyfifteenth thattook place initially naturalismor realism (or whatever)thatresultsfromwhat is usually termed the demand notonlyforaccuis thegrowing factor The sociopolitical interest. of portrayal. it is probablybecause the primary is to praise the painter. give 94 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. assumptionsthat supports the of interpretive thingwrong withthe framework practice.what we confrontis the painter'sintera pictureof Paul of the painter'sinterpretation. its or scopic dimensionof the dominantdiscoursesbywhicha cultureconstructs to be and to themselves to seen. to was trying painter Let's grantthat in the finalanalysis.values.85 on Mon. step in thisprocedure is to tryto sketchout as quicklyand simplyas The first possible. contribution sitter's willrecuperatethemas partof the contentrepresentedby the portrait.and authority or profession. the embodiment. but archive also. pretationand our interpretations III is a Titian. irresponsible.192.theyare orthopsychic mentsof interpellation.matters. of a particularclass.the ditioned the various stylesof earlymodern portraiture. in the achievements interested facile produce descriptions psychological their that govern the conventions accounts of the face as in index of the mind. not as a characterin some historical the sitter but only as the subjectof and participantin a particularact by the art historian. lineage. images term comes fromGaston Bachelard).notcharacterizethe purpose of theconventions rhetorical whatthe was is ancillaryto demonstrating sitter into whothe Sharing insights sitter. or correct that psyche. institution.My aim is to develop a theoryof posing that will recuperate the thatproduced the portraittheactivity Louis Althusser'stermsinstrutermstheyare instruments images (the and in Lacanian terms.204. historical somethere mustbe undemonstrableassertionsabout the inner statesof sitters. they ofwhatpsychologists These images providevisualizations in the appearance-to inscribethe serve to inscribean ideal soul or personality In Michel Foucault's inside on the outside-and to provideiconsof identification. the social and aestheticnorms thatconAs everyoneknows.But since thistendencyin artand practicecorrelateswitha tendencyto fireoffcasual. norms. the gaze is the visual his complex notionof the gaze to myvulgarunderstanding. a pictureofJan Six a Rembrandt.

"'The alienating identityis the ego ideal. functionin his account of the expresses the orthopsychic Vasari beautifully Bellini. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to the assumptionof thearmorof an alienatingidentity. since its chief effectwas to individualize the sitter.The are sublated by the idealizinggrazia and maniera ern rinascita of the conflict allowed to conceal of art isn't on the progress schematicemphasis norms that drives it. tificatory exemplary other becomes the inner self. fornobledeedsperformed their republics. higher tomakeus see something specifically. The apparent inwardness be said. to emulate natureand make figuresseem alive) but in the the ability perspective.. it might truth. in peace or war. Given communicated. greatmenin publicplaces.the mimeticaccomplishments of the third. Lacan writes.normsof the group: the gaze on theexemplaryor orthopsychic model themselves us "as beingswho are looked at. itwas both accurate and exemplary. of thehonorand adornment they to saynothing and contentment. In the process of internalization.192. the mimeticprecursors-like John the Baptist-grow smalleras theirsuccessors grow larger.. and in the patronage systemof Early Modern elites normswere visualized and paintingwas among the means bywhichorthopsychic the mimeticinterestwas necthat it is clear this function..withhonorable set up imagesof their and ofglory?'7 a loveofexcellence successors oftheir in theminds kindle Vasari also has a lot to say about mimeticskillsand values (anatomy. fortheir part and illustrious ifthey havebeenfamous particularly ofhisancestors.'8 sanceworks Fictions ofthePose 95 This content downloaded from 62. fathers of the worthy everbeen truly has fashion which back-a still farther they go [families] pleasure Whodoes notfeelinfinite evenamongtheancients. an inward an external appearanceshowing ofartin general. images or forlearning. A "good" likenesswas good in both senses. did theancients Andtowhat talent? notable and distinguished or anyother thanto inscriptions. He notes (in Plinian fashion)thatthe houses of Venetian gentlemenare of fullof portraits and in someof themorenoble generation. ideology: to makeus see morethanwe are shownand. in governing other end .85 on Mon. more Renaissance imageswerepresumed spiritual Wesee a higher.. order on the narrativeof the schema thatimposes at least superficial melioristic thatdistinguishthe second eta of the modLives.'5 The gaze is thusinternalized the tuitionbecomes the spectacle us" and constitutes "circumscribes bysocializationas the objectof idenof the world.. essary but not sufficient. Viewed fromthe standpointof the third period. wasthus portrait in a Renaissance sitter in external forms.. whereas what the patronage systemrequired in addition was idealization.wereRenaisand so.modeling. Vasari thus mythologizes-but doesn't falsify-the structureof values thatemerges in the practiceand discourseof Early Modern visual art and is disDavid Summers offersa compact descriptionof this cernible in its portraiture. The mirrorstage. greatest at seeingthe confer. is precipitatedfrominsufficiency drama whose internalthrust and ...204. up to thefourth and grandfathers. thanweare shown."is a to anticipation. and existed praise. desire..

and the restof thatlearned tribe. and race or ethnicity. took the credo forgrantedand did not giveita second thoughtexcept when they theywere as skeptical got sickand doctorscast theirhoroscopes. or a moral truth.the credo affectedtheirlives.or the truthof an elite or the truthof an individual subject.if theycould read or be read to. theyact as if it were the into the inward truthof of insights deliverthemselves case. I have no idea believingthissortof thing. For example. and compromisesof The storyof mimeticidealism is shaped by the conflicts impulses that are its protagonists:on the one hand.The question thatneeds to be asked about this ideology and about the portraitsthat reproduce it is. the pressure those who commissionpaintings.the credo maininto hierarchy. and thatthereis a consonance between"whatcan be perceived and whatlies concealed within"? At thispoint I thinkit is worthpausing to ask whetherand why.85 on Mon.I suspectthey browslike Plato.'9 on the other nologyand the science of art fromthe earlyfifteenth by the motivesof imposed idealization orthopsychic toward hand. At thislevel. And conceivably of theself-styled expertswhose diagnoses of thecredo as theywere of therhetoric even if theyknew nothingabout and prognoses were based on it. assumptionsbased it.just what sort of inward truthis revealed? Is it some generalized human truth. the new the two stylistic rapid development of graphic techmimeticpower generated by the relatively order to pay myrespectsto idealism I shall call thisthe general thesisof mimetic the storyof Renaissance art thathas itsrootsin the theoryand practiceof Vasari and his predecessors. physiognomic have always had an or linkage outside/inside of the body/soul version on some importantideological functionin helping to naturalizethe inequitiesof gender. or the truthof the artist'svision? Did Renaissance sittersreally hold-and do their portraitsrepresent-the assumptions attributedto them by John Popeto that fidelity Hennessey. class." nature is more than skindeep. Even if theydon't believe it.I suspect. I cited earlierare informedbythe in fact.and versionsof whichare stillgoing strongtoday. that "appearance is inseparable from personality. transform exploitation continuously 96 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62.was influential.thatthe commentsof the art historians ideology and illustrateit. or thatthe body is necessarilyan index of the soul. or a whetherordinaryfolksspentseveraleons stupidly idea whether. Nevertheless. bythe highly fromthe start index reliableand authoritative the opinion of the expertsthatthe face is a totally of the mind.confronted people accepted evolved skillsof Homo Hypocriticus. the that at the level of those discourse networks credo was operative. theypaid any attentionto highGalen.Aristotle. The standingculturalorder thatthe male is rank or class. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and theycontinually externalforms. fromand superior to the female gets support fromthe standing both different index inalterablemental and psychicdifferorder that theirbodily differences ences. So it seems likelythatregardlessof what people thoughtor believed.

statesmen. ments. establishedsocial arrangepoliticaland economicchanges thatwere destabilizing traditional discoursesand iconographiesof ideal-and a threatenedideal.The face should forwardand assertitself.rank.85 on Mon.and threatening fromthe gender. ofthePose Fictions 97 This content downloaded from 62. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of new representational fourteenth cartogmercantilepractices. "Look how veyed by the behavioral technique Castiglione called sprezzatura I pretend to be natural.then.printingand literacy.and mothers.tains its ideological force preciselybecause it belongs to the uncontestedbackground of daily life. Probably. merchants.and conduct the forinscribing where both the human capacityand the motivation literature. and group membershipin general.and parliamentaryorganization) in what amounted to a graphic revolution. but in Early of technicalwithsocial change imposes a Modern Europe the interpenetration is now required to be the index of the task: the face and semiotic unsettling new of an mind's abilityto make the face the index of the mind. doctors.pedagogy and the regulationof conduct. and even artistsand poets have to learn-not to mention their daughters. "Look how naturallyI pretend to be artfully artful"?) formula. techniquesand technologies(in centuryon.wives.prellawyers. the By "developments. The ancientassociationof physsoul on thebody are more precariously of the body activity iognomywithmedicine meant thatanalysisof the signifying emission focused on the involuntary a sortof symptomatology was traditionally of soul signs-signs of the soul's medical or ethical or humoral condition."(Or is it. help disengage the construction/represendominance of social reproduction tationof mind or soul fromthe prediscursive and begin to resuscitateit withindiscursivefieldsof pedagogy. ates.mathematics. second. By contrastthe emphasis in courtesybooks is not only on controlledbehavior but of "involuntary" soul signs. the mind."I mean the convergence of two sorts of changes: first. that the latteris compelled to abandon its comfortable to come practices. it gets promoted as a skill a technique of performanceessentialto successfulparticipation to be cultivated.anatomyand medicine.192. These changes interferedwith traditionalpatternsof cultural transmissionin which were inscribed on the body by customarypractices while forms of interiority being ascribedto naturalforces. somethingprinces. exposed. thetacitbackgroundofcustomary hidingplace of powerwithin be the index of and to defend itsvirtue.The message conalso on the voluntary performance is. the natural expression of the subject's inner nature. the credo assumes another kind of importance when it is forced fromthe background to the foregroundby developmentsthatconvertit froman ideological depositto a culturalposit.204.courtiers.the face is It is when a rivalcredo challengesthe old physiognomic the index of the mind. the visual arts. in public life. The representation inner selfcan no longer be leftor delegated to nature. the proliferation.

. constitute is ecphrasis in art history in a word. But the argumentcalls for a mode of interpretation its rival. of normal practice. nomy.85 on Mon. which largelyaccounts for tributesto and is affected the pressure to modifythe mimesisof physicalformsin accordance withorthosensitiveto psychicnorms.And even if we assume that painter and sitterwere presentto each otherour fantasiesof whatwas likelyto have taken place during the productionof the image lead us to premisethatthe image may screen out or disguise or distortmany details of the actual productiveprocess. sion to be the prephotographicera.metoposcopy.our awareness thattheyare these to be genericconcomitants unrepresenteddoesn'tdispel them. to posing. relationof effect and humoral psychology.from portraitminiaturesand medals.. the evidence of the new semiotictaskof self-representation. and thismeans credo and of theconflict betweenthetraditional the effect of technique and intentionalperformancethat a mode sensitiveto the signifiers sensitive. substitutions (of another'sbody). the sitter'scontemporaries-and shouldn't be assumed by us-to be a faithful copy of the actual event. tokeepthesitters Ippolito atthesametime of to thetedium fortheloveofherthat he wouldsubmit itwasonly Isabellathat hissister in staying stillso muchof an foundthe patienceinvolved sitting.a portrait fictions image in the lightof thatassumption. astrology.marksthem of thismove is to throwintosharp relief as conspicuouslyexcluded. In normalpractice. The intenwhich. This in turn generates a third assumption. and theeffect situation. One of the flawsof physiognomic of posing.Cardinal d'Esteinformed entertained. Perhaps I should say thatit representsan act of porposing forthe paintercouldn'tbe assumed by since the image of the sitter trayal.forexample. the act of archive it bypasses the theimage as an allegory thatin treating act. and from verbal descriptions.and changes of design: ifwe take interruptions. presupposes a desire and deciof the pose. thatpaintersworked fromcasual observation.which is that the itscause. The main challenge to easy acceptance of the traditionalcredo comes from to which I now turnas a prelude to discussingthe the conditionsof portraiture. of the the fictiveness represented What actual posing is like can be grasped from the followinganecdotes reportedby Lorne Campbell: wereable to paintand and notall portraitists A boredsitter problems obviously presents In 1494.from other paintings.Ratherit places themin reserve.We know. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .204. Isabella herself forher of sitting in 1511 neveragainto makethesacrifice thatshe resolved annoyance 98 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. It is an image of the act of but also represents not onlysignifies portrait portrayalthatproduced it.If we read the sitter's the act of portrayal we make the furtherassumptionthat the portraitsignifies that produced that it both conportraiture My argumentabout commissionedor official by thiscontextof change. mustalwaysbe an intentional oneselfbreaks or at least loosens the linkage tion to be representedrepresenting thatmakes the face the index of the mind in the kind of prediscursiveor natural pathogto cause premised by such "sciences"as physiognomy. For example.

It createsa referential Thus it pretends only to reflectand referto is in factsomethingit constitutes. representation I am only givinga name to thisscenario.thatthe sitter sitterdid in the studio (or wherever)what she or he appears to be doing in the portrait. face as an index of the mind is for paintersto help sitters reduce themselvesto withemblems or impersonateexemplary symbolsor reveal theirtrue identities Fictions ofthePose 99 This content downloaded from 62. The best way to grasp the significance suggested by Martin Kemp in his book on Leonardo-is to contrastLeonardo's Kemp parade of caricatures. . withmelodramaticsimplification thatthe survivingporgence of physiognomic traitsso melodramatically renounce. It is an index." patient and sitting of abstracted sitters and claimedthat"while Leonardowas painting foundin portraits tokeephercheerful andjesters he engagedpeopletoplayand sing. In termsof whatwe assume about the actual paintingand posing process.and thatin posing before the painterhe or she was projectingthe selfaimed at futureobservers. sitter.and field. to his painted portraits. the Last Supper. represents the three-waydiachronic transactionbetween painter. MonaLisa'sportrait.This is the basic plot. Leonardo and his contemporaries of the invention-the way invented it. Its claim is that the Early Modern portraiture. which toportraits. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . though not withoutteasing observers to As generic reach forone or anotherclue to a recognizable"innertemperament.both satiricand heroic.204. Indeed.each evoking through its facial 'signs' an 'air' expressiveof its inner temperament"(156. which Pierce Pierce's sense of a sign thatdenotes by resemblance. Whether or sketchesforsuch projectsas these studieswere gratuitousand self-delighting and BattleofAnghiari.192. 159). of the"melancholy" wasconscious frequently Vasari forour portrait.22 grotesque drawingsof bizarre remarkson the artist's predilectionfor"satirically characters .' usually gives that melancholy painting and remove I conclude fromsuch evidence thatthe image we see is not the mere consequence of the productiveact. It is not merelyan icon-here I use the word iconin C. theydepict preciselythe converAdoration. the portraitgives us a selectively illusion.The portraitis an index in that it representsthe act of portrayalthat produced it. and painterwere presentto each otherduring the act of painting. But in spite of what it purportswe know thatitsindexical iconicity act of portrayal is in that respect misleading.85 on Mon.What it abstractedand idealized image of posing." take exceptionto the rule thatthe way to representthe the portraits statements. scenario.of staying wishto endurethatboredom In 1516. For what it indexes is a normative ratherthan the normalor actual processwe imagine. particularly those of a narrative nature. definesas a sign thatdenotes some dynamicor causal relationbetweenitselfand its referent(the standard example: smoke is an index of fire). S. or fictionof observer in a purely fictional and I call it the fiction ofthepose.she wrote that"weno longer portrait." "By these means he searching "for extremesof physiognomy commanded an inexhaustibleparade of characters. ." and on his interest in and expression. it is an that iconin thatit purportsto denote byresemblancethe act of portrayal indexical produced it.

thatshe is watchingthe painterpaint her. however. "a single. partnerin scopic interacthatthe observerratherthan the painteris the sitter's of posing and of the protractedeffort changes. What is new and importantin the portrait.everything painting conforms more closely to Cecil Gould's sense of "regal relaxation. (or textual)meanand narrative quasi-anonymousbearer of allegorical.fromsitter ence. the person to model.Under thisrule. signs"fromconstituting that prevents"the physiognomic The sfumato the desire to read the face as the fixed. is being patiently.4).85 on Mon.204. first the fictionof the pose reminds us that the sitter's Imagine. to the absence embedded in being-inabsence embedded in being-in-the-world the-pose.historicalfigures. may of course be inscribedin any sitteras the definingcondition of the but I don't thinkthis helps us much with Leonardo." but veiled by the attitudeof "prolonged "superb confidence and tranquillity. Leonardo thus offersus a criticalstandpointfromwhich to view the ideological pressure imposed on portraitureby contexts of patronage that exemplarity. as if theyhad been in about them.dynastic. throughits representation. as opposed to that ings. tion. the "knowingreticence"of expression Leonardo achieves by ambiguating"the crucial clues" to physiognomicapprehension.but one that as ifshe resisted. . withorthopsychic identity encourage the equation of physiognomic Kemp argues thatin theMona Lisa Leonardo was "playingupon .The expresthe same positionlong enough forher to have forgotten sion on her face bears tracesof a similartendencytowardrelaxation. observer is the painter.definiteimage" arouses and frustrates Kemp argues. a dead image. the referent littlemore than the posed for the picturebecomes. the semblance produced by the more or less that presaccomplished mimesisof a corporeal presence indexicallytransforms who is. Now the product tion.. The "real" face/mind noise. Something is conspicuously withheld.192. relationof a model. then. But if the of his sitters charged and explicitmannerwithwhichhe enhances the anonymity fromthe attention itshifts representsthatabsence as a problemforthe observer. and we cannot but react to her.the representationof ongoing scopic the "communicative To thisI encounterin which"she reactsto us. in Kemp's phrase. entailed bythe model's theatricalfuncis irrelevant of a sitter. in theLacanian formula.To viewthe sitter and benevolently obligingly. That of the semblance. is index of the mind." equivocation"or." When. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."23 add thatif the Mona Lisa has alwaysmade observersconscious of her consciousof givingherselfto be seenness of posing-conscious. Its absence. liaison" it establishes. our irresistibletendencyto read facial signs of characterin everyonewe meet" (fig.24 The differencebetween these two scenarios is evidence of a scopic 100 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. subject in representation. The turnof the body and barrierof the arms seem a littleguarded at the same time that the understatedmodeling of the hands makes themappear relaxed. an absence presents itself. and is to sense a very protracted is being portrayedin the act of being portrayed strained or wearied but courageous attemptto continue looking at the slightly we shiftroles and imagine birdie and continuesaying"cheese.

192. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and Theatricality thatI am beginningto trespasson his property.or emotionalstateare obscured byanothersetof indexicalcues.204. No equivalentof the candid or rhetorical intention expresses a theatrical withinthe contextof disclosure.encounter at once so ambiguous in its cues and so sharplyparticularizedin its functions(being painted versus being observed) thatitsrange of possible meanings changes. The indexical cues to the sitter'stemperament.85 on Mon. Leonardo accentuates the drama of scopic interaction fiction of the pose conspicuous enough to occlude thekindof access to innertruth that physiognomypromises. 1505-14.Mona Lisa. status. Fried'sAbsorption since I am concerned here witha versionof the contrasthe draws betweenthe- FIGURE 4. Musee du Louvre. emblemsor attributes. c. no voyeuristic withMichael It willbe obvious to anyone familiar deliberate self-representation.25 A painting that makes palpable the presence of observers to the sitter to pose. thosethat focus attentionon the sitter'sreaction to painter and observers. whichabjures the inertlikewhich is withoutidentifying ness of a familyportrait. Paris. is possible here except camera. The romance of the Mona Lisa thathas been going on fornearlyhalf a milfrom lennium testifies to the success of devices thathide the mind'sconstruction by making the the face.This portrait. Leonardo da Vinci. Fictions ofthePose 101 This content downloaded from 62.and which also abjures the kind of background that would support a historicalor religious event and delimit the meaning of the seems totally the hiddenness dedicated to representing expression-this portrait and complicatingthe drama of the posing consciousness.

or a conspicuouslyposed rejectionof. absorpappear "unconscious or obliviousof everything his "consciousnessof being is this object precisely tion"and to make itappear that beheld. of the pose..Diderot and his contemporaries conventionsof which the constitutive of portraiture. the sitters 102 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. of attention. truthfulness the account we give of it.the fiction that neutralizes the presence of the observer must thereforebe construed as posingso as toappearnotto beposing."26 ." he wrote. to. By absorption Fried means the representationof figatricality of being completelyoccupied or ures in "the stateor conditionof rapt attention. tionimpliesinattention guaranteesthe spontaneity thisunself-conscious on whose opinions Friedcenters..or theabsence of. presentationof himselfor herself is the sitter's basic action depicted in a portrait to be beheld. hearing. it followsthatabsorptioncan only be a variation an intentionalact of Fried puts fiction and so make it once again a beholding it."29The presence of the observer. posing so as to make itappear painted or observed. .85 on Mon. But my interestin the present discussion is in still Vermeer and Rembrandt.he willalso have to persuade themto accept the fiction were made uneasy by nonexistenceas beholders. and the fiction and observed.and absorption. just enactingthisfiction is theatrical..192. and frequencyin Dutch another" (91).27 appear withgreat These variationsor counterplotsof the normativefiction verges on genre.204. Absorpfeeling.The pictorialevidence suggestsat least two of candor (as in "candid fiction versionsof thisscenario: the voyeuristic different camera").28 Fried'scategories: it is possible for a sitterto another variationthattransgresses but the object of his . put another way. the "inherenttheatricality" to the public gaze.thinking.far frombeing neutralized. to ourselves and fundaas an object herselfor himself offers the sitter preemptively mentalto thisfiction: and in thisrespect the pose indeed. an object rewardingattention. to portraiture.But while conspicuouslyposing.theobserver.the sitter. Thus if the painterwants to persuade beholders thatthe body theysee is a true index of its of theirabsence or mind.especiallywhere portraiture and some of the mostcomplex performancesare those of genre on portraiture.forthe portraitpainter"to detheatricalize (104). and it raises the question whetherit is possible. of representation:"The stateof our's body holds the pose but up to be portrayed thataftersetting one's mind has wandered. discursive response to a particular of the pose as I've defineditis basic quite workforme as theystand. posing so as to appear otherwise engaged and oblivious of being of distraction. doing. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The absorption on. and forDenis Diderot.the "call for exhibitinga subject. If the fiction indexes From the premisethatthe portrait then so is theatricality. mode of access to truthand conviction" Fried is careful to note that the terms of his contrast are developed in and perhaps forthatreason theydon't context." This formulationcorresponds exactlyto what I refer to as the of the pose. absorbed in what [theyare] ."is one thing.

whilein the fiction not to move. the sitter'slook is fixed away fromthe observer.The looks they go the leftor to the right.192. or disdainfully (see fig.204. of absorptionin Fried'saccount is to neutralizethe The aim of the signifiers "a new sortof beholder. Agnolo Bronzino.Lucrezia c. ofthePose Fictions 103 This content downloaded from 62.thespectatorstheyacknowledge go unrecognized. Galleria degli Uffizi. Florence. I call thisthe it fiction ofobjectivity.and anotherin whichthe sitter observer'sdirectionbut seems to stare-vacantly. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .or impassively."3' The signifiers proto make the the index duce a different effect: serve face of they exemplaryvalue.5).But in which there is also a more engaged frontalvariantof the fiction of objectivity looks fixedly in the the eyes are expresslyaverted. fromthe fiction of distraction by notingthatin the latterthe sitter's look tends to of objectivity it tendsto appear appear unfixedor unfocused. Panciatichi." I distinguish For reasons thatwillsoon emerge. refusalto engage or interact withspectators Paradoxically. thistheatrical may functionif it stages a correspondingrefusal to tryto serve a detheatricalizing or imposturesaddressed to the beholder. if respondingto the instruction view. or complacently. In the three-quarters fixed.5."an positionof empiricalbeholder in order to constitute observer position founded on the convictionof its "absence from the scene of in Early Modern portraiture of objectivity representation. FIGURE solicit as conspicuouslyavoid eye contact.85 on Mon."30 control response by "feignings The sitter to thepainterthetaskofobjectively mightthenappear to entrust portraying "access to truth featuresin a mannerthatguaranteestransparent and conviction.

Death in nature-the death ofnature-is the prerequisiteto stateof thebody resurrected byart. thenyou conquered it(or her) in thesense thatyou produced more has been well articperfectimages than nature did.profesin the face. profile."32 we look at means to investitwiththe ability preciselyin order enhanced when the objectis investedwiththatability strangely look dies into the gaze. On the contrary. and.embodimentof "ideals of public virtue"presentingitselfforthe the transparent Since it does the workof holy observer'sadmiration.not of specialists.Again and again in Vasari'sLives.the sculpturedportrait commemorative I have in mind not only donor porand the medallion.the exemplaryportraitdoesn't want it representsa figurethat presents to neutralize the observer.Remember the less famous of aura: "To perceive the aura of an object of WalterBenjamin's two definitions The aura is to look at us in return. icons. creationbased on fantasiesof violence contra to an ideologyof artistic there are to the case of the exemplaryportrait such fantasiesdon't apply directly subject may be said to other senses in whichthe productionof the orthopsychic 104 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62.and ancestralmasks. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .On the contrary.thisentailed-according builtinto the general thesisof mimetic conflict to contemporarywriterson art-a double conquest of nature.the sitter's derive the Early Modern portrait The two sources fromwhichart historians paintingson the one hand. to dramatizeitsrefusalto use it."35 and overthrow transform finally the compaintingto the other source of the portrait. nature. As to the former. the rhetoricof resurrection.such suggestwhythisis so: history bust.85 on longer a map of everywrinkle impressionthatconveyssocial position. on a bettermodel." optical systematically ability of the "aestheticdeterminationof relationships"that "would up the possibility naturalismitself. itselfto be looked at but refusesto returnthe favor. First you conquered nature in the sense thatyou masterednatural appearances throughthe scienceof art. doesn't mean merely the discourse of art from touching them up to idealize them."34 idealism. distance the image and discourage the observerfromcoming up close to get a In termsof the betterviewof whatVasari calls "thecoarsenessof livingbodies." forms "to their imitated opened to reduce elements.and edification.veneration.192. classical statues. on the other. . you no longer have a record of each individualfeature. but also the later development described traitsin religiousand other narratives byJohannes Wilde when he remarksthatbecause "the new portraitof the Cinquecento was a creation of monumental painters. the same see Correcting we can logic memorativeimage. the glorified is displaced withits promise of a life ultranaturam.204. This internalcontradiction the ulated byDavid Summers. .character. For then.the relief images as thedeath mask.33 sion. transcending the coarseness of living bodies.and dismembernatural bodies in order to reconstruct sityto flay."but rathera totalizing is to and restraint The effect of monumentality and personality. If naturam. to violenceagainstnature-to the necesitscommitment Albertito Vasaribetrays them dissect.who argues thatthe achievementof "naturalism. Turning fromhistory of the defects at work.

prebut inhumous. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In an extreme version of the fictionof objectivity.Several meanings of the term objective detached.and he suggested that the ledges in the portraitsmay be associated with David Rosand has developed thisidea. these featuressignify exemplarity of life" is evacuated. Hatfieldgetsus closer to thismeaningwhen he concludes fromhis surveyof to society the subjects of several profilesthat they"made notable contributions and .impartial.but the euphemismsuggeststhe kind of ognitionof theiraltruistic workbeing done bythe profiles). and the bodily site prepared to the gaze." is defeated bythe profileviewand bythe remoteflatness of intimacy of aesthetic sense a primarily conveys design He claimed that the logic of their stasis.36 and arguingthatitcan signify conventions. to the pathos of the memento the immortality conferredby art. conMore recently. We can see thisin whatmaybe (nextto the death mask) the the profileview (see fig. objectivity. and representedin the portraititself. thisis a matters objectivity receivethe orthopsychic were alive since theyare inhumed in the portraitlike the skeletonbeneath sitters Christin Masaccio's Trinity. dition" of the sitters'"being. whichthatstandpointrelegatesto self-image naturalor defectiveor fragmented charthe categoryof the nonexemplary. acterizetheeffect sive. nor-forgive the coinage-prehumous a death signifiedby the fictionof served. funerary symbolism.192. according to the evidence he cites.the fiction theme and its corollary.. fromthe standpointof in which the relationof the portraitto the sitteris neitherposthumous thatis. suggestto me thatit is a mistake of objectivity These examples of the fiction morn to reduce its meaning.He notesthatitisn'tknownwhetherthe profiles were painted posthumouslyor from life. the way Rosand does. a death buried.not swayedby nor displayingemotion. and not in recpublic born out of death. impasinanimate. seen fromthe outside.38Rather.85 on Mon. but he claims that it doesn't matter in the portraits conspiresto abstractthe semblance fromthe because everything of physicalappearance and encounter: the remotenessof the proparticularities the "ordered beauty" that "seems the fixed confileview. when "the stuff littlewhetheror not the of an icon. morn on the memento interpretaof a more context-specific versal elegiac message he deprives himself tion. of thisfiction: thinglike.. nectingthe ledge to antique funerary harps Rosand unfortunately a mori7 or else memento eithera posthumousportrait on thatunibecause byconcentrating theme-unfortunately. the expressesthe desire to transcendwhatis.some were murdered. in severalcases can be held to have died foritssake" (328. 6). importantessay published more than a quarter of a centuryago. the object of ofthePose Fictions 105 This content downloaded from 62.204. Rab Hatfield thathave in common the failure analyzed a famous set of male profileportraits of human faces"of the actual physicalstructure to "convinceas representations theyseem ratherto representreliefsculpture-and he noted that"any real sense of the face.its defeat of intimacy." and the sacrificeof likeness on the altar of thatwhen the look dies into (318)-together.

Chambe'ry. ___~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- FIGURE 6. then. 7): in profile thewomen Like nunsand donors.forthe orthopsychic she? in 1965 PatriciaSimons did forthe female What Hatfielddid forthe male profile profilein 1988.204. Embodyingthe gaze. It is as an icon.has passed throughthe lookingglass into the pure idealityof an icon. c. .Madrid. excerpts that speak for themselvesand need no commentfromme (see fig. 7.192. Profile Man.others'attention. admired. and visible portrayed are displayed objects . ofa Young FIGURE c. in an important essayfromwhichI quote the following excerpts. 106 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. Paolo Uccello (?). that he gives himselfto be observed. whowassupposedly vainand narcissistic.GiovannaTornabuoni.and venerated. Muse'e des Beaux-Arts. A woman. an other (not a self).85 on Mon. wasnevertheless madean objectin a "mirror" framed whena man's wealth and heridealdowry. Fundacio'nColeccio'nThyssenBornemisza. commemorated. decorously averting their eyes. he. But how about the orthopsychic So much. or "real"nature. Domenico Ghirlandaio. inactive objects gazing elsewhere. the orthopsychic subject has exchanged his merelynatural and sullied fleshfor a glorifiedbody of paint. 1530-35. worldly rather thanher"true" wason display. 1488. . 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . disdainingthelook.

. eyes are steadfastly thislook bypositioning the discreetforeshortening reinforces theobserverbelow of the mouth..192. and thus their mode of objectivity "carriersof a 'dowryof virtue. I shall of a fewpordevote the remainderof the essay to more detailed interpretations of objectivity..contours. Let's begin by returning 1)..psychointo the sort of formalanalysis we call close reading in analyticinterpretation I to literature. since I was trying unpack the theoreticalapparatus.."although the portraitis objective"-his word. traitsthatplay games withthe fiction to our friendCardinal Mezzarota.correspondingto what Lightthe head. Fourth. with cultural valuesofthetime in profile.there is a subdued clash betweenthe graphicmimesisof sculpturaltreatment (in texture. the disiltures. available to thevisualmedium The paradoxical rendering visible in socialreality. or Trevisan (fig.. the tight circumflex bown calls "compression.because theyseem to be foldsrather than wrinkles. faceand bodyare as emblematic as coatsofarms. at least withinthe confinesof the fiction of the pose. Verrocchio they even more threeelaboratedmasculinity by way of solid helmetsand breastplates in somerelief.Second. ofthePose Fictions 107 This content downloaded from 62. separates the face fromits already insubstantial body.. A woman's painted rather thana reflection ofsociallanguage an idealsignification. The vulnerable profiles tendto appearon unstable.85 on Mon. to a limitedextent.204.. to show in thisdiscussionis thatif one approaches What I have been trying of the pose one is in a betterposithroughthe fictions Early Modern portraiture tion to attend to what Hayden White calls "the contentof the form"-a better position.forit suggeststhe strength lusioned experience of affairs that had stamped the countenance of this to theoverall Examiningsome of thefeaturesthatcontribute exceptionalsitter.. 18). and recallingwhat the art historiansays about him: withits evocation "of a Roman bust"and its"ironicalcompressionof the mouth. "primarily objects of a male discourse which appropriated a kind of female labor or property" (17. like their heraldic reifications.. The first thingto notice is thatthe fixedon a spot above and to the leftof the observer. carved or drew Alexandrine heroes When. ButFlorentine female thanthefaceswhich are also modelled dimensional and elegantly artispindly bases. portraits.thatis. not mine-it "does more than record the Cardinal's feaof will. In these mostly of both men and women seem to be committedto reproThough the portraits thoseof women tend to be less mimeticand more ducing it ofinvisible virtues.the severe habitof command. Now that it is more or less in place. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."the painting"does full justice to the Cardinal's sternand resolute character".39 anonymous profile portraits. or Leonardo.. thatartistic wasa contribution to meant representation was notpossible presence shares or control. indicate an effort to tuck in the chin..These lines.But so far have not done much close reading." is accentuatedbythe incised arrislikefurrows curving to the chindown and necklines. ficialneck ."40 willhelp us see if theysupportthisaccount of the sitter's effect character. to integratesociopoliticaland even. Third."'the women were. differs:as idealizing than those of men.

projectthatthe portrait and itis. byan attitudethatisn't strivesto camouflage himselfin it. entirely the ongoing to performofficial portraiture. in turn. Pope-Hennessey uses the portraitto prove his point that Mantegna's comforMantegna. traitbecause itsfocusis on the effort of the surface and not yetsecure projectof seekingrefugein the marble sanctity of art. it must be transcribedand not transposed. Lorne Campbell of detailand light withthe treatment viewtogether argues thatthethree-quarters portraitsto "look Flemish by influenced suggest that Mantegna may have been anew at Roman portraitsculptureand to produce classicizingadaptations of a type. coopeffect of It is the marble. warlike. umental. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .But towardthecardinal: A little torquingwillturnthestatement whatabout thesitter? a with observers display of mood or he doesn't appear to be engaging potential expression aimed in their direction."The fourth on controlling associated with tendencies of stylistic the mingling this effect: to reinforce be seen make myface the index of a mind intent featurecan now whatthe face revealsabout the mind. in which the Northern and Southern practices provides an interpretive passages associatedwithNetherlandishpainting nonsculptural optical.grand.85 on Mon. set offthe Romanizing of the head.Rather he appears to trusthis face to an metaphor of the Roman bust."42 reading: the of the pose produces a different But the standpointof the fiction it effectof the antique is transposed to a sitterwho stages it. to make me look monbest to dramatizegravitas.transitory.exemplary. gives to be seen. thesefourfeaturesthefiction When we frametheimage within graphicand painterlyhanthe clash between than threemore obviously the first dling-work together to put a peculiar spin on Lightbown's physiognomic into is transformed sitter ascribesto the historical analysis:the characterhe flatly triesto perform.The scenario indexed by in the portrait an impressionthe sitter to the painter: "Let's do our instruction the pose may be phrased as the sitter's to turnme intoa Roman hero."" Netherlandishportrait of thepose. and the contrastmarks it as an intentional to freeze the pose in a classicalattitudethataccords with an effort performance.and reveals the effort porcannot be classifiedsimplyas an official This portrait comfortable. When Lightbownclaims thatthe portrait"is objectivein that there is no attemptto render mood or expression. the preestablishedscenario. strivesto dramatizes.thisperformative perform."he means no attemptbythe painter. objectivity or stone rated in durable erating with the painter.192.infusionof pinktones about the cheeks and and linear incision)and the painterly vermilionmantle and the optical or eyes. that conferson it the objectifying interpretation appropriatelycommemowithitsconnotationsof an achieved and fixedidentity thatthe sitter. the sancto the antique was too academic and inflexible: mitment tion of ancient art "was absolute. the kind of question of the pose affects Notice how our focus on the fiction 108 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62.and discerniblyconscious of being beheld.204. and there'sanother between the stiff tonal vibrationsthat animate the finelypleated white shirt.

accentuates the objectivity to this effect: respond primarily double portrait(see fig. What is the natureof the mind indexed bythe face? or. personality. in of Cosimo's wife and son Bronzino's great flesh.And as I suggested.204. my but" devices that make sittersappear "unconscious or oblivious of everything objectheir "consciousnessof being beheld." This is fromLorne Campbell. the painting stages objectivity ofthePose Fictions 109 This content downloaded from 62." Baccio Bandinelli's historicalstatuesof the Medici.and by the middle of the sixteenth I turnnow to of objectivity produce remarkableeffects. it but to interrogateit. not theessentialnature. smooth. reveal the patron's"bias in favorof a class of portrait and detached. A search forthe pictorialconventions to revealit. and commentators Eleanora's "face appears unnaturally pale. instead." Sitterswho cultivateorthopsychic do so byrefusingeye contact:disdainingthe look enables them to embody tivity the cultural gaze.this formatallows of surpriscenturyMannerist inglycomplicatedimages."43 renderingof the dress "accentuates centerson thewaythe still-life Anothercritic the inanimatequality"of the pose. associated with the by formaldevices conventionally this intentis best signified In variation of Fried's absorption formula.shinyand hard. I not to sanctify That is. as though she were emittinglight like a haloed saint in a religious image. and so on? mind. If the ducal physiognomy reproduced in paintingand notjust in the impassiveart of sculpture. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . How can we isolate the means by which a portrait of painterand sitterto make it appear that the face is the representsthe effort index of the mind.we put to the portrait. who also noteshow thesky"pales to an area of almostpure blue pigmentaround her head. As Mantegna's portraitreveals. commissionedby Cosimo I. "the Duchess is as rigidlyarmed as her husband" in the other portrait.It is. and her eyes are less luminous than the pearls of her necklace. timeless.this style of ivoryfor the substitution was the least undignified"( 181-83). What does the essential nature.44 picksout an important The emphasis on the formalindicatorsof objectivity aspect of the painting. portraittell us about the sitter's The question now becomes. these are effectof objectivity.but it isn'tso much Bronzino's subject as it is his target.We no longer have the brass to pop the physiognomic question. regardlessof the contentwe assign to the mind? To pursue this line of questioningis to forgo the attemptto translatethe essential nature into a particulardescription. thatwas durable." This bias was what "commended Bronzino to Cosimo I": "He had to be approached the human featuresas stilllife. century"the Medici showed an Pope-Hennessey writesthatin the sixteenth which resulted from a sense of almost morbid interestin self-perpetuation. and he goes on to documentthiswitha referenceto the way dynasticinsecurity.8).but theintent thatsignify.85 on Mon." ivorywith eyes of semi-opaque gems."The eyes are not translucent and she is made "to resemblea highlyfinishedcarvingof but "merelylustrous. variationson the fiction the work of a painter whose subtlysubversiveexperimentsin the fictionare among the mosthauntingand compellingI know.

c. and stare warn you to keep your distance. son. Florence. interrupted bypassages of texturedpigment thatroughen those areas of the panel on whichthe gold brocade patterns of the gown are painted.192. The resultant tension alters our sense of the sitter's attitude. by the powerfulattractive forceof the still-life detail tempting you to violatethe barrier and touch the idol. especiallywhencontrastedto thoseof her staresus off. pose. theeyesmore hooded. Galleria degli Uffizi. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .But in doing so. The smoothnessproduced byBronzino'sself-effacing brushwork is occasionally. and thatis to move back and forth on a'perpendicular shuttlein order to respond to its pushes and pulls.intensified. 1546. FIGURE thinkyou begin to sense itsstrangeness when you imagine yourself doing somethingyou can't easily do in the littleroom of the Uffizi in which it is hung.closer to the observer. who fixedly 110 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. Agnolo Bronzino.204. and conspicuously.theydo not fixattentionon the preciousnessof the actual support thatsymbolizes the value of the religiouscontextwithin whichthe icon functions. the warning is motivated. the distance protectedby suppressionisjeopardized. Unlike similareffects in medievaldevotionalpanels and altarpieces.EleanorofToledo and Son. Rather theypass throughthe windowof representation to enhance the sensuous and tangiblequalityof illusoryfabric. sanitaire Thus at the same time that scopic dynamism-the theatricalexchange and recognitionof looks and glances-is suppressed.The extended lefthand appears more defensive. as if the painter'sbid foradmiration insidiously compromises-and thusdramatizes-the attempt to ensconce theidol in a cordon of distanced objectivity.85 on Mon. theybringthe fabricforward to the surface. For if the rigidarmor of Eleanora's gown.8.

dares us to violate the taboo of orthopsychic inculpates the observer and as it does. BronShe truststhe painter'sart to hide the mind'sconstruction zino. The into exemplaryartifact. the hooded look knowingly objectivity. however. take a look at this!"). Hers is the calm of a stately. Florence. it is of no consequence. madonna withfeaturesvaguelyevocativeof Piero della Francesca'sMarian faces. her cultureand itsgesturesof religiousappropriation. Museo Battiferri. If there is somethingmore than meets the eye.itssoul. of thisfiction heavily and possibilities of theconstraints His superb portrayal as an of to the scopic dynamism on the suppression represent ability depends at once conspicuous in its denial of eye contactand subtle in the various effect shades of dramaticmeaning he teases out of it. the spirwiththemeditative reluctanceof Ugolino Martelli ited refusalof Laura Battiferri designed and carefullystaged to repseem meticulously (fig.whichbeginsand concludes in genuflection. and thus makes a small breach in the fictionof objectivity duchess so flamboyantly perform.204.itsmeaning. FIGURE Fictions ofthePose 11I This content downloaded from 62.9). is all on the artifact is integral:within surface. The pose declares that what she gives to be seen is the essentialshe of courtly conjugal. Agnolo ofLaura Bronzino. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .192.and profanelysumptuous becomes the gaze. Or at least itis none of our business. maternal. motivatesit by the variationsin establishand threatenthe taboo against encroachfacturethat simultaneously he and the ment. fromthe face. and Bronzino's "haloed saint" ("You want to see? Well.46 fate-reversing Galatea's-is to be transfigured it thereis onlymatter.85 on Mon. forexample.45 ascetic.Portrait c.Regal. Both portraits 9. Compare.betraysher recourse to thatart. 1560.The paintinginvitesus to pry. de Palazzo Vecchio.

an effigy interno expressingon the surfacethedisegno transparently nothinghidden within..192. betweentwo fictions. in stressedcontour lines that furtherfreeze the effigies mented by strategically is onlythe setting or stage forthe Bronzino place.more blatant in Laura's case.The desire of objectivity by the visual hyperboleof the Galatean inversion. The possi112 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62.. the forceof whichis to challenge the impressionof objectivity the sense of a studied theatrical pose. reversingPygmalion's wish in givingfleshthe smoothness."the official portrait. The dramatic power of Bronzino's portraiturecomes from its coy feints of objectivity. an effect tints. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." As part of the apparatus for achieving "solidarity serenity.porcelain. ward offthe observer'sevil eye. sifying No painterwas in a betterpositionthan Titian. image.too preoccupied in mind or spiritto be divertedby trivialinteracresentsitters and carefullypose."48 symmetry. withits soul shiningthrough the is partlyconveyed glazes.. twodesires. tionswiththe veryobserversforwhom theyso meticulously confirmsand questions the The arch display of literaryprops simultaneously to the lifeof the mind indexed bythe pose."47 ideal maybe thatthe Cinquecento versionsof the orthopsychic feeds myfantasy the new mimetic motivatedby the potentialimperfections reactionsdialectically skill is able to reveal.thatis. and I want princes. the observed of all observers. that formsit-turned inside out. Even before meeting his model.The best account I know of the because it is so different Titian faced-and overcame-is Jean-Paul Sartre'swrycomof kind temptation ment on the functionof official they"relievethe prince of the burden portraits: of imagininghis divine right.of self-representation.and act but conformingto his misogynist and of augsometimesthe hues marble.partakes of the nature of a religious object. Yet thisfeinttowardobjectivity by intendrama. In his hands. ivory. This comment against himself. justice. "whichprotectsa man between the prince and his subjects.85 on Mon. The functionof idealization in portraituremay to some to the classicalorders whenextentresemblethe one George Hersey attributes likens "the classical formulasfor in TheLostMeaningofClassicalArchitecture-he Idealization worksto sacralize the scale. and proportionto taboos. the painter already knows the appearance he must fix upon the canvas: quiet strength. both give themselves thatthe sitters to be seen-the fingerson the books are cues to this motive. The rendering of flesh tones and facialcontours-they seem to have been modeled witha carpenter'splane-furand leaves the sitters uneasily poised ther pushes absorptiontowardobjectivity. more ambiguous in Ugolino's. aspires to the conditionof an object fullymade by art.or celebratethe values embedded in the fiction and subvertsthe fiction. render the image inviolable. the objectivity towardand disturbanceof the fiction towardorthopsychic is literalizedas the goal of the posing subjectwho.204. striving with integrity. so to speak.severity. to conclude withan example of the way he constructs fromBronzino's way. At the same time asceticcommitment simulateabsorptionin Michael Fried'ssense. the prince of the paintersof of objectivity.

This has oftenbeen noted in the mostofficial V at the Charles Battle NorbertHuse remarksthatthe sitter portraits.thereis something thatthe in the eyesdiffuses placementof thecatchlight theocular contactthe sitter makes forwhomhe holds the pose. We should note first thisrespect.the look. Commentatorshave alwayssingledout Titian'sability to compresscharacter and action in the sitter's In eyes.85 on Mon. thatsignifies surprised. he sees reflectedin non-Lacanian mirrors. Galleria degli Florence."and who seems "physically detached and emotionallydistant. David Rosand describeshim as "a relucis "not entirely tantwarriorwhose face appears somewhatoppressed bythe surroundingglitter of his armor. at one" withthe discovera facialGestalt absorptionFictions ofthePose 113 This content downloaded from 62.FIGURE 10. Froma distancethe pupils withthe painter/observer of lightin the sitter's add theirlusterto theotherpreciousreflectors panoply."49 Even more poignant.and even moved. ofMuhlenberg.and thus participatein the iconographyof ducal power. 1536-38.I am initially temptedto say that the eyes don't so much lookas display but on drawingcloser I am themselves.Idealization offers withinwhichhe can secretewhat. Titian'sresponse to thischallengeis to portray sitters whose poses revealtheir withthe demand that theyembody awareness of and sometimestheirdifficulty of his official the imperious gaze. the prince the armor of an alienatingidentity according to Sartre. the scopic encounterwithobservers. 10). Uffizi.204. Francesco Maria delta Duke ofUrbino."his only too human mediocrity" and a visage that betrays"only melancholyand confused moods" (157). Rovere. bilityof violationis proportionalto the masteryof myopinion.50 odd about the duke. who of and a of was both an ally Charles V captain the papal forces(fig. Titian. is the portrait of the duke of Urbino. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

of inflexible duce theeffect commander is supposed to have-deterof the sort of mind the ideal military icon.not the mind'sconstruction the fiction of the body revealingthe mind's construction ofthe face. had already been identified "compendium"of a retrospective and so make the portrait imperialcommissions the duke's career as "a greatcondottiere. It is of the career as the ex-pressionof the sitter's pose the integraltotality duke the that norm orthopsychic and physiognomic with this in accordance adopts what the same commentatorrefersto as "a consciouslyheroic and celebratorypose" (228). the military determinedto make his face theindex determination.204. theysignify reminds us. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and one must conclude thatTitian rolled back the years by a full of the career of a man who died in decade to make thispicturecommemorative This viewis supported bythe completed.On the side of the painter. to embody the gaze.The portrait receivethe primary in the process of sitter a exemplarity. But the duke's countenance."he had was begun.but absorptionin the revisedsense I've givento Fried'sconcept. fallinga littleshort. the exemplarity. not the transparency of a body obeying but thecontrolledactivity soul of thecommander. His dark hair and beard in 1536.192. Wetheynotes thatalthough Titian shows the duke "in the prime of life. rustle. another commentator various symbolicattributes his papal and by Aretino. stereotypical 114 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. the year in whichthe workwas in the background which.What is dramatizedinstead is the desire and the effort thismeans thatthe failureto die into On the side of the sitter.of somethingnot fullylegible in termsof the portrait's iconography. impassive himself to-an not fullysacrifice have called his "ideal persona" to memorializewhat other commentators trying poise and once determinedand reflecand as well as celebratory. when the portrait "reached fifty-six belie his age." The duke is gravely."52 Such a program calls not for informalor livelyrepresentationbut for the capable of compressinginto the kind of statuesque and monumentaltreatment virtu'.85 on Mon. who solicits-but does depictsa sitter emphasis. of it.but the of the pose to suggest.but it seems to do so priof that rhetoric. brings somethingelse to life-the hint. self-representation. message. consciously. Accordingto Harold Wethey."'5' 1538.reminds us that the occasion is commemorative should this suggests that in the statementI just quoted the adverb.absorptionin the attentiveto thoughtfully. "consciousnessof being beheld. But not quite making to vanishintothatorthopsychic mined to lose himself."54 minationof themilitary whom Titian depictsas determinedto procommanderto the sitter."53 and the "impressionof aristocratic deterof "theinflexible praised Titian'sportrayal RobertHughes has recently from be redirected should This comment commander. the taskof sustaininga complicatedpose thatdeliversthe prearranged symbolic thismessage mayin partbe retrospective.the portraitdisplays both his mastery and his love of the visual rhetoricof mimeticidealism.the expression.The resismarilyto display its resistanceto the blandishments his partnerin exploiting the sitter makes the painter tance is conveyedbythe way in the face.

of objectivity. Fictions ofthePose 115 This content downloaded from 62.and like the inscription not of a livingformbut of a sculpturedform. "il finefa tutto. And ifI can be forgiven and partialfailureto transcendthe fictiveness for indulging a final romantic fantasyabout the portrait.means "conclusion."Let's grantthatHatfield'stranslation correct:thatnoble profileis gravelyset in an attitudeof purposeful determinaseems engraved in relief.accentuates the negative: in that "subtle moment" whenbeing photographedtroubles"a subjectwho feelshe is becomingan object.It bringsto a conclusion resentation byTitian'sduke of Urbino: the evacuation the projectinscribedin but unfulfilled of the armor of an alienthe attainment of life in the realizationof exemplarity. predictablythe more aggressive. Cut into the ledge at the base "ELFI N to Uccello (fig.6) is the inscription of a famous profileusuallyattributed *FATUTTO.not physiognomy. and to help begin to rouse themselves.192." but Rab Hatfield argues that its exact meaning in contextis unclear and is an His candidate forthe "bestinterpretation" enigmatic." while the predictablymore passive feminine form. attempt restrainedeloquence. however.The masculine ilfine is Italian word finehas two forms.a farewellto arms thattouches the reflective nostalgia. of humanist characteristic ethical dictum I developed on the Purpose Decides. In the opening pages of this essay I noted that my storyof Early Modern portraiturewould enact a kind of reversal of the process of objectification of photography."The literaltranslationis "The End Does All. masculineand feminine." "close.' "55 But in view of the notion of objectivity The I am drawn to another translation. basis of Hatfield'sresearchinto profiles. the effect I want to end withan anecdote about the end. point of mystory. the gaze."" scope. orthopsychic of the subject's ticity as I have triedto whathappens after. For in the becomes a productivesort of metaof objectivity contextof reversalthe fiction of and authenticity a dyinginto the exemplarity phoric death and resurrection.204. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .is thatsitters paintersrepresentthemas livingsubjectsbyseemingeitherto tryfor. show.Perhaps by Lucida as the effect described by Barthes in Camera of thisreversalare clear.This is the repitsgravity tion. la fine. The preceding "froma sensationof inauthenticity" suffers he invariably analysessuggestthatthe positiveand negativeaccountsare twosides of the same withthe inauthenproblematic:the problematicof narcissismas dissatisfaction maskof objecdeath If the self-representations." and contextually is grammatically "ending." thatis. Barthes.or to resist.But perhaps also mywayof twisting now theimplications the CameraLucida passage makes those who know that text uneasy." "perhaps deliberately 'The or Aim Counts' "'The thought.meaning "purpose. marksthe starting tivity to shake offthisdeath." "aim.Wethey'sidea that iconographyto add "Titian rolledback theyears"combineswiththeretrospective a souvenirof what theymake the portrait another dimension to thatfictiveness: mood of the face with has been lost.' (13-14).With the command to deliver that stereotype.but fiction. Titian's portraitof the duke registersthe sitter's of his pose.85 on Mon.

plate 8.204. or makes.San Diego. This is a revisedversionof a lecturedelivered before audiences at StanfordUniversity.the end does. Titian. Orr Center forthe Humanitiesat Memphis State University. 1978).the Marcus W. When I shiftmy glance fromthe duke to the profile. From David Rosand. hence fromher. to our dreams/ And our desires.all. shall come fulfillment motherof beauty. Titian(New York. the of California. death makes the whole. Portrait ofa Woman ("La Schiavone"). 1511-12.I'm very gratefulto University members of these audiences for suggestionsand criticisms that helped me withmy 116 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. London.192. 77. "Death is the mother of beauty. 11): FIGURE 11. National Gallery.ating identity. and the Folger Institute. "Death is the /Alone.I feel the but deeply appropriatemistranslation: gatheringforceof an ungrammatical "La finefa tutto".c. Notes 1. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .85 on Mon." the editorializingspeaker of Wallace Stevens's "Sunday Morning" admonishes the musing "she" who longs for paradise. whichfallsfromthe orthopsychic paradise of the death mask and the commemorativeprofileinto the conspicuously unrepresented desires of subjects who give themselvesto be seen and watch themselvesbeing watched(fig."The speaker'sresistanceto thatlonginginforms of myhistory the Early Modern career of portraiture.

it might many of the formalcharacteristics well have been included in his diatribe. The first of and bracingimpatiencewithmyearlyflights was Mary Price." as Anthony thatview. reprint ed. Institute. 1981). Geoffrey Donna Hunter. 305. Lois Potter. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .This is a reading not of the portraitbut of a seventeenth-century reading of the portrait-a reading sitterand painter "must itself remains of theirtime. encouragementat crucial moments.The portrait Schwartzsneers at.The portrait have intended.and made it possible for me to go on.a fewfriendshelped me withcriticisms. the apparatus of patronage.San Diego.Sheldon Nodelman.2nd ed. PatriciaParker. revisions. Lena Cowen Orlin.the place of paintersin the occupational or of particularcities. geneticresearchleading to knowledgeof "thechartraits can'tbe understoodwithout acter and interestsof those for whom theywere painted" (358-59). 5. Don Wayne. (New York. Accordingto Gary Schwartz. And I'm deeply forcoping withand helping to damp gratefulto Svetlana Alpers and Beth Pittenger of nonsense. occathatmade the lecturesI gave under theirauspices a pleasurable and instructive sion forme. I am verygratefulto can appreciate his irritation provided by nobodies who lacked the power of commission. of the past but not ours. 219-20.stylistic Under "contextual"I include broader accounts of itssocial and politicalambianceforexample.CatherineGimelli-Martin. Purpose ofArt. 86. Were it anonymous.and Louis Montrose.and so on.2.Richard Howard (New Lucida:Reflections onPhotography.and to Prof. 13-14. 6.."since theirswas the mentalitW in our terms. to be as ironicor sophisticatedabout theirmentalite as we thinkwe are about theirsand ours? His Paintings Rembrandt: His Life. 1967). 1985). the wingsof mymore recentflights of the motives Under "genetic" I include all historicaland archival reconstructions of a painting. James Emmons (1957. Geoffrey of California.Gordon Osing. Cleveland. influences. thatconditionthe production.and acknowledgethat"their"termsare alwaysconstructed itin stigmatizing projectionsfromthe presentto the past byus. to Dr. Given these premises. Richard Martin.the painter'sstory.a procedure thatneedn'tcause any problemsonce we to be interpreted Giddens puts rejectthe viewthatthe past was peopled by"culturaldopes.and issues engaged in thisessay. AlbertE. Batchen.Thanks also to Prof.stylistic. trans.and the influenceof discoursesof art on practice.TimothyHampton. Catherine Soussloff. So whynotbypassintellectual-historical reading thatallows the painter and and shiftinstead to a more open.Camera Batchen of the Visual Arts York. indeterminate sitterto know as much as we do. The archive is and the of character. and aestheticmeanings" of Rembrandt'sporSchwartz.for courtesy.Portraitsof sitterswho of Six has never made it into the archiveare doomed to be meaningless. guild structures trans. Elsen. Orr Center. Directorof the Marcus W.the "iconographic.85 on Mon. Special thanks go to Michael Baxandall. 4.and her staff. toward some understandingof the During the years in which I was struggling suggestions. theme. Roland Barthes. Executive Director of the Folger and support interest.whose quiet but firm nonsense gave me a new start. for bringingthis passage to Department at the University and forhis own stimulating discussionof the politicsand ambiguitiesof myattention Fictionsof the Pose 117 This content downloaded from 62.This essay is fondlydedicated to her. Deanna Shemek. TyrusMiller. Rembrandt.and function. Otto Benesch. 1969). Such schemesare oftenintroducedorjustifiedon historical grounds as the beliefsand assumptions. (New York.204. thus the determinantof the interpretation withthe fuzzymirror image. 3.Kay Easson. 7.192. The portraitis read as if fromthe standpointof Rembrandt'scontemporaries.

Sheldon Nodelman's brilliant Artin America. 333-35." A Selection. Pope-Hennessey. Ecrits: trans.85 on Mon. and Architects. Mantegna (Berkeley. 11. the kernelphrase in the original textis "la preexistenceau vu d'un donn6-A-voir. 3:182-83.Gaston du C. 10 vols. esp. trans.the pose in "Le Petit Mort:Photographyand Pose. NorbertHuse and WolfgangWolters. 1991). 10."How to Read a Roman Portrait.1986). Martin Kemp. and theNon-Artist 24. and Theatricality: in theAge of Diderot 26.Portrait Renaissance.204. Examples of the fiction sleeper. 1987). 86.See. without much effort towardthe notion of exemplary. Jacques-Alain Miller. 118 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. TheArtofRenaissance Venice: Architecture. Sculpand Painting.forthissuggestion. 1975).Livesofthe MostEminent Painters. 109. "The Cardinal." October psychic and a veryusefulLacanian critiqueand appropriationof theterm.Alan Sheridan (New York. Cecil Gould. Lydia G. no. 1981). ed. "The OrthopsychicSubject: Film Theory and the Reception of 49 (1989): 52-71. 1979). trans. Leonardo. Cochrane (Chicago.. Jacques Lacan. 53. 30-3 1. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. 22. foran account of the Bachelardian genesis of orthoLacan. 1990). 4. 13. TheScienceofArt:OpticalThemes to from Brunelleschi Seurat(New Haven. Ronald Lightbown. For a compact bibliographical and biographicalprofileof Trevisan. 1978). 16.TheJudgment ofSense:Renaissance Naturalism and theRise ofAesthetics (Cambridge.EdmundJephcott(Chicago. 1977). Roman veristicportrait. account of the been produced before. of candor: Vermeer' has been proposed.15th. and lace maker. withthe rest of the urban and domestic scene of posing conspicuouslyexcluded. John Pope-Hennessey. See Martin Kemp. Michael Fried. Jane Martineau(New York. forexample. 81-82. trans. Giles Robertson. 18." SF Camerawork Quarterly 15. in the 20. Jacques Lacan. Leonardoda Vinci: The MarvelousWorks of Natureand Man (London.1980). 34. 1966). 1912). See Joan Copjec. Portraits: in the14th.see the catalogue entry byKeithChristiansen inAndrea Mantegna.ThePortrait in the Renaissance (New York.192. 27. 17." in Renaissance Characters. Eugenio Garin. Sculptors. (London. I am gratefulto my colleague.266-67. 113. thatintersection lean but it is historically maybe semantically rich. I should note thatwhen I speak of Leonardo's innovationI do so in the Such effects had of course contextof the developmentof Early Modern portraiture. Kemp. Prof. This effect and the sitterwas originallyframedby the columns of a loggia. in Western Art 19. Absorption Paintingand Beholder (Berkeley. 1990). Lorne Campbell. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Massimo Firpo. 110-11.Donna Hunter. De Vere. 266. David Summers. 74-75. 14.and 16thCen21. 1 (1988): 3-6. 178. ed. 1990). Leonardo:TheArtist (Boston. ture. 1968).Semantically itcan be stretched richin itsLacanian context. Giorgio Vasari. 8. 300. 144. 10. 12. would onlybe enhanced if.Alan Sheridan (New York. 27-33. 15. 9." January/ February1975. 1460-1590. the portrait was cropped 25.1992). 23. 241. TheGolden Century ofVenetian Painting (Los Angeles. Ibid. of distraction:most of Rembrandt'sstudies of old men and Examples of the fiction women. ed. TerisioPignatti.Giovanni Bellini(London.Renaissance EuropeanPainting turies (New Haven.

fordirectingme to Simons'sessayand to the first 82. Pope-Hennessey. ArtBulletin 36. 7. 101-4. Mantegna. 7. Margaret Ferguson. 27. 41. Vickers (Chicago." in Illuminations. 212. 441-509. Campbell. 1990). 104.. I am gratefulto Stephen Campbell Cropper essay. 1974).by their refusal to are produced by unidealized verisimilitude. TheIdeal and the and Death.Absorption ed. of mimetic"naturalism" effect PietroMellini. David Rosand. Florentineportraitsmake a sociopoliticalcounteridealize. Bronzino 101. effects may have leftthe misleadingimpressionthat no such effects of orthopsychic On the contrary. of Pygmalionand Galatea the statue has clearlycrossed the boundary in the other has pointed out to me.Courbet's 30. mentiononly therefusalof idealization.trans. "The Portrait. Rab Hatfield. Hanning (New Haven. Walter Benjamin. 1981).whollyinterchangeable Beth Pittenger Fictionsof the Pose 1 19 This content downloaded from 62. 1986)." in Castiglione: the Courtier. 4:9. In Bronzino's painting ological and allegoricalpictures". for a similarbut less probing account of See also Pope-Hennessey. Michael Fried. Portraits. Parmigianino. as cittadini ratherthanprincipi chantsor oligarchsrepresentthemselves theyoftenminimizeor eschew the markersof the patriciate. Renaissance. 188. PatriciaSimons.Portrait Portraits. ed architettori. Maureen Quilligan. Charles McCorquodale. Concepts.Studies and GreenWorld: 28.Petrarchismo." 35-48."Five Early Renaissance Portraits.204. and Theatricality. Bronzino.. the Profilein Renaissance 25 (1988): 12. Renaissance in the 85-86. BellinitoTitian(London.192. 8. 25. Cosimo de' Medici. "Women in Frames: The Gaze. 16. Lightbown. 47 (1965): 318. 44.Jr." and the Vernacular Cropper: "On Beautiful Women.1988).These mermaywellsignify individualization veristic a few. Lacan.3. I note on p. SexualDifference and Nancy J. Fiction-Making. Real in Renaissance 97-102. 37. My exclusiveemphasis on idealizationas the source Judgment 35. scultori pittori ofSense. Venetian 34.. 232. Johannes Wilde. 1969).Le vitede' piteccellenti ed. See myessays on Vermeerin Harry Berger.HarryZohn (New York. Arendt. Rosand and Robert W. male and female profiles. Bronzino's "is a world of flawlessbeings whose perfectphysicaland apparent emotionalbalance places thembeyondexigenciesof timeand place and blurs the division themselvesattain to the statusof in his portraits between nature and art. the Eye.Portrait. Renaissance (London. and "The Beauty of Women: Problems in the Style.McCorquodale.Neri Capponi.85 on Mon. Gaetano Milanesi (Florence. "On Some Motifs in Baudelaire. thistraditionalmove is comdirection. and or nobili. Ibid.ed. 15. 42. the sitters of his religious. 31.yet. many fifteenth-century porbySheldon Nodelman to the Roman veristic similarto thatattributed statement centuryA.and Filippo Strozzi. ed. Summers. Culture. See also two essays by Elizabeth Workshop History Portraiture. 93. 40. 29. (see note 23 above). The Italian phrase is "goffecome li naturali": Giorgio Vasari.mythwiththe dramatis personae worksof art. 38." in EarlyModern Europe.D. ArtBulletin58 (1976): 374-94. 324-27. 224-28. 39." of theRenaissance:The Discourses in Rewriting Rhetoric of Renaissance Portraiture. 175-90. 43. Hannah 32. 1983).SecondWorld ed. 95 that the principal traitin the first as those of But in such portraits was individualization. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ibid. John PatrickLynch(Berkeley. Fried. in Renaissance Realism(Chicago. Art from 33. FourFundamental 46. 1906). 45.

157-58. Titian(New York. 53. 251. sec.192. 52. Antonio Natale. National Gallery(Washington). 1966). (London. thereby characterof Pygmalion'sart. 1987). 152."Official Essaysin Phenomenology. ThePortraits ThePaintings Harold Wethey. Portraits. reviewof the Titian. and especiallythe positionsof her hands complicatedbythe factthather contrapposto producing an ironiccompose intoa strongallusion to Michelangelo'sDavid.Mass.TheLostMeaningofClassicalArchitecture: toVenturi (Cambridge. 2. 325. Vitruvius Venice. Hatfield.PrinceofPainters NewYork Times. 1988). In the ofTitian.17 September Robert Hughes. David Rosand. Huse. 50. 126.Anne P. 312. p. 4. 54. 29 Apr 2013 05:41:50 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 80. 23.47.J." Jean-Paul Sartre. 49." 120 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 62. 48. from on Ornament Speculations George Hersey. 87. ArtofRenaissance as an Art(Princeton.85 on Mon. preparatory full-length PrinceofPainters (Munich. Maurice Natanson (The Hague.. 1980). catalogue entryin Titian. 101.N. for example.Painting exhibitat the and Michael Brenson's reviewof the 1990-91 Titian." in Titian.PrinceofPainters. 1990). B.PrinceofPainters 1990. Jones.. exhibitin Time. 1978).vol. 228.204. 1971). Richard Wollheim. 55. drawingmade in 1536 the duke looks older."Five EarlyRenaissance Portraits.homoerotic. Titian(New York. See. Antonio Paolucci.and misogynist mentary trans. "The Portraits Hope. 51. Charles of Titian. 29 October 1990. on the autoerotic.