Swinburne University of Technology (Sarawak Campus) School of Engineering and Sciences HES4350 Mechanical System Design Smart, Safe

& Sustainable (3S) Parking System By Stephen, P. Y. Bong (4209168) Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering) Kueh Min Hui (4209974) Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering) Ling Wang Soon (4203364) Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering) Jimmy, H. L. Huong (4209761) Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering) Wong Ting Lee (4227794) Bachelor of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering) Group 5 Due Date: 5th December 2012 (Wednesday) Lecturer: Dr. Soon Kok Heng

Abstract
The aim of this design project is to design and develop a 3S Parking System acts as an parking alternative for household users who are confronted with problems of insufficient parking spaces in normal housing area with confined parking spaces. Six distinct conceptual designs are developed based on the needs and demands of customer. The best design is selected through the evaluation of alternatives according to the customer attributes. Engineering analyses are performed to ensure the employment of the product is free from the risk of harm, and finite element analysis on the analytical prototype is conducted to check with the solutions obtained from the manual calculations. The results manifested that the results obtained from manual calculations are logic and the position where the maximum deflection occurred is as expected. Hence, the minimum thickness of the platform as well as the minimum cross-sectional area of scissor-lift legs is determined by the employment of maximum bending stress theory. In conclusion, a 3S Parking System is successfully developed in which the demands and needs of customers are satisfied.

Abstract

i

Table of Contents
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ i List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. v List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. vii 1.0 2.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1 Identifying Opportunities .................................................................................................... 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 User Persona .............................................................................................................. 2 User Scenario ............................................................................................................. 2 Product Opportunity Proposal (Mission Statement) .................................................. 2

Clarifying Objectives........................................................................................................... 4 Function Analysis ................................................................................................................ 6 Customer Needs List ........................................................................................................... 8 Performance Specifications ............................................................................................... 10 Determining Characteristics .............................................................................................. 11 Concept Generation (Generation of Alternatives) ............................................................. 13 8.1 Concept A ................................................................................................................ 13 8.1.1 Operations .................................................................................................... 13 8.1.2 Weakness or Problems ................................................................................. 14 8.2 Concept B................................................................................................................. 14 8.2.1 Operations .................................................................................................... 14 8.2.2 Weakness or Problems ................................................................................. 15 8.3 Concept C................................................................................................................. 15 8.3.1 Operations .................................................................................................... 15 8.3.2 Weakness or Problems ................................................................................. 16 8.4 Concept D ................................................................................................................ 16 8.4.1 Operations .................................................................................................... 17 8.4.2 Weakness or Problems ................................................................................. 17 8.5 Concept E ................................................................................................................. 17 8.5.1 Operations .................................................................................................... 18 8.5.2 Weakness or Problems ................................................................................. 18 8.6 Concept F ................................................................................................................. 18 8.6.1 Operations .................................................................................................... 18 8.6.2 Weakness or Problems ................................................................................. 19

9.0

Concept Selection (Evaluation of Alternatives) ................................................................ 20 9.1 9.2 9.3 Concept Screening ................................................................................................... 20 Concept Scoring (Weighted Objectives Method) .................................................... 21 Concept Testing ....................................................................................................... 22
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Table of Contents

10.0

Product Architecture .......................................................................................................... 23 10.1 Schematic of 3S Parking System ............................................................................. 23 10.2 Schematic of Clustered Elements ............................................................................ 24 10.3 Geometric Layout .................................................................................................... 25

11.0

Detail Design (Engineering Synthesis and Analysis)........................................................ 26 11.1 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) ........................................................... 26 11.2 Detail Calculations ................................................................................................... 31 11.3 Load Analysis .......................................................................................................... 31 11.4 Selection of Hydraulic Cylinder .............................................................................. 37 11.4.1 Hydraulic Cylinder Calculations .................................................................. 40 11.4.2 Buckling of Piston Rod ................................................................................ 44 11.5 Selection of Material ................................................................................................ 46 11.6 Bending Moment and Deflection (Platform) ........................................................... 46 11.7 Bending Moment and Deflection (Scissor-lift Legs) ............................................... 53

12.0

Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Prototyping ............................................................. 56 12.1 Prototyping ............................................................................................................... 56 12.1.1 Analytical Prototyping ................................................................................. 56 12.1.2 Detail Drawings of 3S Parking System ........................................................ 61 12.2 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) ................................................................................ 64 12.2.1 Deflection of Platform.................................................................................. 66 12.2.2 Deflection Profile of Entire 3S Parking System .......................................... 67

13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0

Value Engineering ............................................................................................................. 69 Design for Manufacturing (DFM) ..................................................................................... 70 Safe Design ........................................................................................................................ 75 Discussion.......................................................................................................................... 77 Conclusion ......................................................................................................................... 78 Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 79

Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................... 80 References ..................................................................................................................................... 81 Appendices .................................................................................................................................... 82 Appendix 1 – Project Plan and Execution (Gantt chart) ................................................... 83 Appendix 2 – Presentation PowerPoint Slides .................................................................. 91 Appendix 3 - Tables of Typical Properties of Selected Materials Used in Engineering . 103 Appendix 4 – Concurrent Engineering Write-up ............................................................ 104 Appendix 5 – Design for Manufacturing Exercises ........................................................ 108 Appendix 6 – Safe Design Case Studies and Exercises .................................................. 108

Table of Contents

iii

Table of Contents

iv

List of Figures
Figure 1: Objective Tree of 3S Parking System .............................................................................. 5 Figure 2: Block Diagram of 3S Parking System ............................................................................. 7 Figure 3: House of Quality for 3S Parking System ....................................................................... 12 Figure 4: Functional Diagram of 3S Parking System ................................................................... 13 Figure 5: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept A) .............................................................. 14 Figure 6: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept B) .............................................................. 15 Figure 7: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept C) .............................................................. 16 Figure 8: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept D) .............................................................. 17 Figure 9: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept E) .............................................................. 18 Figure 10: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept F)............................................................. 19 Figure 11: Schematic of 3S Parking System ................................................................................. 23 Figure 12: Schematic of Clustered Elements ................................................................................ 24 Figure 13: Geometric Layout of 3S Parking System .................................................................... 25 Figure 14: Block Diagram of 3S Parking System ......................................................................... 27 Figure 15: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Scissor-lift Mechanism during the Fully-lifted Position .......................................................................................................................................... 32 Figure 16: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform ............................................................ 33 Figure 17: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) for Leg 1 ..................................................................... 34 Figure 18: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of Leg 3....................................................................... 35 Figure 19: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) for Leg 4 ..................................................................... 36 Figure 20: Plot of Hydraulic Force, FCD (N) versus Angle, θ (Deg.) with Respect to the Horizontal ...................................................................................................................................... 37 Figure 21: Selected Hydraulic Cylinder (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 4) ................................... 38 Figure 22: Mounting Styles MP5 (Boshc Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 10) ............................................ 38 Figure 23: Selection of Hydraulic Cylinder (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 5) .............................. 39 Figure 24: Schematic of Area, Force and Flows in the Hydraulic Cylinders (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 6)...................................................................................................................................... 41 Figure 25: Weight of Selected Cylinder (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 7) ................................... 42 Figure 26: KK Values (KK = M48x2) (Bosch Rexroth, 2003, p. 11)........................................... 42 Figure 27: CH Value of M48x2 (Bosch Rexorth, 2003, p. 28) ..................................................... 43 Figure 28: Value of Maximum Stroke (Bosch Rexorth, 2003, p. 3) ............................................. 43 Figure 29: Load Guidance Factor, K (Bosch Rexroth, 2003, p. 31) ............................................. 44 Figure 30: Maximum Stroke (Catalogue) (Bosch Rexroth, 2003, p. 30) ...................................... 45 Figure 31: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform ............................................................ 47 Figure 32: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform when the Lifting Mechanism is at Fully-lifted position ....................................................................................................................... 47 Figure 33: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform when the Lifting Mechanism is at Fully-lowered Position .................................................................................................................. 50 Figure 34: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) for Leg 1 ..................................................................... 53 Figure 35: 3D Model of 3S Parking System (Fully-lowered) ....................................................... 57 Figure 36: 3D Model of 3S Parking System (Fully-lifted) ........................................................... 57 Figure 37: The Single Acting Single Rod Hydraulic Cylinder ..................................................... 58 Figure 38: The Scissor-lift Mechanism (Lifting Device) used in 3S Parking System .................. 59 Figure 39: Fixed Ends of the Scissor-lift Mechanism ................................................................... 60 Figure 40: Roller of Scissor-lift Mechanism ................................................................................. 60 Figure 41: Backup Battery for 3S Parking System during Power Cut .......................................... 61 Figure 42: Top, Side, Front and 3D Isometric Views of 3S Parking System ............................... 62 Figure 43: The Exploded View of 3S Parking System ................................................................. 63

List of Figures

v

Figure 44: Methodologies of Finite Element Analysis ................................................................. 65 Figure 45: Deflection Profile of the Platform Obtained from SolidWorks FEA Simulation ........ 66 Figure 46: Side View of Deflection Profile of the Platform ......................................................... 67 Figure 47: Deflection Profile of the Entire 3S Parking System .................................................... 68 Figure 48: 5 Steps Approach ......................................................................................................... 70

List of Figures

vi

List of Tables
Table 1: Product Opportunity Proposal (Mission Statement) for 3S Parking System .................... 2 Table 2: Essential Sub-functions with Their Corresponding Means to Achieve Them .................. 6 Table 3: The Interpretation of Customer's Statement Obtained from Online Survey ..................... 8 Table 4: Need Statement with Their Corresponding Importance and Hierarchy ............................ 9 Table 5: Targeted Product Specifications of 3S Parking System.................................................. 10 Table 6: Matrix of Concept Screening .......................................................................................... 20 Table 7: Table of Concept Scoring (Weighted Objectives Method) ............................................. 21 Table 8: Rating Scale for Various Concepts Listed in Table 6 & 7 .............................................. 22 Table 9: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) of Body for 3S Parking System ............... 28 Table 10: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for Force Generator of 3S Parking System ....................................................................................................................................................... 29 Table 11: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for Base of 3S Parking System .............. 29 Table 12: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for Control System of 3S Parking System ....................................................................................................................................................... 30 Table 13: Magnitudes of Nomenclatures for the Lifting Mechanism at Fully-up Position .......... 47 Table 14: Magnitudes of Nomenclatures for the Lifting Mechanism at Fully-lowered Position . 50 Table 15: Magnitudes of Nomenclatures in Figure 10 .................................................................. 53 Table 16: Magnitude of Ay', J1 and F'CD at θ = 1.7 and 20.9 Degrees ........................................... 54 Table 17: Value Engineering for 3S Parking System ................................................................... 69 Table 18: Design for Manufacture ................................................................................................ 71 Table 19: Cost Reduction .............................................................................................................. 72 Table 20: Cost Reduction (Continued).......................................................................................... 73

List of Tables

vii

1.0

Introduction

In pace with the progressive of advance technologies, rapid economic growth as well as urban development nowadays, owing a car as a means of transportation is no longer a matter that is unattainable. On the contrary, the excessive number of cars per household which results in the problems of insufficient parking spaces in normal residential area is the matter that vexes the household users nowadays. According to Noresah (2012, p. 65), the average motor registration rate at Malaysia in 2012 is approximately 1.06 cars per person, in which also implies that one household owns at least two cars and above which results in the dire demand of vacant spaces for them to park their cars within the house compound. As the safety of cars cannot be ensured by parking outside the house compound especially for those pricey cars, hence, consumers will opt for other alternatives or solutions for it. Thus, with the current advanced technologies, the solutions such as extension of existing house compound for the construction of new parking bays or renovations will no longer be the last resort to the problem statement. The primary intention of this project is to design and develop a Smart, Safe, and Sustainable (3S) Parking System that acts as an aid for consumers who are confronted with problems of insufficient parking spaces to park their extra cars in normal residential housing compound that has confined parking spaces. Although there are few types of parking systems being utilized as a solution to the problem statement exist in current market, however, the 3S Parking System is something novel and innovative in which scissor-lift mechanism is employed as a lifting device and the targeted customers are mainly household users. As mentioned above, the main specs of the 3S Parking System is to generate more vacant spaces by optimizing the conventional parking alternatives which practiced by most of the household users. As a result, more cars can be parked within the house compound in which safety of cars can be guaranteed. The utilization of 3S Parking System in normal residential housing area not merely possesses the capability to provide more vacant spaces for household users, but instead also ensure the safety of it with regard to the sustainability issue and practice. Target specifications of product can be formed through the gathering the needs of customers which obtained via quantitative and qualitative approaches. With the list in which customer needs are summarized, numerous concepts with distinct characteristics are developed until the ideal and best concept is selected through the processes of concept screening and scoring. Once the ideal concept is finalized, the phase of robust design is introduced so that the efficiency of the product can be maximized. Besides, in order to ensure the employment of the product is free from the risk of harm, a detail engineering synthesis and analysis of the product will be conducted so that the probability of the occurrence of mechanical failures can be diminished and minimized. Apart from the detailed engineering analysis that performed manually, a computer-aided design (CAD) is conducted to visualize the assembly of each of the components that composed the finalized product. Moreover, finite element analysis (FEA) is also performed on the analytical prototype due to cost effective and lead time in design can be significantly reduced. As mentioned above, since the principal goal of the design and development of 3S Parking System is to acts as an aid for household users who are confronted with problems of insufficient parking spaces to park their extra cars, therefore, the design of the product must possesses the ability to support cars with various weight and dimensions. Thus, the model of the car selected in the design and analysis of the product is Lexus LX 570 due to its gigantic dimensions and heavy weight which can be considered as the worst case scenario. Hence, the end product will be the one that in which objectives are attained and successfully traverse through each phase in the design processes.

Introduction

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2.0

Identifying Opportunities

Pahl et al (2007, p. 71) addressed that it has the possibility for the existence of gaps in current product range between new product that are going to be introduced into current market and existing product. Therefore, in order for new product to be successfully launched into current market, strategic opportunities should be identified. The strategic opportunities can be identified via the employment of the user scenarios method which is an alternative that furnish beneficial starting and focal point to the design process by utilizing the standpoint of a user. This is to ensure that the demand of users can be satisfied. 2.1 User Persona

Mr. X is a mechanical engineer, who owns a semi-detach house and lives in a big family. Two of his family members might own new cars and they are confronted with problems of insufficient parking within the house compound as more spaces are required for other applications such as renovations or extensions of existing house. In addition, the vacant spaces omitted can be employed to park more cars as well. 2.2 User Scenario

Mr. X requires a device that can assists him to economize space so that more cars can be parked inside his house which has limited and confined parking spaces. Apart from that, the device also has to be easy to operate or user friendly and suitable for cars with various weights and dimensions. 2.3 Product Opportunity Proposal (Mission Statement)

Product opportunity proposal or sometimes referred as the mission statement is a declaration in which the product vision and description, key business goals, markets targeted, critical constraints and assumptions, criteria, as well as the stakeholders involved are documented. The mission statement of the conceptual or idealized 3S Parking System are manifested in Table 1 below.
Table 1: Product Opportunity Proposal (Mission Statement) for 3S Parking System

Product Opportunity Proposal (Mission Statement): Smart, Safe & Sustainable (3S) Parking System • A novel and innovative parking system that composed of a platform which can be heightened and lowered by the employment of scissorlift device which are powered by hydraulic cylinders at both sides of the platform. Product Description • The main features of 3S Parking System is that two cars can be parked together in a pile up manner by only occupying area of one parking slot. Once a car is parked onto the platform, the hydraulic cylinders will exert an axial compressive force to pull the scissor-lift to lift the platform until a desired height in which second car can be parked under the platform.

Identifying Opportunities

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Product Opportunity Proposal (Mission Statement): Smart, Safe & Sustainable (3S) Parking System (Continued) • Act as an aid for peoples who are confronted with problems of parking their cars in normal residential housing area that has confined parking spaces. • • • Key Business Goals • Optimization of parking solution. Cut down the cost of constructing new parking slot. The 3S Parking System is expected to be market by the beginning of January 2013. The targeted sales volume is expected to be approximately 2000 units sold in a period of 3 years from the date in which the 3S Parking System is launched to the market in Malaysia. The product is expected to be peddled into international market after a period of 5 years from the launching date. The reckoned in sales revenue is approximately RM 18,000.00 with a profit gain of RM 2,000 within a period of 3 years. The 3S Parking System is forecasted to dominate 30% of housing development industry market share. Moderate families who own weighty cars with large dimensions, and lives in normal residential housing area that has confined parking spaces. Residents who lives in the residential area of which the houses are at least semi-detached. Affordable by most of the moderate families. The product designed is capable to lift and support cars of various weights and dimensions. The lifting device will not lower when there is a car parked below the platform. Safe User friendly Appear robust and safe Attractive to consumers Distributors and resellers Customers Manufacturers
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• • • • Primary Market Secondary Market • • • Assumptions and Constraints • • • Criteria • • • Stakeholders • •
Identifying Opportunities

3.0

Clarifying Objectives

Objectives and aims clarification is a crucial procedure in the design of a new product as it is beneficial in the domination as well as management of the design process. A list of objectives of the product design can be generated based on the problem and mission statements. The objectives listed based on the problem statement can be further categorized into higher-level and lower-level objectives in which the importance of objectives is indicated. As stated in preceding section, the primary problem statement is consumers who lives in normal residential housing area with confined parking spaces are confronted with problems of insufficient parking slots to park their extra cars. Therefore, a list of objectives is created and the objectives generated are further categorized into higher-level and lower-level objectives based on their significance as follows: Higher-level Objectives: • To design a Smart, Safe, and Sustainable (3S) Parking System that acts as a solution to the problem statement as stated above through optimization – utilized the confined and limited parking spaces in normal residential housing area to park maximum number of cars. • To substitute the conventional parking methodology which practiced by most of the consumers who dwell in normal residential housing area by a more effective and efficient parking alternative. Lower-level Objectives: • The parking system is portable as it is composed by simple components which are easy to assemble and disassemble. • The utilization lifting device (scissor-lift device) in the parking system will cut down the cost of constructing a new parking slot for houses to accommodate more cars. • The scissor-lift device and the platform employed in the 3S Parking System are capable to lift and support cars with various weights and dimensions. • The lifting of platform in the parking system is powered by the employment of hydraulic cylinders which is a practice of sustainability. This is due to the utilization of hydraulic cylinders did not rely on power generated from resources which might result in the contamination of environment such as charcoal fuel and diesel. • Proximity sensor is employed to increase the parking accuracy so that the safety of consumers is ensured. • Fool proof system is introduced in the parking system for car detection. This is to ensure that the “Down” switch will malfunction when objects are detected under the platform. • Diamond plates with hump are installed on the platform to increase the car stability. Based on the higher-level and lower-level objectives as listed above, an objective tree which acts as an illustration of the significance of objectives which might ease the functional analysis which going to be performed in the subsequent sub-section is depicted in Figure 1 below
Clarifying Objectives Page 4 of 78

Lift and Support Cars with Various Weights & Dimensions

Cut Cost Smart Portable

Cut down the cost of constructing new parking bay

Composed by components which are easy to assemble and disassemble Optimize conventional parking alternative

3S Parking System

Scissor-lift Device Utilizing space Increase parking accuracy Car or object detection (Under platform) To increase stability of car Do not powered by coal and diesel

Proximity Sensor

Safe

Fool Proof System Diamond Plates with Hump

Sustainable

Employment of Hydraulic Cylinders

Figure 1: Objective Tree of 3S Parking System

Clarifying Objectives

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4.0

Function Analysis

The objectives tree constructed in the preceding section illustrates that the design problems has the possibility of possessing details of distinct levels. Due to different level of details provided which might result in complication in the design processes such as investigation of human factors and kinematics analyses of mechanisms included, an alternative called function analysis in which indispensable functions of the product are taken into account is employed. Apart from that, the problems associated with the corresponding essential functions can be addressed as well. The overall functions of the product can be categorized into various essential subfunctions. The essential sub-functions with their corresponding means of achieving them are listed in Table 2 below.
Table 2: Essential Sub-functions with Their Corresponding Means to Achieve Them

Essential Subfunctions Parking accuracy and stability Lifting of platform Desired height Fool proof system Parking of next car • • • • • •

Means of Achieving Them Proximity sensor is utilized to increase the parking accuracy Hump is added onto the surface of the platform to ensure stability The scissor-lift mechanism or the lifting device is powered by hydraulic cylinders The platform is lifted to the desired height by scissor-lift mechanism Use sensor to detect whether there is any object or car being placed under the platform, so that the “Down” switch will malfunction when objects are detected When the platform is lifted to the desired height and position, next car can be parked below

Based on the essential sub-functions and their corresponding alternatives to accomplish it as listed in Table 2 above, the interactions between sub-functions are illustrated in the block diagram depicted in Figure 2 below.

Function Analysis

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Figure 2: Block Diagram of 3S Parking System

Function Analysis

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5.0

Customer Needs List

The primary objective of listing out the customer requirements is significant as it will assists in the design of product based on their perceptions. In order to come up with a list of customer demands, an online survey in which information and perception of customers can be obtained is carried out. The customer feedbacks obtained from the online survey is critical so that a product in which customer needs and demands can be met is produced. There are 20 copies of questionnaires were distributed and the information as well as the customer perceptions are gathered and summarized in the Appendix. The information and answers obtained from the online survey such as customer statement is further interpreted into smaller goals of which the 3S Parking System need to attained are tabulated in Table 3 below.
Table 3: The Interpretation of Customer's Statement Obtained from Online Survey

No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Customer Statement The assembly and disassembly processes of the parking system must be easy. The car park system must be stable all the time. The appearance of the car park system needs to be attractive. The car park system needs to be portable. The dimensions of the parking system must not be space consuming. The car park system must be energy efficient. The car park system must be green concept.

Interpreted Needs The parking system can be constructed by assemble all the variable parts. The car park system will be tested whether it is stable or not before go into market. The parking system composed of simple and classic materials which are perfectly furnished. The parts of car park system can be assemble and disassemble. The car park system is compact and has a reasonable size. The parking system can be operated automatically and manually. The car park system runs with hydraulic cylinder which does not rely on the use of lubricants. Besides, it is also not fuel power product such as diesel power but electric power. The car park system will be using eco-friendly material. The design of the parking system is based on theoretical calculations and simulation which ensure safe applications.

7.

8. 9.

The car park system must be sustainable. The parking system must be safe.

The customer demands and needs interpreted above are evaluated according to their corresponding hierarchy. The importance of each customer needs and demands are rated from 1 to 9, in which “1” represent the need which is most important and “9” being the need which is least important. The rating of each needs associated with their significances will narrow down the focal point of the team in which strengthen of parts are required.

Customer Needs List

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Table 4: Need Statement with Their Corresponding Importance and Hierarchy

No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Need Statement The car park system is compact and has a reasonable size. The car park system will apply simple and classic finish to make an attractive image. The car park system is combination between all variable parts. The parts of car park system can be assemble and disassembly. The car park system can run with automatically and manually. The car park system runs with hydraulic cylinder. The car park system will be using perfect materials. The car park system will be in safety mode. The car park system will be test whether it is stable or not before go into market.

Importance 5 9 4 3 8 6 7 1 2

Hierarchy Secondary need Tertiary need Primary need Primary need Tertiary need Secondary need Secondary need Primary need Primary need

Based on the summary of need statement as tabulated in Table 4 above, safety and human factors considered in the 3S Parking System is the most importance need among the others. This might due to the fact that safety and the capability of the scissor-lift device to withstand the maximum loading are the primary concern for most of the customers. Through the employment and identification of customer needs by rating them with their relative significances, a deeper comprehending on the demand of customer can be obtained. Through rating of customer needs in accordance with their hierarchy, the efficiency as well as effectiveness of the team can be enhanced.

Customer Needs List

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6.0

Performance Specifications

The specification of the product can be obtained by converting the customer demands and needs interpreted above into terms which are technically in nature. The intention of product specification is to provide a detail description of the product. The specifications of 3S Parking System are tabulated in Table 3 below. The product specifications listed form the guideline in the design and prototyping the product.
Table 5: Targeted Product Specifications of 3S Parking System

1. 2. 3.

Performance Mass Size

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Maintenance Ergonomics Environment Manufacturing facility Material

Safe working load: 1600 kg Allowable loading: 3000 kg (will be define after the detail design is done) Width: 2800 mm Length: 3100 mm Height: 2200 mm Oiling: 2 months Cycles: 6 months Services of parts: 6 months The product will automatically run when the button at the control box is pressed. Can be used in both indoor and outdoor Manufactured by experienced technician Structure (Alloy Steel) • A sensor will tell user when to stop their car on top of the platform. • A sensor will tell the user whether there is presence of another car below the platform so that the system will stop the hydraulic from lowering the car further (if there is another car below the platform). Ramps are introduced on the surface of the platform to prevent the car from slipping.

9.

Safety measures • •

10.

11.

12. 13.

LED lights will be installed at the side of the platform to ensure that the user can still park their car at the provided space accurately in dark or low light condition. Product life span Maximum 5 Years • A one and a half year warranty will be given to the user from the date this product is purchased. Quality and reliability • The product will undergo a series of test before it is introduce to the market. Attractive finish Aesthetics No defects Selling price: RM 7,000 to RM 9,000 Cost Manufacturing setup price: ≤ RM 6,000

Performance Specifications

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7.0

Determining Characteristics

The assurance of quality of a product is a significant parameter in the design process as it is a determinant that influences the economical successfulness of a manufacturing company. As mentioned by Zakuan et al (2007, p. 105) and Pahl et al (2007, p. 517), quality of a new product is vital other than just attain the technical function required. This is due to the fact that the demand for quality is a critical factor for a company to subsist in a competitive market. Thus, in order to optimize the market of the product, the quality of the product has to be assured by assessing the characteristics associated with it. Both the product attributes and engineering characteristics of the product must be taken into considerations for the sake of optimization of the market. This can be done by introducing a methodology for quality planning and quality assurance which is so-called the quality function deployment (QFD). QFD is employed in the design process on account of the house of quality which provides a clear visualization of relationship between the product attributes and engineering characteristics that are often the main interest of marketers and engineers respectively. This is a crucial phase in the design of product which must be conducted in order to meet and satisfy both the product attributes and engineering characteristics. The relations of the product attribute and engineering characteristics associated with the product are illustrated in the house of quality depicted in Figure 3 below. Based on the house of quality which acts as a visualization of the relationship between product attributes and engineering characteristics as illustrated in Figure 3 below, system furnishing is the engineering characteristic which is the least importance as compared to others. On the contrary, the overall dimensions of the system and the maximum loading can the platform sustains seems to be both the engineering characteristics and product attributes that have higher level of importance. Therefore, more attention will be given on both the product attributes and engineering characteristics which have higher importance.

Determining Characteristics

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Figure 3: House of Quality for 3S Parking System

Determining Characteristics

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8.0

Concept Generation (Generation of Alternatives)

Generating alternatives or sometimes referred as concept generation is one of the significant phases in design process where the concepts of the product that addresses the demand and requirements of consumers could be extensively explored. Besides, this is the phase in which possible alternatives or solutions that will satisfy the needs of customers are listed prior to the selection of various conceptual design. Before various alternatives have been generated, it is vital to clarify the obstacles confronted by the project team which is the functional flow of the product as illustrated in Figure 4 below.

Figure 4: Functional Diagram of 3S Parking System

Apart from secondary resources which are one of the methodologies employed to search for related alternatives, the concepts of the product are also developed based on the house of quality that relates the customer attributes and engineering characteristics which depicted in Figure 3 in the preceding section where the characteristics of the product are determined. This is due to the fact that competitive advantages could be added in the product. Thus, based on the needs of customer listed in Section 5.0 and the house of quality, five concepts has been generated and developed which will be discussed in the following sub-sections. The pros and cons associated with the five concepts will be further analyzed and investigated. The best or ideal conceptual design will be selected through the concept screening and scoring processes which will be discussed in Section 9.0 which is the evaluation of alternatives. 8.1 Concept A

The intention of this design is to ensure the full utilization of vacant spaces within a housing compound that has confined and limited parking spaces. 8.1.1 Operations

Once the “Rise” button on the control switch is pressed, all the four pillars will rise from the ground by the force generated by the motor and the chain drive which had been pre-installed into the ground. The side view of the conceptual design as shown in Figure 5 below illustrates how the system operates when it is fully-lowered to the minimum height. A ramp is utilized so that car can moves onto the platform. Gearing mechanisms such as rack and pinion will be installed on the pillar and motor respectively. As the motor is initiated, the pinion will drive the rack in the vertical direction which results in lifting of platform. Whereby, the function of chain is for power transmission from the motor to the other three pillars. This is to ensure that all the pillars will moves simultaneously so that inconsistency can be avoid.

Generating Alternatives (Concept Generation)

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Figure 5: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept A)

8.1.2

Weakness or Problems

Although vacant spaces in the housing compound can be fully utilized through the employment of this concept, however, the design of this concept is impractical since a hole must be drilled on the ground prior to the installation of the system which might results in excessive cost. Apart from that, the employment of this design also will leads to the difficulties of maintenance of the system. 8.2 Concept B

Since the employment of previous concept will results in various problems in terms of cost and maintenance, therefore, Concept B is designed to overcome the these disadvantages. 8.2.1 Operations

Each side of the platform is supported by metal supports at which sliders are installed together. The sliders are assembled at each side of the platform to ensure the platform only moves in vertical direction (see Figure 6 below). The lifting and lowering of platform is controlled by the hydraulic rams which installed on each side of the sliders. Based on the side view of Concept B as illustrated in Figure 6 below, the two posts at each side of the platform are positioned more towards the right side of the system. This is designed in such a way that to reduce the bending moment created by larger loading at the frontal part of the car.
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Figure 6: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept B)

8.2.2

Weakness or Problems

Even the design of Concept B is to provide stabilization through minimizing the bending moment by positioning the posts at each side of the platform, but based on the knowledge from engineering statics, the design of Concept B still might leads to instability of structure since the entire platform is only supported by two posts. 8.3 Concept C

The second conceptual design is further developed so that the drawbacks associated with it can be overcome. The drawbacks of Concept B are overcome by introducing four pillars at each side of the platform and the hydraulic rams used to provide vertical movement also been neglected. Instead, scissor-lift mechanism is employed as the lifting device. 8.3.1 Operations

Two-stage scissor-lift mechanism is introduced at each side of the platform as the lifting device so that the maximum height which can be attained by the previous two conceptual designs can be increased. Besides, hydraulic cylinder is introduced to provide vertical motion of the lifting device. As shown in Figure 7 below, one end of the hydraulic cylinder is fixed to the ground

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whereas one end is connected to the scissor-lift mechanism. A track will be installed on the ground to guide the roller of the scissor-lift mechanism.

Figure 7: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept C)

8.3.2

Weakness or Problems

Although stabilization of structure of the design can be guaranteed by introducing pillars at each corner of the platform which is installed to the ground, but difficulties in maintenance is created. It causes difficulties to the technicians during parts replacement or checking of defects. Besides, another significant problem that can be observed based on the 3D sketch of Concept C as illustrated in Figure 7 above is caused by the position of hydraulic cylinder. If the hydraulic cylinders are positioned at the middle position of the two-stage scissor-lift mechanism, the hydraulic force required to lift the platform can be reduced by half as compared to the installation at bottom. Thus, problem in terms of mechanical efficiency is induced. 8.4 Concept D

Due to the difficulties in maintenance caused by the four pillars at each of the corner of platform, Concept C is further developed by removing the four pillars and the size of the platform is reduced by substituting two smaller platforms on the top of the scissor-lift mechanism at each side of the parking system.

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8.4.1

Operations

The hydraulic cylinders are installed at each side of the parking system at is positioned parallel to the ground to increase the mechanical efficiency. As mentioned above, the platform is designed in such a way that only wheels of car are supported which illustrated in Figure 8 below.

Figure 8: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept D)

8.4.2

Weakness or Problems

Although the cost in design can be cut down by introducing platform of smaller size and mechanical efficiency can be enhanced by re-position the hydraulic cylinder, but one significant drawback can be resulted is that the car parked at the bottom can be dirt by the wastage of the car parked above such as the leakage of engine oil and so on. Besides, the employment of platform with smaller size only restricted to cars with large dimensions which results in performance degradation. Apart from that, as shown in Figure 8 above, longer scissor-lift legs are required in order to lift the platform to the desired height since the scissor-lift mechanism only encompasses of single stage. 8.5 Concept E

The problems caused by the smaller size platform and the longer scissor-lift legs are overcome by utilizing back the platform in Concept D, and dual scissor-lift mechanism is introduced.

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8.5.1

Operations

Dual scissor-lift mechanism is employed in Concept E so that the hydraulic force required to lift the platform can be reduced significantly. Besides, the loadings exerted by the cars can be shared as well. The hydraulic cylinder is positioned between the dual scissor-lift mechanisms so that more spaces can be economized.

Figure 9: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept E)

8.5.2

Weakness or Problems

As manifested in Figure 9 above, the pathway for the roller or the track is fixed on the ground. This will restrict the mobility of the parking system. Apart from that, the position of the hydraulic cylinder is no longer can be placed horizontally due to the pathway of the roller and hence results in the degradation of mechanical efficiency. 8.6 Concept F

Due to the restriction of mobility, Concept E is further developed and enhanced. This is done through the implementation of mechanism such as slot and pin. 8.6.1 Operations

The slot or sometimes referred as bottom roller track is employed to the replace the fixed pathway for the roller. Besides, the base of the system is changed so that it is movable (see Figure 10 below).

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Figure 10: 3D Sketch of 3S Parking System (Concept F)

8.6.2

Weakness or Problems

The slot or the roller track might experience wear resistance in a short period of time. This is due to the huge loadings exerted by the body and platform as well as the weight of car.

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9.0

Concept Selection (Evaluation of Alternatives)

Alternatives evaluation or sometime referred as concept selection is another significant phase in design process as it is where the best and ideal concept is selected based on the needs of customers as well as the engineering characteristics. Once various concepts had been developed, the best concept will be selected by the application of weighted objectives method or it can be termed as the concept scoring and testing as well. Weighted objectives method is employed in the evaluation of alternatives as the strengths and weaknesses associated with each concept can be analyzed and evaluated. 9.1 Concept Screening

Screening table is applied in the process of concept screening as different characteristics of distinct conceptual designs can be listed and compared with a reference concept. All the concepts developed in the preceding section are ranked according to the selection criteria. Through the process of concept screening, one or two concepts will either be eliminated or combined. The selection criteria are based on the demands or needs of customer.
Table 6: Matrix of Concept Screening

Selection Criteria Metric No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Customer Attributes User friendly Ability to support various types of car Dimension of parking slot Durability Maintenance Safety Sustainability Portability Appearance Sum +’s Sum 0‘s Sum –‘s Net Score Rank Continue? A (Reference) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 3 No B + 0 +

Concepts C 0 0 D + 0 E + 0 + F + 0 +

+ + + + 0 + + + + + 0 0 0 + + + + + + 0 + 0 + + 0 + 0 + 5 4 6 5 7 2 4 2 4 2 2 1 1 0 0 3 3 5 5 7 4 4 4 4 5 Combined Combined Develop

Based on the matrix of concept screening as shown in Table 6 above, the (+), (0) and (-) signs are used to make comparisons between each of the concepts with the reference concept. (+) and (-) will be allocated when the concept is better or worse than the reference concept respectively. Whereas, (0) indicates that there has no deviations between the specific concept and reference concept.

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9.2

Concept Scoring (Weighted Objectives Method)

Based on the ranking of concepts as tabulated in the concept screening matrix above, further comparison are made by the employment of the weighted objectives methodology. This is due to the fact that the pros and cons associated with each concept can be clearly visualized and analyzed.
Table 7: Table of Concept Scoring (Weighted Objectives Method)

Concepts Selection Criteria Metric No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Customer Attributes User friendly Ability to support various types of car Dimension of parking slot Durability Maintenance Safety Sustainability Portability Appearance Total Score Rank Continue? 10 25 15 10 5 20 5 5 5 Weight (%) Rating 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3.00 3 No A Weighted Score 0.30 0.75 0.45 0.30 0.15 0.60 0.15 0.15 0.15 B & C (Combined) Rating 4 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 2 3.30 4 No Weighted Score 0.40 0.75 0.45 0.30 0.15 0.80 0.15 0.20 0.10 D&E&F (Combined) Weighted Rating Score 4 0.40 5 5 5 5 5 3 5 5 1.25 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.10 0.15 0.25 0.25 3.90 5 Develop

According to the results obtained from the rating of concepts by the weighted objectives method as tabulated in Table 7 above, a combinations of concepts D, E and F are further developed in which the drawbacks caused by the initial concepts can be overcome. This can be attained by implementing a dual two-stage scissor-lift mechanism at each side of the 3S Parking System in which it is portable. Besides, the hydraulic cylinder will be positioned at the middle of the scissor-lift mechanism so that the mechanical efficiency can be enhanced. The rating scales used to rate each of the concepts listed in Table 6 and 7 above are tabulated in Table 8 below.
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Table 8: Rating Scale for Various Concepts Listed in Table 6 & 7

5-point Scale 1 2 3 4 5 9.3 Concept Testing

Meaning Inadequate (More worse than reference concept) Weak (Worse than reference concept) Satisfactory (Similar as reference concept) Good (Better than reference concept) Excellent (Perfect or ideal concept)

Once the best and ideal concept had been selected, another significant phase in alternative evaluation which is so-called the concept testing is conducted. The primary intention of concept testing is to investigate and analyze the customer demands and needs of 3S Parking System in detail. This is done in order to meet the satisfaction of customer’s requirements. Through concept testing, not only the market of the 3S Parking System can be optimized, instead, the current conceptual design can be further improved and the performance of the product can be enhanced based on the results and information obtained from the concept testing as well. Online survey is conduct by the project team to generate a survey for the product in a selected group. The group stands out of 20 people which consist of household users that are randomly choose among friend’s parents and neighbors. For convenient and flexible purposes, the link towards the online survey is given to them for answering at their own free times without affecting their daily routine. The questionnaires are designed to be understandable and simple with contains acquired for the concept testing. Selections of opinion are given to target groups to click in the online survey together with some commendations part provided. A brief introduction of the product is given together with the online survey to allow and ensure the target group understand and had an insight regarding the product before answering it. This will results in better data and constructive comments obtain once they had a rough idea about what it is about and the purposes. Through this process, the team will be able to gain more knowledge for further improvement on the product. According to the data obtained from the online survey(appendix) it shows that 5 out of 20 people is satisfied with the current parking system whereas 75% of the 20 people are not satisfied with it and opt for an alternative parking system. 95% of the people thinks that the product if feasible and useful for them. The 5% that think that it is not useful for them may due to the cause that the family size is smaller and number of cars is not many. However, most of them will consider the aspects of durability, price and quality of the product when purchasing it. This is known first hand as the price of a product will be the main consideration for consumer in process of purchasing of any products or services. Thus for better quality product the price will be higher and therefore the price of the product will be at average range. In conclusion, the concept testing from the online survey prove the team had been on the right track as the needs and wants of the customer is basically similar with the results obtained from this testing. In conjunction with this, the team will look into the product for further improvement and enhancement to assure a better durability and quality achieved.

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10.0 Product Architecture
Product architecture is basically the arrangement of functional elements that allocated to the physical components which become the building blocks for the product. The functional elements of product architecture are the individual operations of the product whereas the physical components are the parts and components or subassemblies that implement the product functions. Architecture can be both integral and modular whereby interactions between chunks are well defined for modular than integral. Modular design had better indication of physical components which each physical component or chunks implements one or few functional elements in the product. For generating the product architecture of a product, few steps and procedures are required which are the creation of schematic of product, and cluster the elements to schematics to obtain the product variety desired. 10.1 Schematic of 3S Parking System

Figure 11: Schematic of 3S Parking System

Product Architecture

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10.2

Schematic of Clustered Elements

Figure 12: Schematic of Clustered Elements

Product Architecture

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10.3

Geometric Layout

Figure 13: Geometric Layout of 3S Parking System

Product Architecture

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11.0 Detail Design (Engineering Synthesis and Analysis)
It is ordinary that a designer is deficient in technical knowledge in the identification of faults associated with the product which might results in failures of the system. Therefore, it is a crucial move to assess the disturbing factors or sometimes referred to possible failures associated in the design process. In order to determine the possible failure modes and estimate the risks associated with each mode, failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) has been employed. 11.1 Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA)

According to Pahl et al (2007, p. 529), failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) is a methodology to identify and examine the possible failures and their corresponding effect associated with the product analytically. This methodology has been extensively employed in manufacturing industries as potential failure of the product and corresponding effect can be identified and estimated which benefits the design process by minimize the cost as well as lead time in design. Failure modes can be interpreted as the defects in the product, design process that affect the consumers. Effect assessment is the estimation of probable outcome or risk associated to the corresponding failure. The possible failure modes of 3S Parking System are identified and illustrated in Figure 14 below. Apart from that, appropriate operations to reduce the probability the failures are listed in Table 9 below as well. The ratings of the possible failures are according to the Risk Priority Number (RPN) which can be computed by the following equation: RPN = S × O × D where S = Severity (Effect of failure) O = Occurrence (The probability of failure or the frequency of the occurrence) D = Ability to detect problems and failures The rating scale of severity (S), occurrence (O) and detection (D) is ranged from 1 to 10 in which indicate low to high. Scope of Analysis Components system level has been employed in the FMEA.

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Figure 14: Block Diagram of 3S Parking System

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Based on the block diagram as illustrated in Figure 4 above, the failure modes and effect analysis (FMEA) for 3S Parking System are listed in tables below.
Table 9: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) of Body for 3S Parking System

Item and Functions Two-stage Scissor-lift (Lifting Device) • • Structural support Provides vertical movement (Lifting) Top Roller

Failure Mode •

Effect of Failure Unable to reach the desired height Buckling of scissor-lift legs Structural deformation • •

Cause of Failure Huge loading exerted by the cars The bending stress is greater than the yield strength of the material

Controls

S O D RPN

Deflection

• •

Material with higher yield strength should be used

8 2

7

112

• Derail of roller The horizontal movement of the roller will results in the vertical movement of lifting device Platform Base to support loading exerted by cars Bending and Deflection • Wear • Sound pollution • Structural deformation • Huge loading exerted by the cars Yield strength of the material Friction

Lubricants should be added periodically to the surface of the roller and the track

3 4

4

48

Instability of the • 3S Parking System

Material with higher yield strength should be used

8 2

7

112

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Table 10: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for Force Generator of 3S Parking System

Item and Functions Hydraulic Cylinder • Converts internal pressure to hydraulic force The hydraulic force provides vertical

Failure Mode

Effect of Failure

Cause of Failure

Controls

S O D RPN

Deflection

Malfunction of the hydraulic cylinder

Cyclic fatigue induced by the extension and retraction operations

Hydraulic cylinder with 7 2 better quality is employed

2

28

Table 11: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for Base of 3S Parking System

Item and Functions Bottom Roller

Failure Mode •

Effect of Failure Derail of roller

Cause of Failure

Controls

S O D RPN

Provides vertical movement of the lifting device Bottom Roller Track • • Vertical movement of load Base for body of 3S Parking System

Wear • Sound pollution • Performance degradation Deflection • Sound pollution • Permanent deformation •

Friction

Lubricants should be added periodically to the surface of the roller and the track •

3 4

4

48

Huge loading Friction •

Lubricants should be added periodically to the surface of the roller and the track Material with higher yield strength should be used

3 4

5

60

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Table 12: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) for Control System of 3S Parking System

Item and Functions Electricity Supply electrical power to the hydraulic cylinder Control Switch Used to switch on the electricity to power the hydraulic cylinder Control Circuit Used to control the entire mechanism

Failure Mode Power cut

Effect of Failure Unable to perform the lifting operation •

Cause of Failure No power supply

Controls Battery is used as a power source during power cut

S O D RPN 6 2 2 24

Malfunction of switch

The switch is fail to operate

Improper handling

A better switch that has longer 3 4 product life cycle should used

1

12

Fail to function automatically

The control circuit is fail to operate

Defect in circuit components

A programmable control circuit should be introduced

6 3

2

36

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11.2

Detail Calculations

For the sake of safety utilization of the product that is free from the risk of harm, a detailed engineering analysis had been performed by the team in the design of the 3S Parking System. According to the risk priority number (RPN) from the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis carried out by the team in Section 11.1, the team had found that there are several portions in which more attentive analysis should be taken into account and considerations. Among the sections are the minimum cross-sectional areas required for the legs of the lifting mechanism in order to sustain the loading of the car; the minimum thickness of the platform needed so that the bending moment as well as bending stress can be minimized. Apart from that, the selection of the materials used and the hydraulic cylinder are the primary concern as well. In order to ease the process of calculations, several equitable and logical assumptions had been made by the team. The assumptions are listed as follows: • The distribution of loading exerted by the weight of the car onto the surface of the platform is point load. Since the proposed car used in the design of the 3S Parking System is Lexus LX which encompasses of four wheels, therefore, four point loads is considered in this case. The distribution of point loads on the surface of the platform are equal in magnitude and are equally spaced according to the Wheel Base Distance (dW = 2.85 m for Lexus LX). The platform employed in the 3S Parking System is modeled as a beam. Since the all the four edges of the platform are simply supported (two pin supports and two roller supports), thus occurrence of maximum bending moment is about the x-axis which is the worst case scenario. Since one of the ends of the scissor-lift is set to be free to move along the track, therefore, the support can be modeled as roller support. Whereas, the other support is modeled as pin support. There will be two horizontal forces that are equal in magnitude exerted by the two single-rod hydraulic cylinder acting on Joint C and D (see Figure 15 below). Load Analysis

11.3

In order to select an single-rod hydraulic cylinder for the 3S Parking system, the magnitude of hydraulic force required to lift the proposed car – Lexus LX that has an approximated weight of 30,000 N should be known, the load analysis in which the lifting mechanism is fully-lifted are performed as follows. Due to the fact that, all the lifting mechanisms are identical to each other, thus, only one side of the lifting mechanism is considered and analyzed.

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Since each side of the 3S Parking System consists of two scissor-lift mechanisms, therefore, the weight of the car is divided by 4, and each of the point loads has a magnitude of W/8 as shown in the free body diagram of the scissor-lift mechanism during the fully-lifted position as depicted in Figure 15 below.

Figure 15: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Scissor-lift Mechanism during the Fully-lifted Position

The length of the leg AD, BC, CF, and DE are L = 2.9 m.

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As shown in Figure 1 above, point A and B are actually the pin and roller support respectively. The support reactions at A and B are determined based on the free body diagram of the platform as illustrated in Figure 16 below.

Figure 16: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform

Taking the summation of moment about point A and assuming counter-clockwise moment is positive gives:

(CCW + ve)∑ M A = 0
− W  a − d − d W  W  a − d + dW   −   + B y (a − d ) = 0 8 2 2  8  W − (a − d ) + B y (a − d ) = 0 8 W By = 8

With By known, summing the forces in vertical direction yields:

(+ ve ↑ )∑ F

y

= 0 ; Ay −

W W W − + B y = 0 ⇒ Ay = 8 8 8

To find Ax, taking the summation of forces in horizontal direction results in Ax = 0. The magnitude of Ay and By can be determined by substituting W = 30,000 N into both the expression for Ay and By above:
Ay = B y = 3,750 N

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Analysis for Leg 1

Figure 17: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) for Leg 1

Based on Figure 17 above, by taking the summation of moment at the joint J1 equal to zero and assuming counter-clockwise is positive gives:

(CCW + ve )∑ M J

1

=0

W L  L   cos θ  − FCD  sin θ  = 0 8 2  2  W FCD = cot θ 8

Substituting W = 30,000 N into the equation above yields:

FCD = 3,750cotθ N
where the angle θ ranges from 1.7° to 20.9°. The lateral forces, FCD exerted by the two single-rod hydraulic cylinders when the lifting-mechanism are fully-lifted and lowered are: At the lowest position, FCD (θ = 1.7°) = 3,750 cot(1.65°) N = 126350.7 N At the highest position, FCD (θ = 20.9°) = 3,750 cot(20.9°) N = 9820.3 N The forces acting on leg 2 are the lateral force exerted by the single-rod hydraulic cylinder FCD, and the support reaction By. Since all the forces acting on leg 2 are known, thus the analysis for leg 2 can be neglected.

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Analysis for Leg 3

Figure 18: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of Leg 3

According to the free body diagram for leg 3 as depicted in Figure 18 above, taking the summation of moment about the joint J2 equal to zero and assuming counter-clockwise moment is positive gives:

(CCW + ve)∑ M J

2

=0

L  L  − FCD  sin θ  + Fy  cosθ  = 0 2  2  Fy = FCD tan θ
Based on previous calculations, it has found that FCD =
F y = FCD tan θ = W W cot θ ⋅ tan θ = 8 8 W cot θ , therefore, 8

Substituting W = 30,000 N into above equation gives:
Fy = 3,750 N

Likewise, the support reaction of pin support E also can be computed in similar manner as follows.

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Analysis for Leg 4

Figure 19: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) for Leg 4

Based on the free body diagram for leg 4 as shown in Figure 19 above, the support reaction exerted by pin support E can be determined by taking the summation of moment about J2 equal to zero and assuming counter-clockwise moment is positive.

(CCW + ve)∑ M J

2

=0

L  L  − E y  cosθ  + FCD  sin θ  = 0 2  2  E y = FCD tan θ
Similarly,
E y = FCD tan θ = W W cot θ ⋅ tan θ = 8 8

Substituting W = 30,000 N into the above equation yields:
E y = 3,750 N

Based on the calculations above, it can be clearly seen that the magnitude of the lateral forces exerted by the two single-rod hydraulic cylinder is strongly depends on the angle with respect to the horizontal. The variation in hydraulic force due to the deviations in angle with respect to horizontal is illustrated in Figure 20 below. According to the plot of hydraulic force versus the angle measured from the horizontal as shown in Figure 20, the hydraulic force varies inversely with the angle.
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Hydraulic Force, FCD (N) vs. Angle, θ (Deg.) 129000

109000 Hydraulic Force, FCD (N)

89000

69000

49000

29000

9000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Angle, θ (Deg.) 16 18 20 22

Figure 20: Plot of Hydraulic Force, FCD (N) versus Angle, θ (Deg.) with Respect to the Horizontal

11.4

Selection of Hydraulic Cylinder

According to the plot of hydraulic force versus the angle measured with respect to horizontal as depicted in Figure 6 above, it can be clearly seen that a larger hydraulic force is required when the lifting device is at its lowest position which has an angle of θmin = 1.7°. Based on the magnitude of hydraulic force obtained from the calculations above, Rexroth MP5 Single-rod Hydraulic cylinder with self-aligning rear clevis mounting (see Figure 21 & 22 below) can be employed in the design of 3S Parking System. This is due to the fact that the maximum length of the two extended hydraulic cylinders obtained from the catalogue is greater than the maximum length extended by the scissor-lift mechanism. The information of the hydraulic cylinder is shown in Figure 23 as illustrated in subsequent page.

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Figure 21: Selected Hydraulic Cylinder (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 4)

Figure 22: Mounting Styles MP5 (Boshc Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 10)

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Figure 23: Selection of Hydraulic Cylinder (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 5) Detail Design (Engineering Synthesis and Analysis) Page 39 of 78

11.4.1 Hydraulic Cylinder Calculations
Since two single-rod hydraulic cylinders are employed in each side of the platform, therefore, the maximum force hydraulic force is divided by two. Based on the information obtained from the catalogue, the properties of hydraulic cylinders are determined as follows. Maximum Force:
Maximum Force = 126350 .7 N = 63175.35 N 2

Since 10% of the hydraulic force is utilized to overcome the friction in hydraulic seal, therefore, the efficiency of the hydraulic cylinder is η = 90%. Actual Cylinder Force Required:

Actual Cylinder Force Required = =

63175.35 N

η

63175.35 N 0.9 = 70194.83 N
Diameter of Hydraulic Cylinder: Cylinder Diameter = = 4 × Actual Force π × Pressure (Pressure = 160 × 10 5 Pa)

4(70194.83 N) π × 160 × 10 5 Pa = 0.0747 m Length of Attachment, k:
k = CH + XO = 261 mm + 185 mm = 1106 mm Stroke (Catalogue), s = 660 mm Retracted Cylinder Length (Catalogue): Retracted Cylinder Length = k + s = 446 mm + 660 mm = 1106 mm

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Extended Cylinder Length (Catalogue): Extended Cylinder Length = k + 2 s = 446 mm + 2(660 mm ) = 1766 mm Maximum Extended Scissor-lift Length = 3089.88 mm Extended Cylinder Length of Two Hydraulic Cylinders = 3532 mm Information from the catalogue used in the calculations above is shown in Figure 24 to 28 below.

Figure 24: Schematic of Area, Force and Flows in the Hydraulic Cylinders (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 6)

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Figure 25: Weight of Selected Cylinder (Bosch Rexroth AG, 2003, p. 7)

Figure 26: KK Values (KK = M48x2) (Bosch Rexroth, 2003, p. 11)

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Figure 27: CH Value of M48x2 (Bosch Rexorth, 2003, p. 28)

Figure 28: Value of Maximum Stroke (Bosch Rexorth, 2003, p. 3)

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11.4.2 Buckling of Piston Rod According to Bosch Rexroth (2003, p. 30), a hydraulic cylinder that is subjected to large internal pressure may result in the buckling of piston rod. Therefore, the buckling of the piston rod employed in the hydraulic cylinder is taken into considerations. There are several reasons that will contribute to the bucking of piston rod which might leads to mechanical failure of the system. Among the reasons are: • • • The large stroke of the hydraulic cylinder Small piston rod diameter High loading

The lifting device or the scissor-lift mechanism will fail if the piston rods utilized in the hydraulic cylinders are likely to buckle. Hence, the possibilities of buckling can be checked by the calculations below. The equation employed in the checking of piston-rod buckling is as follows: L=S×K where L = Theoretical stroke (Value obtained from table) S = Stroke K = Load guidance factor (K = 2 for MP5 Mounting Type Cylinder) L = S × K = (3089.88 mm – 2919 mm) × 2 = 341.76 mm

Figure 29: Load Guidance Factor, K (Bosch Rexroth, 2003, p. 31)

Based on the calculations above, the calculated L is 341.76 mm which is relatively smaller than the maximum stroke which is 859 mm at pressure of 160 Bar. Therefore, it can be concluded that the piston rod in the selected hydraulic cylinder is safe from buckling.

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Figure 30: Maximum Stroke (Catalogue) (Bosch Rexroth, 2003, p. 30)

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11.5

Selection of Material

Due to the high loading exerted from the cars onto the platform as well as the lifting mechanism employed in the 3S Parking System, the material utilized in each component of the product must possesses of mechanical properties such as high strength and toughness. Through several researches, ASTM-A709 Grade 690 Alloy Steel has been selected as the material employed in each of the component of the 3S Parking System. The selection of ASTM-A709 Grade 690 Alloy Steel as the material employed in each of the component of the product is due to the fact that it is categorized as highstrength, low alloy (HSLA) steels. Most of the alloy steels being categorized in this group have alloying concentration up to 10-wt% and majority of the alloying elements contented in HSLA Steels are Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), Molybdenum (Mo) which are extensively employed in many of the engineering applications in which structural strength is critical as mentioned by Callister (2006, p. 362). According to the Tables of Typical Properties of Selected Materials Used in Engineering in Beer (2012, p. 230) (see Appendix 3), the Modulus of Elasticity (or the Young’s Modulus) as well as the yield strength of ASTM-A709 Grade 690 Alloy Steel is E = 200 GPa and σY = 690 MPa respectively. 11.6 Bending Moment and Deflection (Platform)

As mentioned earlier in Section 11.2, one of the significant portion in which detail analyses and considerations should be taken in account is the minimum thickness of the platform required in order to sustain the large loadings exerted by the car. In order for the minimum thickness of the platform to be determinate, the location where the maximum deflection of the plate occurred should be known. This is due to the fact that at that particular location, the probabilities of the occurrence of largest bending moment is the highest. According to Beer (2012, p. 230), the elastic flexural formula for pure bending states that the allowable stress or sometimes referred as the bending stress varies directly to the bending moment. The allowable bending stress also can be related with the yield strength of the material as well as the safety factor assigned by the equation σall = σY/S.F. which forms an alternative to determine the minimum thickness required. Therefore, in order to determine the maximum deflection which will leads to the largest magnitude of bending moment produced by the loadings applied on the platform, two extreme conditions at which the lifting mechanism is fully-up and fully-lowered are taken into considerations. The calculations of the maximum bending moment and deflection of the platform for both the conditions are based on the free body-diagram as illustrated in Figure 31 below, and a safety factor of 2 is assumed. This is because the material employed in the system is well-known, the operation of system is under reasonably environmental conditions, and the system is subjected to loading that can be calculated.

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Figure 31: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform

Bending Moment and Deflection of the Platform when the Lifting Mechanism is at the Fully-lifted Position The magnitudes of the nomenclatures in Figure 31 for the lifting mechanism at the fullylifted position are tabulated in Table 13 below:
Table 13: Magnitudes of Nomenclatures for the Lifting Mechanism at Fully-up Position

Nomenclatures Length of the platform, a Displacement, d Wheel base distance, dW Weight of the car, W Width of the platform, w

Magnitude 3.1 m 0.181 m 2.85 m 30,000 N 2.8 m

Figure 32: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform when the Lifting Mechanism is at Fullylifted position

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Based on the free body diagram of the platform when the lifting mechanism is at the fully-lifted position as depicted in Figure 32 above, the moment function can be expressed by singularity function as follows:

M ( x ) = 3750x − 3750 x − 0.0345 − 3750 x − 2.8845
1

1

N⋅m

The equation of elastic curve is given by:

d2y = −M (x ) dx 2 d2y 1 EI 2 = −3750 x + 3750 x − 0.0345 + 3750 x − 2.8845 dx EI
Integrating twice in x,
EI dy = −1875 x 2 + 1875 x − 0.0345 dx
3 2

1

N⋅m

+ 1875 x − 2.8845
3

2

+ C1 N ⋅ m 2

EIy = −625 x 3 + 625 x − 0.0345

+ 625 x − 2.8845

+ C1 x + C 2 N ⋅ m 3

Boundary Conditions: [x = 0, y = 0]:
0 = −625(0 ) + 0 + 0 + C1 (0 ) + C 2 ⇒ C 2 = 0
3

[x = 2.919 m, y = 0]:

0 = −625(2.919) + 625(2.8845) + 625(0.0345) + C1 (2.919)
3 3 3

C1 = 186.5910
Hence,
EI dy = −1875 x 2 + 1875 x − 0.0345 dx
3 2

+ 1875 x − 2.8845
3

2

+ 186.5910 N ⋅ m 2

EIy = −625 x 3 + 625 x − 0.0345

+ 625 x − 2.8845

+ 186.5910 x N ⋅ m 3

If the maximum deflection, ymax happens between 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.0345 m, then,
dy = 0 ⇒ −1875 x 2 + 186.5910 = 0 ⇒ x = 0.3155 m dx

At x = 0.3155 m,
y max = y ( x = 0.3155 ) = 1 (53.1089 ) m EI

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If the maximum deflection, ymax happens between 0.0345 m ≤ x ≤ 2.8845 m, then,

dy =0 dx 2 − 1875x 2 + 1875( x − 0.0345) + 186.5910 = 0 − 129.375x + 188.8228 = 0 x = 1.4595 m
At x = 1.4595 m,
y max = y ( x = 1.4595 ) = 1 (137.7676 ) m EI

If the maximum deflection, ymax happens between 2.8845 m ≤ x ≤ 2.919 m, then,

dy =0 dx 2 2 − 1875x 2 + 1875( x − 0.0345) + 1875( x − 2.8845) + 186.5910 = 0 1875x 2 − 10946.255x + 15789.3853 = 0 x = 2.6035 m
At x = 2.0635 m,
y max = y ( x = 2.6035 ) = 1 (53.1087 ) m EI

By comparing the maximum deflection at three distinct positions, the maximum deflection which has the largest magnitude occurs at x = 1.4595 m. Thus, the maximum bending moment is

M max = M (x = 1.4595) = [3750(1.4595) − 3750(1.425)]N ⋅ m = 129.375 N ⋅ m
The elastic flexural formula for pure bending is given by:

σ all =

M max y I xx

where y and Ixx are the distance from the neutral axis and second-moment of area respectively. And, the allowable stress can be related with the yield strength and safety factor by the equation

σ all =

σY
S.F.

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Equating both the equations above gives:
M max y σ Y = I xx S.F.

Substituting y =

t 1 and I xx = wt 3 yields: 2 12

t=

12M max σY w

(S.F. = 2)

As tabulated in Table 13 above, by substituting w = 2.8 m and σY = 690 MPa into the above equation, the minimum thickness of the platform is

t=

12(129.375 N ⋅ m) = 8.96 × 10 −4 m (690 × 10 6 Pa)(2.8 m)

Bending Moment and Deflection of the Platform when the Lifting Mechanism is at the Fully-lowered Position The magnitudes of the nomenclatures in Figure 7 for the lifting mechanism at the fullyup position are tabulated in Table 14 below:
Table 14: Magnitudes of Nomenclatures for the Lifting Mechanism at Fully-lowered Position

Nomenclatures Length of the platform, a Displacement, d Wheel base distance, dW Weight of the car, W Width of the platform, w

Magnitude 3.1 m 0.01012 m 2.85 m 30,000 N 2.8 m

Figure 33: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) of the Platform when the Lifting Mechanism is at Fullylowered Position

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Based on the free body diagram of the platform when the lifting mechanism is at the fully-lowered position as shown in Figure 33 above, the moment function can be expressed by singularity function as follows:

M ( x ) = 3750x − 3750 x − 0.11994 − 3750 x − 2.96994
1

1

N⋅m

The equation of elastic curve is given by:

d2y = − M (x ) dx 2 d2y 1 EI 2 = −3750 x + 3750 x − 0.11994 + 3750 x − 2.96994 dx EI
Integrating twice in x,
EI dy = −1875 x 2 + 1875 x − 0.11994 dx
3 2

1

N⋅m

+ 1875 x − 2.96994
3

2

+ C1 N ⋅ m 2

EIy = −625 x 3 + 625 x − 0.11994

+ 625 x − 2.96994

+ C1 x + C 2 N ⋅ m 3

Boundary Conditions: [x = 0, y = 0]:
0 = −625(0 ) + 0 + 0 + C1 (0 ) + C 2 ⇒ C 2 = 0
3

[x = 3.08988 m, y = 0]:

0 = −625(3.08988) + 625(2.96994) + 625(0.11994) + C1 (3.08988)
3 3 3

C1 = 667.9024
Hence,
EI dy = −1875 x 2 + 1875 x − 0.11994 dx
3 2

+ 1875 x − 2.96994
3

2

+ 667.9024 N ⋅ m 2

EIy = −625 x 3 + 625 x − 0.11994

+ 625 x − 2.96994

+ 667.9024 x N ⋅ m 3

If the maximum deflection, ymax happens between 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.11994 m, then,
dy = 0 ⇒ −1875 x 2 + 667 .9024 = 0 ⇒ x = 0.5968 m dx

At x = 0.5968 m,
y max = y ( x = 0.5968 ) = 1 (333 .5421) m EI

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If the maximum deflection, ymax happens between 0.11994 m ≤ x ≤ 2.96994 m, then,

dy =0 dx 2 − 1875x 2 + 1875( x − 0.11994) + 667.9024 = 0 x = 1.5449 m
At x = 1.5449 m,
y max = y ( x = 1.5449 ) = 1 (535 .6920 ) m EI

If the maximum deflection, ymax happens between 2.96994 m ≤ x ≤ 3.08988 m, then,

dy =0 dx 2 2 − 1875x 2 + 1875( x − 0.11994) + 1875(x − 2.96994) + 667.9024 = 0 x = 2.4952 m
At x = 2.5942 m,
y max = y ( x = 2.5942 ) = 1 (332 .62 ) m EI

By comparing the maximum deflection at three distinct positions, the maximum deflection which has the largest magnitude occurs at x = 1.54449 m. Thus, the maximum bending moment is

M max = M (x = 1.5449) = [3750(1.5449) − 3750(1.42496)]N ⋅ m = 449.775 N ⋅ m
Likewise, the minimum thickness of the platform when the lifting mechanism is at the fully-lowered position can be computed by the equation derived before:

t=

12M max σY w

(S.F. = 2)

As tabulated in Table 14 above, by substituting w = 2.8 m and σY = 690 MPa into the above equation, the minimum thickness of the platform is

t=

12(449.775 N ⋅ m) = 1.67 × 10 − 3 m 6 (690 × 10 Pa)(2.8 m)

Based on the two values of minimum thickness of the platform required obtained from above calculations, and since the minimum thickness of the platform is seems to be thicker for the case of lifting mechanism is fully-lowered as compared to the fully-lifted position, therefore, the minimum thickness of the platform is found to be t = 1.67 mm.
Detail Design (Engineering Synthesis and Analysis) Page 52 of 78

Due to the fact that the minimum thickness of the platform is relatively flimsy, the platform can be reinforced by mesh provided on the surface so that the applied loading can be distributed. 11.7 Bending Moment and Deflection (Scissor-lift Legs)

Apart from the thickness of the platform required in order to sustain the huge loading exerted from the car, another significant portion in which detail analyses should be taken into considerations is the cross-sectional area of the scissor-lift legs. The minimum cross-sectional area of the scissor-lift legs can be determined by similar procedures employed in the determination of minimum thickness of platform as worked in Section 11.6. Since all the loading applied onto all the scissor-lift legs are identical and only normal components are contribute to the occurrence of deflection, therefore, only one of the scissor-lift leg is considered to find the minimum cross-sectional area. Bending Moment and Deflection for Leg 1

Figure 34: Free Body Diagram (F. B. D.) for Leg 1

Based on the free body diagram as shown in Figure 34 above, the magnitudes of nomenclatures are tabulated in Table 3 below.
Table 15: Magnitudes of Nomenclatures in Figure 10

Nomenclatures Length of the scissor-lift leg, L Weight of the car, W θmin θmax

Magnitude 2.9 m 30,000 N 1.7° 20.9°

In order to select the reaction force of larger magnitude, the angle at which the lifting mechanism is at the highest and lowest positions are taken into considerations. As shown, only forces that are normal to the scissor-lift leg are analyzed, this is due to the fact that only vertical forces contribute to the deflection of scissor-lift leg.

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Table 16: Magnitude of Ay', J1 and F'CD at θ = 1.7 and 20.9 Degrees

Angle (Deg.) θ = 1.7° θ = 20.9°

A′ y =

W cos θ 8 3748.349 N 3503.267 N

J1 =

W sec θ 8 3751.651 N 4014.111 N

′ = FCD

W cos θ 8 3748.349 N 3503.267 N

By comparing the magnitude of forces as tabulated in Table 16 above, the forces acting on Leg 1 at angle of 1.7 degrees has been selected for the analyses of bending moment and deflection for Leg 1 due to the larger value. Based on the free body diagram as shown in Figure 34 and Table 16 above, the moment function can be expressed by singularity function as follows:

M ( x ) = −3748.349x + 3751.651 x − 1.45 N ⋅ m
The equation of elastic curve is given by:

d2y = − M (x ) dx 2 d2y EI 2 = 3748.349 x − 3751.65 x − 1.45 dx EI
Integrating twice in x,
EI

1

N⋅m

dy = 1874.1745 x 2 − 1875.825 x − 1.45 dx
3

2

+ C1 N ⋅ m 2

EIy = 624.7248 x 3 + 625.275 x − 1.45

+ C1 x + C 2 N ⋅ m 3

Boundary Conditions: [x = 0, y = 0]:
0 = 624.7248(0 ) + 0 + C1 (0 ) + C 2 ⇒ C 2 = 0
3

[x = 2.9 m, y = 0]:

0 = 624.7248(2.9) + 625.275(1.45) + C1 (2.9 )
3 3

C1 = −5911.2559
Hence,
EI dy = 1874.1745 x 2 − 1875.825 x − 1.45 dx
3 2

− 5911.2559 N ⋅ m 2

EIy = 624.7248 x 3 + 625.275 x − 1.45

− 5911.259 x N ⋅ m 3

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For maximum deflection,

dy =0 dx 2 1874.1745 x 2 − 1875.825( x − 1.45) − 5911.2559 = 0

− 1.6505 x 2 + 5439.8925 x − 9855.178 = 0 x = 1.8126 m At x = 1.8126 m,
y max = y ( x = 1.8126 ) = − 1 (6964 .4954 ) m EI

The negative sign in the maximum deflection above indicates that the leg 1 is deflected upwards. Therefore, the maximum bending moment is M max = M ( x = 1.8126)

= [− 3748.349(1.8126) + 3751.651(0.3626)] N ⋅ m = −5433.9087 N ⋅ m

Since the cross-section of the scissor-lift leg is square, therefore, the length of the side of the square cross-section is
t=3 12 M max = 9.7213 × 10 − 3 m

σY

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12.0 Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Prototyping
What is CAD (2012) mentioned that computer aided design (CAD) is a form of design in which people work with computers to create ideas, models, and prototypes. Designers can also move design elements around and run the design through software programs which can determine whether or not the design is structurally viable. According to What is CAD (2012), CAD can also be used to design structure, mechanical components, and molecules, among other things. There are few advantages of the utilization of CAD in the design process as follows: • Prototypes need not to be built to demonstrate a project and its potential as 3D modelling program could show how the system looks and works and it allows endless variations and experiments to show how the look and function could be altered. Time expenses could also be cut down as it takes a long time to build prototype. The reduction of cost could also be done as the models could be simulated using software. Allows endless variations and experiments to show how the look and function could be altered. 12.1 Prototyping

• • •

Prototyping is a phase of design processes in which a demo of a new product is generated. It acts as a significant role in the design process as uncertainties in the design project could be prevented and minimized. Prototyping can be grouped into two major categories such as physical prototype and analytical prototype. Physical prototype is a scaled-down model in which various experiments and testing can be conducted to observe and examine the relationships between each parameters. On the contrary, analytical prototype is a representation of actual model in non-tangible manner such as computer simulations or mathematical equations used to describe the physics occurred. Due to the financial constraints and costly expenses in terms of fabrication costs, analytical prototype has been selected in the design of 3S Parking System. 12.1.1 Analytical Prototyping The analytical prototype is modeled and simulated by using one of the commercial software that had been extensively utilized in computer aided design which is SolidWorks 2012. The prototyping of different parts and components of 3S Parking System are done by using SolidWorks and analytical prototypes are depicted in pictures below.

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Figure 35: 3D Model of 3S Parking System (Fully-lowered)

Figure 36: 3D Model of 3S Parking System (Fully-lifted)

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Figure 37: The Single Acting Single Rod Hydraulic Cylinder

As shown in Figure 37 above, the single acting single rod hydraulic cylinder. The working fluid of the hydraulic cylinder will act on one side in which the piston is retracting. In other words, the force will be exerted as the piston is retracting. The retraction of the piston will cause the lifting of the platform, thus force is needed in this operation. On the other hand, the lowering operation of the whole system will cause the piston to extend. This process does not require too much to be exerted. Thus we choose single acting cylinder for this application.

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Figure 38: The Scissor-lift Mechanism (Lifting Device) used in 3S Parking System

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Figure 39: Fixed Ends of the Scissor-lift Mechanism

Figure 40: Roller of Scissor-lift Mechanism

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Figure 41: Backup Battery for 3S Parking System during Power Cut

12.1.2 Detail Drawings of 3S Parking System The detail engineering drawings are drawn by the aid of SolidWorks and are illustrated in the following pictures.

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Figure 42: Top, Side, Front and 3D Isometric Views of 3S Parking System Computer Aided Engineering (CAD) and Prototyping Page 62 of 78

Figure 43: The Exploded View of 3S Parking System Computer Aided Engineering (CAD) and Prototyping Page 63 of 78

12.2

Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

According to Dixit (2007, p. 1), finite element analysis is a numerical method that has been extensively employed in solving complicated mathematical equations such as non-linear partial differential equations that used in the description of physical phenomenon and modeling of engineering problems. Finite element analysis is introduced in the design due to the fact that it can provides a good approximations to the solutions of partial differential equations in which analytical solutions are difficult to obtained. The determinations of deflections as well as bending moment in Section 11.2 are based on appropriate assumptions in which some of the parameters which might consequence in inaccuracy of results are neglected. Thus, finite element analyses by the aid of SolidWorks Simulation Study on the deflection of platform as well as the entire structure of 3S Parking System are conducted. The methodologies employed in the numerical analysis are illustrated in Figure 44 below. Apart from that, in the product development process, it is used to predict what is going to happen when the product is used. Finite element analysis (2012) also stated that FEA works by breaking down a real object into a large number (thousands to hundreds of thousands) of finite elements. The behaviour of each element could be predicted by using mathematical equations. A computer then adds up all the individual behaviours to predict the behaviour of the actual object. Therefore, through the employment of FEA, the cost required in the design can be economized. By using finite element analysis, the behavior of products affected by many physical effects such as mechanical stress, mechanical vibration, fatigue motion, heat transfer, fluid flow, electrostatics and plastic injection moulding could be predicted.

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Figure 44: Methodologies of Finite Element Analysis

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12.2.1 Deflection of Platform Since the platform is modeled as a beam in the computation of deflection in the detail design, therefore, in order to ensure and examine the position where the maximum bending occurs, finite element analysis of the deflection of platform is conducted. The deflection of platform is depicted in Figure 45 below. Based on the results obtained from the SolidWorks FEA Simulations as illustrated, the position where the maximum deflection occurred is approximately at the mid-span of the platform which has the highest magnitude of –0.229 mm. The negative sign indicates that the platform is deflected downwards due to gravity. Therefore, it can be concluded that the minimum thickness of the platform obtained from analytical solution is logic. Apart from that, the result also manifested that the deflection of the platform is relatively small, and it implies that utilization of the platform in 3S Parking System is free from the risk of harm.

Figure 45: Deflection Profile of the Platform Obtained from SolidWorks FEA Simulation

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Figure 46: Side View of Deflection Profile of the Platform

12.2.2 Deflection Profile of Entire 3S Parking System Moreover, the team also analyzes the deflection profile of the entire system with same loadings applied in the analysis of deflection of platform. The deflection profile of the entire 3S Parking system is illustrated in Figure 47 below. Based on the deflection profile obtained from SolidWorks FEA Simulation as illustrated in Figure 47 below, the maximum deflection occurs at somewhere around the mid-span of the platform which has a magnitude of approximately 0.411 mm. Hence, it can be concluded that safety can be ensured and guaranteed through the employment of scissor-lift legs with minimum crosssectional area obtained from the manual calculations.

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Figure 47: Deflection Profile of the Entire 3S Parking System

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13.0 Value Engineering
Value engineering (VE) is a systematic process which mentions the functional values of a particular product. Value engineering is performed to enhance the performance of the product with reference to existing design and also to reduce cost. This could be the justification of the product to be smart, sustainable, and safe.
Table 17: Value Engineering for 3S Parking System

Component Caster wheel Platform Base Hydraulic cylinder Scissor lift Control box Hump Proximity sensor

Function To support between the platform and the base To place the car parked on the top surface To support for the whole system as well as the hydraulic system and scissor lift To provide mechanical force and sustain the scissor lift up or down To lift the platform and object (automobile) up to a desired height To control the hydraulic cylinder support To prevent the automobile slipping To prevent the failure when the switch of remote control mistaken pressed

Value Medium High High High High Medium Low Medium

Cost (RM) Original Redesign 319.20 17100.00 2880.00 1200.00 1080.00 600.00 90.00 3.00 201.60 9900.00 1440.00 608.00 576.00 600.00 45.00 3.00 13373.60

Total Amount 23272.20

According to Table 17, the price is estimated to be RM13373.60 as the prices in Table 17 are estimated based on the current market price. The price of the material will be reduced to at least 20 – 35% of the redesign price when the product is manufactured in bulk.

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14.0 Design for Manufacturing (DFM)
Design for Manufacturing emphasize on the cost reduction of the whole system while the quality is maintained. The cost reduction can be accomplished by reducing the number of parts hence, the manufacturability can be enhanced. The product created through the utilization of DFM technique can be easily manufactured and the manufacturing cost is affordable as well (Chang et al 1998). As addressed by Ulrich and Eppinger (2004), the 5 Steps Approach is introduced to minimize the cost of manufacturing while the ease of manufacturing of a certain product is improved.

Figure 48: 5 Steps Approach

Figure 48 above illustrates the phases of 5 Steps Approach which is implemented by the team. The cost of the whole system is based on the number of parts and components of the entire system, the assembly processes as well as the other expenses necessary for the production. The implementation of DFM in our design process will only affect the total cost of the product while the quality is maintained.

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Table 18: Design for Manufacture

Item No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Component Platform Scissor Lift Bar Wheel Shaft for bar (short) Pin 1 Pin 2 Base Pin 3 Hydraulic Support Circlip Hydraulic Cylinder Hydraulic Piston Control Box Ramp Battery

Standard component × × × × ×

Custom Component × × × × × × × × × -

Material ASTM A709 ASTM A709 ASTM A709 ASTM A709 ASTM A709 ASTM A709 ASTM A709 Maple Wood -

Quantities 1 16 16 8 8 4 2 4 4 24 4 1 2 2

Cost/Unit (RM) (Low Price) 9995 45 12.5625 2.425 2.425 1.2125 720 1.2125 223.5 3.67 152 600 454.5 250

Cost/Unit (RM) (High Price) 17275 67.5 12.5625 2.9575 2.9575 1.47875 1440 1.47875 636 4.41 300 600 1156 350

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Table 19: Cost Reduction

Item No.

Component

Initial Cost From BOM (RM)

Reduced Costs of Component by Percentage (%)

Reduced Cost of Assembled Component

Reduced Cost of Supporting Production

How the Cost is reduced?

Reason

1

Platform

9995.00

15

-

-

Thickness reduction

Maximum thickness is employed, but actual usage do not really need such thickness Thickness can be further reduced so that the cost can be economized Wood used is Hard Maple. Another type of wood could be used to substitute it -

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Scissor Lift Bar Wheel Shaft for bar (short) Pin 1 Pin 2 Base Pin 3

720.00 201.00 19.40 19.40 4.85 1440.00 4.85

8 10 -

-

-

Use Wheels That Is Cheaper Decrease In Thickness Use Another Type Of Wood -

9

Hydraulic Support

894.00

20

-

-

10

Circlip

88.08

-

-

-

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Table 20: Cost Reduction (Continued)

Item Number

Component

Initial Cost From BOM (RM)

Reduced Costs of Component by Percentage (%)

Reduced Cost of Assembled Component

Reduced Cost of Supporting Production

How the Cost is reduced?

Reason

11 12 13 14

Hydraulic Cylinder Hydraulic Piston Control Box Ramp 608.00 5 -

Different Manufacturer Different Material Different Manufacturer

600.00 909.00

30

-

-

There are various manufacturer which provide similar cylinder that we need the cost can be reduce by using material with a cheaper cost Different Brand

15

Battery

500.00

5

-

-

Design for Manufacturing (DFM)

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Table 18 is constructed based on the components of the finalized model. The entire system encompasses of 14 components. The hydraulic cylinder and piston are drawn separately so that animation can be done with minimum obstacles. Therefore, the hydraulic cylinder and piston can be counted as one component. Some of the component employed in the design can be found in the market whereas some of it requires parts customization. The costs can be greatly reduced if large amount of off-the-shelf components are purchase together. On the contrary, the cost required for the custom-made parts or components are relatively higher as compared to those parts can be found in market. This is due to the fact that raw material is required for the customization of parts and components. Besides, Table 18 also provides the cost estimation of each parts and components according to the market price available. As listed in Section 13.0, the cost estimated is approximately RM 13,000.00 whereas the estimated cost in DFM is approximately RM 16,000.00. The deviation in the costs estimated is caused by distinct methodologies employed in the cost estimations. Whereby, the costs of listed components in value engineering and DFM are obtained from the costs of the parts that estimated earlier and Bill of Material generated by SolidWorks respectively. Both the Table 19 and 20 listed the components or parts employed in the design as well as the corresponding reduced costs in terms of percentage. The alternatives used in the cost reduction are mentioned and the reasons are listed as well. The reduction percentage is based on the possible alternatives and solutions that are available in the existing market. Since the parts and components produced by SolidWorks are the minimum, thus no further reduction in the number of parts required can be conducted.

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15.0 Safe Design
Safety is a very important aspect that needs to be considered when designing a system or product. Safety is one of the important factors to produce a product; it affects the trust of the customers towards a product. The 3S Parking system will considered a lot of safety aspects as the product is for household usage. The material used to construct the whole system is ASTM A709 which is a high strength low alloy steel. This material belongs to a group of alloy steels named HSLA (High-Strength Low Alloy). HSLA was also known as micro-alloyed steels as the alloying element such as carbon, manganese, vanadium, silicon, chromium and niobium. HSLA main properties are the light weight feature as compared to plain carbon steel. For structure design, it is good in terms of corrosion resistance and high yield strength as well as high in tensile strength. The properties of HSLA turn out to be the most suitable materials used for this product at such it had corrosion resistance. For the hydraulic cylinder used, there will be four hydraulic cylinders in total. Two of the cylinders will be installed side by side in opposite direction, and then is installed on one side of the whole system. The two cylinders will be installed on the hydraulic support so that the force exerted by the cylinder will be forced horizontally so that it won’t bend or deflect that easily. One of the hazards that might rise up is corrosion of the hydraulic cylinder, in layman’s term rust. As this unit might be used in outdoor and indoor environment, thus damage experienced by the hydraulic cylinder might due to excessive exposure to sunlight and rain for outdoor environment. Indoor usage might reduce the occurrence of the damage to the whole system. Outdoor usage can cause the corrosion to the parts on the outer surface of the cylinder such as the bolts and other part expose to the environment. When hydraulic cylinder is damage there might be some possibilities of it, such as oil leakage for the hydraulic oil which is used to power the whole hydraulic system, rust of the fasteners affects the movement of the cylinder and so on. The working fluid of the hydraulic cylinder leakage might also lead to environment contamination or environment pollution. In order to solve this problem, it is advisable that the maintenance is done frequently so that the damage experience by the hydraulic unit will not affect the performance of the whole system. Such maintenance can reduce the possibilities of oil leakage. The hoses will be periodically checked so that the leakage by the hoses will be reduced as well. On the contrary, the platform itself needs some safety feature to ensure the stability of the whole system and the safety of the vehicle parked on top of the platform. Hence, humps are installed on top of the platform as to ensure that the vehicle parked on the platform does not have any chance of slipping. The humps are installed in such that the tyres of the vehicles can be positioned between two humps. This means that the tyres are situated firmly on the platform by the help of the humps. Another safety feature include in this system is the installation of sensor to ensure the safety of the vehicle of the customer. The sensor is installed at the bottom face of the platform to sense the availability of car parked at the lower compartment of the system to prevent from being crushed by platform. This is a fool-proved system that has been introduced to prevent accidents from happening. For example, if the customer accidentally pressed the “down” button on the control unit when there is a vehicle parked at the lower compartment of the system, the sensor will sense the presence of the vehicle and directly implement the emergency stop to stop the platform from moving. There will also be another sensor installed around the top compartment as to ensure that the vehicle is parked correctly at the given space. Due to the size of the platform,
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where the platform is originally designed to only support the wheel base as to reduce space consumption. This sensor’s function is to alert users the appropriate moment to stop their car which prevents it from slipping down during lifting. In the system design of the product, safety aspect is heavily look and take consideration of to prevent accidents from occur as safety features is the priority features that determine the purchase decision of customers. Therefore, a good safety feature product will results in a bright market. In other words, an excellent product with no market value will be considered as failure product.

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16.0 Discussion
The primary objective of this project is to develop a novel and innovative parking system for customers who are confronted with the problem of insufficient parking space to park their extra cars in normal residential housing area that has confined and limited parking spaces. Based on the problem statement, 3S Parking System is designed in which it encompasses of a platform which can be lifted and lowered by the employment of scissor-lift mechanism that is powered by hydraulic cylinders. Hydraulic cylinder is selected to provide lifting due to the green concept it possesses as electricity is used as the power source instead of power generation by charcoal fuels and diesel which might leads to environmental degradation. In order to design and develop a quality product that will satisfy the demands and needs of customers, a methodology which is so-called the house of quality from quality function deployment has been introduced whereby the relationship between the customers attributes and engineering characteristics can be clearly visualized. Various conceptual designs are then generated and developed based on the need statement of customers. The best and ideal concept is selected through the evaluation processes such as concept screening and concept scoring as the pros and cons associated with each concept can be assessed and analyzed. Therefore, the finalized concept that decided by the team is the 3S Parking System that encompasses of dual two-stage scissor-lift mechanism which located at each side of the platform. Besides, the hydraulic cylinder is positioned at the middle section due to higher mechanical efficiency it produced. Since the development of 3S Parking System is to provide a smart, safe and sustainable parking alternative, therefore the design of the product must be free from the risk of harm. In order to ensure safety utilization of the product, detailed engineering analysis has been conducted. The Maximum Bending Stress Theory from solid mechanics is utilized in the determination of minimum thickness of the platform as well as the minimum cross-sectional area of the scissor-lift legs to prevent from mechanical failures. Appropriate and logical assumptions have been made to ease the process of calculations such as the platform of the 3S Parking System is modeled as a beam in the analysis. This is due to the lengthy and tedious calculations need to be performed so that the analytical solution of the partial differential equation that governs the deflection phenomenon of a flat plate can be obtained. Once the hydraulic force required to power the scissor-lift mechanism is known, hydraulic cylinder is selected. Besides, hydraulic cylinder calculations are performed so that the properties and dimensions of cylinder can be determined. With all the dimension of each of the components in the entire 3S Parking System known, prototyping of the design is conducted. Analytical prototype is selected in the design of 3S Parking System due to restriction of financial constraints and costly expenses in terms of fabrication cost. Finite element analysis (FEA) is introduced as good approximations to the solutions of partial differential equation that used in the governing of deflection profile of plate are provided. The results obtained from the SolidWorks FEA Simulations are then compared with the results obtained from the manual calculations in Detail Design. By comparing the results obtained from both methodologies, it can be concluded that the deflection of platform as well as the scissor-lift legs are logic as expected before the simulation is conducted.

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17.0 Conclusion
In general, 3S Parking System that will satisfy the demands of customers is successfully developed. But, there is still some space in which improvements can be made such as double acting hydraulic cylinders will be implemented so that the mechanical efficiency can be further increased as well as leads to cost reduction. Apart from that, more meetings should be conducted as various ideas and concepts in which the performance of the entire system can be enhanced. Through this design project, various techniques and methodologies that have been extensively employed in engineering designed such as the application of quality function deployment in the determination of characteristics, weighted objectives method used in concept selection, and design for manufacturing used in cost reduction are learned. As in real-life applications, these methodologies can be implemented so that the design of product can meet the customer’s requirements. The project team is divided into multi-disciplinary group as some of the members will focus on certain part based on the technical knowledge each possesses. Through the design processes, soft skills that have been extensively applied in management such as team work is developed. This will assists each of the team members to be well prepared to the future design environment. In conclusion, the implementations of 3S Parking System provides a smart, safe and sustainable alternative to household users, who are confronted with problems of insufficient parking spaces, in which the primary objective of this design project is attained. Besides from the primary objective of this design, the learning objectives of this unit (Mechanical System Design) such as the appreciation of principle of system design, estimating the reliability of mechanical system are accomplished as well.

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18.0 Recommendations
For future design, double acting double rod hydraulic cylinder will be introduced to provide lifting and lowering of scissor-lift mechanism since mechanical efficiency can be enhanced and the cost of the design can be significantly reduced. Apart from that, manual operations will be included in the design as well. This is due to the fact that as mentioned in the Concept Generation Section, lifting of the platform is unable to attained during power cut, therefore, manual operation in the lifting will be introduced. This can be done through the employment of gearing mechanism or gear train to control the vertical movement of the scissorlift mechanism. Besides, better appearance as well as parts with lower price will be introduced so that it can be affordable by each of the household users.

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Acknowledgement
The phases in designing and implementing a new product is a time-consuming process of which problems arise from various aspects should be taken into consideration, and it is never easy as this may end up with lot amount of success and failure in certain superfluous conditions which might results in disappointment and frustration of people around. Therefore, the team would like to express their heartfelt gratitude to Dr. Soon Kok Heng who has been there to guide us throughout the entire project and has believe in us that we possesses the ability to progress with integrity. Apart from that, special gratitude also extended to Dr. Ha How Ung who has spent his precious time to assists us in the calculations in the detail design. Besides, deepest gratitude also expressed to Mr. Wong Soon Jin and Ms. Melissa Augustine for providing the team guidance in the concept generation when we are running out of ideas. Lastly, we would like to thank all the respondents and participants of the online survey for spending their precious time in answering the questions in the survey.

Acknowledgement

References
Beer, FP, Jonhston, ER, DeWolf, JT & Mazurek, DF 2012, Mechanics of Materials, 6th edn., The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York. Benham, PP, Crowford, RJ & Armstrong, GG 1996, Mechanics of Engineering Materials, Pearson Prentice Hall, England. Currency converter n.d, gocurrency.com, <http://www.gocurrency.com> viewed 4 December 2012,

Dixit, US 2007, FINITE ELEMENT METHOD: AN INTRODUCTION, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati-781 039, India. Finite element analysis (2012), Autodesk Inc, viewed 3 December <http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/item?siteID=123112&id=17670721 > 2012,

Mago, N & Hicks, S n.d., FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS What is it and how can it help your company?, HERA Innovation in Metals Shariff, NM 2012, Private Vehicle Ownership and Transportation Planning in Malaysia, 2012 International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Engineering (ICTTE 2012) IPCSIT Vol. 26, IACSIT Press, Singapore. Smith, GP 2007, Morphological Charts: A Systematic Exploration of Qualitative Design Space, A Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of Clemson University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University. What is CAD (2012), Conjecture Corporation, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cad.htm viewed 3 December 2012,

William, D & Callister, Jr 2007, Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction, 7th edn., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., United States of America Ventsel, E & Krauthammer, T 2001, Thin Plates and Shells Theory, Analysis, and Applications, Marcel Dekker, Inc., United States of America. Zakuan, NM, Yusof, SM & Shamsudin, S 2007, Implementation of Quality Management Practices in Malaysian Automotive Industries: A Review, Regional Conference on Engineering Mathematics, Mechanics, Manufacturing & Architecture (EM*ARC) 2007, Advanced Processes and System in Manufacturing (APSIM) 2007.

References

Appendices

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Appendix 1 – Project Plan and Execution (Gantt chart)

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Appendix 2 – Presentation PowerPoint Slides

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Appendix 3 - Tables of Typical Properties of Selected Materials Used in Engineering

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Appendix 4 – Concurrent Engineering Write-up Students are divided into 2 different groups one that practice the sequential product development process and another that uses concurrent engineering. The task of manufacturing aeroplane is given to both groups. Through the different practice of the engineering terms comparisons of it is made based on the results obtained. For our group, which practice the concurrent engineering had allowed the changes in the hierarchy of an organization. Group members are divided into smaller group that focus on different parts like the design, manufacturing, purchasing and marketing. Each small group will be focusing on their parts and work parallel from the start with other groups. In the process of it till the end of the tasks the concurrent engineering will be putting the design process, manufacturing and marketing development together to generate the outcome. From the results, it can be seen that concurrent engineering is faster in terms of time which is ideal for fast pace of technology nowadays as it had shorter time to market. However, there is down part that concurrent engineering faces than the sequential product development process as the collaboration between the groups is less and therefore the marketing and manufacturing issues is less considered.

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Appendix 5 – Design for Manufacturing Exercises

Appendix 6 – Safe Design Case Studies and Exercises According to safety principles of safe design, safe design is everyone’s responsibility. The responsibilities for safe design rest with those persons have control or influence over the design. In this case, lack of communications happen from the designer to the end user as the user should aware of any risk that may affect their health and safety. Besides, duties of different groups of people involved in the workplace have played an important role to ensure the health and safety in a workplace. Therefore, the maintenance team did not achieve to the due diligence as they should hold the duty of care to ensure the machine is free from blockages before the usage in the future. Apart from that, the trainer also has to be reasonably practicable which the knowledge of severity of the hazard should be taken into consideration. The trainer should checks the safety of the machine before it reaches to the end user. Other than that, the employer did not achieve their duty of care on the risk management as they should follow up the duty of maintenance team to minimize the risks facing by the end user. Moreover, the distributor also has to take responsibilities on the trading of their business as they are required to provide clear information associated with the risk management of their selling product to their customer who is the employer of the company in this case. However, the manufacturer and designer have control and influence over the design of machines and thus, hold the legal responsibility for the failure of a machine. The sate design principles should be implemented on the design of the machine to ensure that hazards are identified as early as possible and that they are designed out, the risks are responsibly managed throughout the entire life cycle. The design should also meet an engineer’s responsibilities for sustainable, ethical and socially responsible practice.

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