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ELEMENT 1 SOUNDS: PITCH, DYNAMICS AND TONE COLOR 1. Sounds bombard our ears everyday example; the squeaks and honks of traffic, a child‘s laugh the bark of dog and the patter of rain. 2. Sounds may be perceived as pleasant or unpleasant. Fortunately, we can direct our attention to specific sounds, shutting out those that don‘t interest us. Especially at the party for instance, we can choose to ignore the people near us and focus instead on a conversation across the room. Actually, we shut out most sounds, paying attention only to those of interest. 3. Sounds begin with the vibration of an object, such as a table that is pounded or a string that is plucked. 4. The vibrations are transmitted to our ears by a medium, which is usually air. As a result of the vibrations, our brain there impulse are selected, organized and interpreted. PITCH: HIGHNESS OR LOWNESS OF SOUNDS 1. Pitch is the relative highness or lowness that we hear in a sound. No doubt you‘ve noticed that most men speak and sing in a lower range of pitches than women or children do. 2. The pitch of sounds is determined by the frequency of vibrations. The faster of vibration, the higher of pitch, the slower of vibration, the lower of the pitch. 3. In general, the smaller the vibrating object, the faster is vibrations and the higher its pitch. 4. In music, a sound that has a definite pitch is called a ‗Tone‘. The vibration of a tone is regular and reaches the ear at equal times intervals. 5. Two tones will sound different when they have different pitches. The distance in pitch between any two tones is called an interval. 6. When tones are separated by the interval called an octave they sound very much alike. 7. The interval of an octave is important in music. It is the interval between the first and last tone of the familiar scale. Sing this scale slowly. Do Ti La So Fa Me Re Do _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1
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8. The distance between the lowest and highness tones that a voice or instrument can produce is called its pitch range or simply its range. 9. The range of average untrained voice is between 1&2 octave; a piano‘s range is over 7 octaves. When men and women sing the same melody, they usually sing it an octave apart. DYNAMICS 1. Degrees of loudness or softness in music are called dynamics. Our second property of sound, loudness is related to the amplitude of the vibration that produces the sound. 2. A performer can emphasize a tone by playing it more loudly than the tones around it. We call an emphasis of this kind a dynamic accent. 3. Skill full, subtle changes of dynamic add spirit and mood to performances. Sometimes these changes are written in the music, often though they are not written but are inspired by the performer‘s feeling about the music. 4. When notating music for others to read, composers have traditionally used Italian words and appreciation to indicate dynamic. E.g.; Italian Term Pianissimo Piano Mezzo Piano Mezzo Forte Forte Fortissimo Symbol pp p mp mƒ ƒ ƒƒ English Term Very Soft Soft Moderately Softly Moderately Loud Loud Very Loud
5. For extremely soft and dynamic levels, a composer will sometimes use ppp or Pppp and fff or ffff. These symbols and words are used. Decrescendo ( decresc.) Or Diminuendo (dim.) Crescendo (Cresc.)
Gradually Softer Gradually Louder
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1. The human voice consists of sound made by a human using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, screaming. The vocal folds, in combination with the lips, the tongue, the lower jaw, and the palate, are capable of producing highly intricate arrays of sound. 2. The tone of voice may be modulated to suggest emotions such as anger, surprise, or happiness. Singers use the human voice as an instrument for creating music.
VOICE TYPES AND THE CORDS THEMSELVES
A labeled anatomical diagram of the vocal folds or cords. 3. Men and women have different vocal cord sizes; adult male voices are usually lower-pitched and have larger cords. The male vocal cords (which would be measured vertically in the opposite diagram), are between 17 mm and 25 mm in length. 4. Matching the female body, which on the whole has less muscle than the male, females have smaller cords. The female vocal cords are between 12.5 mm and 17.5 mm in length. 5. As seen in the illustration, the cords are located just above the trachea (the windpipe which travels from the lungs). Food and drink does not pass through the cords but is instead taken through the esophagus, an unlinked tube.
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Both tubes are separated by the tongue and an automatic gag reflex. When food goes down through the cords and trachea it causes choking. 6. Cords in both sexes are ligaments within the larynx. They are attached at the back (side nearest the spinal cord) to the arytenoid cartilages, and at the front (side under the chin) to the thyroid cartilage. Their outer edges, as shown in the illustration, are attached to muscle in the larynx while their inner edges or "margins" are free (the hole). They are constructed from epithelium, but they have a few muscle fibres on them, namely the vocalis muscle which tightens the front part of the ligament near to the thyroid cartilage. They are flat triangular bands and are pearly white in colour—whiter in females than they are in males. Above both sides of the vocal cord (the hole and the ligament itself) is the vestibular fold or false vocal cord, which has a small sac between its two folds (not illustrated). 7. The difference in vocal cord size between men and women means that they have differently pitched voices. Additionally, genetics also causes variances amongst the same sex, with men and women's voices being categorised into types. For example, among men, there are baritones and tenors, and sopranos and altos among women. There are different methods for categorizing voices, such as the fach in German opera, and vocal weight in British opera.
1. The human voice is capable in most cases of being a complex instrument. Humans have vocal folds which can loosen or tighten or change their thickness and over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of chest and neck, the position of the tongue, and the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, volume, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. 2. One important categorization that can be applied to the sounds singers make relates to the register or the "voice" that is used. Singers refer to these registers according to the part of the body in which the sound most generally resonates, and which have correspondingly different tonal qualities. There are widely differing opinions and theories about what a register is, how they are produced and how many there are. The following definitions refer to the different ranges of the voice.
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Rhythmic repetition of this movement a certain number of times a second creates a pitched note. use of overly strong chest voice in the higher registers in an attempt to hit higher notes in the chest can lead to forcing. This creates an oval shaped gap between the folds and some air escapes. When a singer or person shouts or screams. When talking about a singer's vocal range. capitis -. A person uses the chest voice when singing in the majority of his or her lower range. guttoris. 4. usually only the chest voice is counted. This is how the chest voice is created. and resonate mostly in the larger cavity of the chest. The chest voice is the register typically used in everyday speech. The tonal qualities of the chest voice are usually described as being rich or full. 5. if just for a small length of time. Forcing can lead consequently to vocal deterioration. When the air pressure in the trachea rises as a result of this closure. It was discovered via stroboscope that during ordinary phonation. lowering the pressure inside the trachea. 3. when it was distinguished from the throat and the head voice (pectoris. The speaking voice is named as "the chest voice" in the Speech Level Singing method. this is in the chest voice. It is so called because it can produce the sensation of the sound coming from the upper chest.at this time it is likely head voice referred to the falsetto register. This closure cuts off the escaping air. 2. This is because lower frequency sounds have longer wavelengths. The first recorded mention of this register was around the 13th century.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SPEAKING VOICE (CHEST) 1. however. while the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages remain in apposition. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . the folds are blown apart. see falsetto article) by the writers Johannes de Garlandia and Jerome of Moravia. or speaking in a man the vocal folds contact with each other completely during each vibration closing the gap between them fully. but can also be belted or forced to make it sound powerful by shouting or screaming.
3. mellow and rich PERFORMING MEDIA: VOICES AND INSTRUMENTS Voices 1. The quality that distinguishes them our third property of musical sound is called ‗Tone Color‘ or timbre (pronounced tam‘ber). brilliant.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ TONE COLOR 1. The classification of voice ranges for women and men follows. Singer seems always to have had a magnetic appeal. 2. and even today adoring audiences imitate the looks and lifestyles of their favorites. 3. dark. Throughout history. arranged from highest to lowest. singing has been the most widespread and familiar way of making music. 2. We can tell a trumpet from a flute even when each of them is playing the same tone at the same dynamic level. The four basic ranges are: Women Soprano Mezzo-Soprano Alto (or contralto) Men tenor baritone bass _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Tone color is described by words such as bright.
An instrument may be defined as any mechanism-other than voice –that produces musical sounds. trombone) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT .MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Musical Instrument 1. 2. Western musicians usually classify instrument in six broad categories: Strings (such as guitar and violin) Woodwind (flute and clarinet) Brass (trumpet.
cymbals) Keyboard (organ . 1. Beat When you clap you hands or tap your foot to music. recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time. In its widest sense. 2. CFS DEPARTMENT . rhythm is the flow of music through time. 2. too.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percussion (bass drum. Beat is a regular. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL Is basic to life. you are responding to its beat. Rhythm forms the lifeblood of music. piano) Electronic( Synthesizer) RHYTHM 1.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Notating Pitch With music notation. Tempo 1. 2. Notating Silence (Rests) Duration of silence is notated by using a symbol called a rest. 2. The organization of beats into regular groups is called meter.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Meter 1. which are based on the number of beats in a measure. System of writing music so that specific pitches and rhythms can be communicated. It is explained here–very briefly-primarily to help you recognize rising and falling melodic lines and long and short notes so that you can follow the music examples in this book. A group containing a fixed number of beats is called a measure. Largo Grave Adagio Andante Moderato Allegretto Allegro Vivace Presto Prestissimo MUSIC NOTATION very slow. we can indicate exact pitches by the upward or downward placement of symbols-called notes-on staff. 2. The are several types of meter. their durations correspond to those of notes. As with dynamics. In music we find a repeated pattern of a strong beat plus one or more weaker beats. solemn slow moderately moderate moderately fast fast lively very fast as fast as possible 1. Rests are pauses. the terms that show tempo (at the left) are in Italian. A tempo indication is usually given at the beginning of a piece. broad very slow. the basic pace of the music. The speed of the beat is known as tempo.
in standard two-stave format for mixed voices. 2.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Notating Meter A time signature (meter signature) shows the meter of a piece. -. hymn-style) arrangement of a traditional piece entitled Adeste Fideles. like its analogs -. Tibetan musical score from the 19th century. Sheet music is a hand-written or printed form of musical notation. pamphlets. Sheet music is written representation of music. The upper number tells how many beats fall in a measure. This is a homorhythmic (i.books.e.the medium of sheet music typically is _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . etc.. SHEET MUSIC 1. the lower number tells what kind of note gets the beat.
Music of other cultures. one must be able to read musical notation in order to make use of sheet music. Sight reading ability is expected of professional musicians and serious amateurs who play classical music and related forms. show. in earlier times. chord changes. The skill of sight reading is the ability of a musician to perform an unfamiliar work of music upon viewing the sheet music for the first time. or a means to perform. With the exception of solo performances. sheet music is used to give basic indications of melodies. where memorization is expected. Although it does not take the place of the sound of a performed work.tradition. a piece of music.) in one's head without having to play the piece. 4. 3.) PURPOSE AND USE 1. parchment). where songs and dances are passed down by oral -. Sheet music can be used as a record of. harmonies. or live performance. it is quite common for people to learn a piece by ear. for the last of these. which is mostly improvised. 3. classical musicians ordinarily have the sheet music at hand when performing. An even more refined skill is the ability to look at a new piece of music and hear most or all of the sounds (melodies. television programme. and there are several types of scores. Authoritative musical information about a piece can be gained by studying the written sketches and early versions of compositions that the composer might have retained. and more specifically usually refers to the print publication of commercial music alongside the release of a new film.and aural -. and arrangements. timbres. (Note: the term score can also refer to incidental music written for a play. This is also the case in most forms of western folk music. etc. as discussed below. sheet music can be studied to create a performance and to elucidate aspects of the music that may not be obvious from mere listening. 2. see film score. A common alternative (and more generic) term for sheet music is score. however. Handwritten or printed music is less important in other traditions of musical practice. record album. both folk _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Although much popular music is published in notation of some sort. broadcast. as well as the final autograph score and personal markings on proofs and printed scores. a guide to. or other special event which involves music. Use of the term ―sheet‖ is intended to differentiate music on paper from a recording.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ paper (or. Even in jazz music. or film. As with literature.
We sung in school. jazz piano) and performances that may only partially be based on notation. Row Your Boat _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . analysis. a) Row. This has been done not only with folk or traditional music (e.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ and classical. an orchestra score will show more than fifteen different staves of notation MELODY 1.. 2.g. is often transmitted orally. but probably the elusive ‗something‘ the evokes so much feeling will never be trapped in a dictionary definition. camps.. but also with sound recordings of improvisations by musicians (e. For many of us. the composer writes the music down). cars. and re-creative performance. though some non-western cultures developed their own forms of musical notation and sheet music as well. and the shower. Melody is easier to recognize than to define.e. often. Although sheet music is often thought of as being a platform for new music and an aid to composition (i. which seeks to transcribe into staves and tablature all the songs as recorded by the Beatles in instrumental and vocal detail. music means melody.g. Bartók's volumes of Magyar and Romanian folk music). The Score A score a sow the music for each instrumental or vocal category in a performing group. c1993). Row. An exhaustive example of the latter in recent times is the collection The Beatles: Complete Scores (London: Wise Publications. it can also serve as a visual record of music that already exists. Scholars and others have made transcriptions of western and non-western musics so as to render them in readable form for study.. 5. It must have something special since melody is common to the music of all peoples.
and richness to the melody. Harmony refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other. they add support. 2. depth. When folksingers accompany themselves on guitar. Since the central tone is especially stable and restful. 2. The other tones of the melody gravitate toward this central one. Most music in Western culture is a blend of melody and harmony.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ b) Mary Had a Little Lamb (2) HARMONY 1. MUSICAL TEXTURE _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . We call this harmonizing. Practically all familiar melodies are built around a central tone. a melody usually ends on it. KEY 1.
music speaks to us through a re-creator. to what kind of layers they are (melody or harmony). The Conductor The Performer Recorded and live performance Judging Performance _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . and to how they are related to each other 2. Unlike books and painting. We use the term ‗musical texture‘ is refers to how many different layers of sound are heard at once. a musician who makes the printed music sounds. Three basic musical texture: Monophonic Texture Polyphonic Texture Homophonic Texture PERFORMANCE 1. music would remain soundless on page. Without a performer.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1.
The melodies of Gregorian chant were meant to enhance specific parts of religious services.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ THE MIDDLE AGES 1. upheavals. Most important musicians were priests and worked for the church. and clergy. a time of migrations. For over 1. otherworldly quality.000 years. and the Civil War song When Johnny Comes Marching Home is in the Aeolian mode. The later middle Ages also witnessed the crusades. 2. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . a series of wars undertaken by European Christians-Primary between 1096 and 1291-to recover the holy city of Jerusalem from the Muslims. 2. Example. An important occupation in thousands of monasteries was liturgical singing. Boys received music education in schools associated with churches and cathedrals. The chant is monophonic in texture. 3. 3. Women were not allowed to sing in church but did make music in convents. GREGORIAN CHANT 1. 3. peasantry. which consists of melody set to sacred Latin texts and sung without accompaniment. Its rhythm is flexible. the sea chantey what shall we Do with the4 Drunken Sailor? Is in a mode called Dorian. During the Middle Ages a very sharp division existed among three main social classes: nobility. This era witnessed the ―dark ages‖. Gregorian chant conveys a calm. and wars. the official music of the Roman Catholic Church has been Gregorian chant. Beginning around 450 with the disintegration of the Roman Empire. it represents the voice of the church. rather than of any single individual. THE CHURCH MODES The church modes were the basic scales of western music during the middle Ages and Renaissance and were used in secular as well as sacred music. 2. without meter and has little sense of beat. MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES (450-1450) 1.
dance songs and spinning songs. definite time values and clearly defined meter. Estampie (Thirteenth Century) A medieval dance. Fourteenth Century) ~ Song two voices. Perotin.1200?) by.became the center of polyphonic music. Example of Notre Dame polyphony. is a Alleluia:Navitas (The Birth. The songs were usually performed by court minstrels and most of them deal with love. Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) ~ Notre Dame Mass-Angus Dei (Mid-Fourteenth Century) ~ Choral _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Music of Leonin and Perotin used measured rhythm. a single melodic line is notated and as usual no instrument is specified.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ SECULAR MUSIC IN THE MIDDLE AGES Much music outside the church The first large body of secular songs surviving in decipherable notation was composed during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by French nobles called troubadours and truoveres. They and their followers are referred to as the School of Notre Dame. Leonin and Perotin are among the first notable composers known by name. Composers and Works Medieval Ages Francesco Landini (?-1397) ~ Ecco la primavera (Spring has come. Two successive choirmasters of Notre Dame. but there are also songs about the Crusades. Accompanied by a rebec (a bowed string instruments) and a pipe (a tubular wind instrument) School OF Notre Dame: Measured Rhythm The intellectual and artistic capital of Europe. In the manuscript for the Estampie.
Arts and Letters Botticelli.1475) 1500 . architect.Romeo and Juliet (1596) luther‘s ninety-five theses. School of Athens (1505) -Titian.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Time Line: Renaissance (1450-1600) Dates Music Josquin Desprez. sculptor. who was a painter. Remarkable life of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).1570) -Shakespeare. La Primavera (1577) Historical and Cultural Events -Fall of Constantinople (1453) -Gutenberg Bible (1456) -Columbus reaches America (1492) 1450 . David (1504) -Raphael. Queen of England (15581603) -Spanish Armada defeated (1588) THE RENAISSANCE The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Europe have come to be known as the Renaissance. People then spoke of a ―rebirth‖.. Painters and sculptors were attracted to subjects drawn from classical literature and mythology. pope -Leonardo Marcellus Mass As Vesta Was Descending (1601) Mona Lisa (c.Virgo Serena (c. of human creativity. Once again they depicted the nude human _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . engineer as well. start of the Reformation (1517) -Council of Trent (1545-63) -Elizabeth I. Consider the voyages of Christopher Columbus (1492). -Martin (1563) -Thomas Weelkes. -Michelangelo.1600 -Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. which was called humanism. or ―renaissance‖. focused on human life and its accomplishments. Dominant intellectual movement.1503) da Vinci. Vasco da Gama (1498) and Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1522).1500 Ave Maria. Venus and the Lute Player (c.
This technique makes singing Renaissance music both a pleasure and a challenge. The humanistic interest in language influenced vocal music. A court music director would compose secular pieces to entertain the nobility and sacred works for the court chapel. A typical choral piece has four. Homophonic texture. Sounds of music fuller than medieval music. Princes. the words ‗descending from heaven‘ might be set to descending melodic line and running might be heard with a series of rapid notes. five or six voice parts of nearly equal melodic interest. For example . and Dukes competed for the finest composers. which had been a favorite theme of antiquity but an object of shame and concealment during middle Ages. courts and towns. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 18 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . CHARACTERISTICS OF RENAISSANCE MUSIC Words and Music Vocal music was more important than instrumental music. musical representation of specific poetic images. Rhythm and Melody Rhythm is more a gentle flow than a sharply defined beat. Women functioned as virtuoso singers several Italian courts during the late Renaissance. Texture The texture of Renaissance music is Polyphonic. King. MUSIC IN THE RENAISSANCE (1450-1600) In keeping with the Renaissance ideal of the ―Universal man‖.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ body. Church choir grew in size. The nobility often brought their musicians along when traveling from one castle to another. Musicians worked in churches. every educated person was expected to be trained in music. creating a close relationship between words and music. for each singer must maintain an individual rhythm. (The papal choir in Rome increased from ten singers in 1442 to twenty-four in 1483). Renaissance composers often used word painting. with successions of chords is also used especially in light music like dance.
a contemporary of Leonardo da Vinci and Christopher Columbus . Latin prayer to the Virgin is set to delicate and serene music. COMPOSERS AND WORKS (MOTET AND MASS) Josquin Desprez (1440-1521). Mary…Serene Virgin. Gloria. Palestrina‘s music includes 104 masses and some 450 other sacred works. Credo. which include masses.. Palestrina‘s works reflect this emphasis on a more spiritual music. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . motets and secular vocal pieces. text other than the ordinary of the mass. including Italian. was master of Renaissance music. SACRED MUSIC IN THE RENAISSANCE Two main forms of sacred Renaissance music are motet and the mass. The melody usually moves along a scale with few large leaps. 1502) – Choral works. Kyrie. French.Virgo Serena (Hail. two tenors. _ Short melodic _ Presented by the soprano voice and imitated by the alto. Josquin‗s composition. The Renaissance motet is a polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin Mass is a polyphonic choral compositions made up of five sections. tenor and bass. Dutch and English. Sanctus and Agnus Dei. alto. soprano. Pope Marcellus Mass (1562-1563) – Polyphonic masses _ A Capella choir of six voice parts. Ave Maria…. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525-1594) – devoted himself to music for the Catholic Church. and two basses SECULAR MUSIC IN THE RENAISSANCE Vocal Music Increasingly popular Music was set to poems in various languages. Josquin‘s works. German.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Pitch patterns in Renaissance melodies are easy to sing. Palestrina‘s works. Spanish.
with the melody in the highest note. Now Is the Month of Maying (1595) _ Five Voices _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 20 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Sung by cultivated aristocrats – Italian madrigalists were Luca Marenzio (1553-1599) and Carlo Gesualdo (1560-1613). It was cultivated in England from around 1595 to the 1620s. the infamous prince of Venosa who had his wife and lover murdered after finding them together in bed. drumbeats and fanfares. during a creative explosion in Italian poetry.La) A simpler type of secular vocal music than madrigal. a dance like song for several solo voices Homophonic in texture.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Renaissance secular music was written for groups of solo voices and for solo voices with the accompaniment of one or more Instrument. The time of Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603) and William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was as much a golden age in English music as it was in English literature. an anthology of English madrigals written to honor Queen Elizabeth. Composers and Works (Ballett) Thomas Morely (1557-1603). In famous piece entitled La Guerre (The War). usually about love. The Renaissance Ballett (Fa . Madrigal originated in Italy around 1520. who was often called Oriana. Weelkes’s As Vesta Was Descending comes from The Triumphes of Oriana (1601). The Renaissance Madrigal A piece for several solo voices set to a short poem. an English composer best known for his madrigals. an organist and church composers. English madrigal became lighter and more humorous than its Italian models and its melody and harmony were simpler Composers and works (Madrigal) Thomas Weelkes (1575-1623). Originated in Italy. the Frenchman Clement Janequin (1485-1560) vividly imitated battle noises.
or goddess. THE VENETION SCHOOL: FROM RENAISSANCE TO BAROQUE During the sixteenth century. Venice an independent city-state on the north-eastern coast of Italy. Brass. a popular Renaissance entertainment. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 21 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . The focal point for music in Venice was St. (Terpsichore was the Greek muse. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC Traditionally. Composers and Works (instrumental music) Terpsichore by Michael Praetorius (1571-1621). Instrumental groups performed polyphonic vocal pieces. which were often published with the indication to be sung or played.became a center of instrumental and vocal music. of the dance). _ Stately is a dance in duple meter _ Instrument – String. instrumentalist accompanied voices or played music intended for singing. Mark‘s Square. by Pierre Francisque Caroubel. Example. Soloist used the harpsichord. The Cathedral was colorful and wealthy. a German composer and theorist. Dance music was performed by instrumental groups by soloist like harpsichordists and lutenist. outdoor instruments like the trumpet and the shawm (a double reed ancestor of the oboe) and soft indoor instruments like lute and recoder (an early flute). Woodwind. Employed up to twenty instrumentalists and thirty singers for grand ceremonies within the Cathedral and in St. Much of this instrumental music was intended for dancing. _Collections of over 300 dance tunes arranged for instrumental ensemble. Passamezzo and Galliard.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _ Morely‘s carefree melody gracefully evokes the flirtatious mood of the poem. Importance both by means of magnificent processions and through its architecture and painting. Keyboard and Percussion. Mark‘s Cathedral. organ or lute (a versatile plucked string instrument with a body shaped like half a pear) to play simple arrangements of vocal works.
nephew Giovanni Gabrieli Giovanni Gabrieli and the Polychoral Motet (1555-1612). In the Netherlands for example. prosperous merchants and doctors commissioned realistic landscapes and scenes from everyday life. PLAUDITE (Clap your Hands. Adrian Willaert (1490-1562) Andrea Gabrieli (1520-1586) Andrea‘s. Churches used the emotional and theatrical qualities of art to make worship more attractive and appealing.Mark‘s Cathedral.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Music directors and organists at St. Mark‘s: i. performing groups. a native of Venice was the most important Venetian composer of the late Renaissance Studied with Uncle Andrea Gabrieli and was n organist at St. 1597) Spectecular polychoral motet plaudite was intended for joyful ceremony at St. During the baroque period. The motet is written for a large vocal and instrumental ensemble of twelve voice parts divided into three choirs. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 22 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . iii. Compositions include organ and instrumental ensemble works and poly choral motets (motets for two or more choirs often including groups of instruments). Europe was divided into Catholic and protestant area. ii. Gabrieli ‗s sonata pian e forte (1597) is famous as one of the earliest instrumental ensemble pieces in which dynamic and instrumentation are specified by the composer. that contrast in register THE BAROQUE STYLE (1600-1750) The baroque period (1600-1750) is known as ―age of absolutism‖ because many rules exercised absolute power over their subjects. Mark‘s from 1585 until his dead. The middle class too influenced the development of the baroque style.
Early (1600-1640) ii. The middle phase of the baroque (1640-1680). The two giants of baroque composition were George Frederic Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach. which produced most of the baroque music heard today. Many aspects of harmony-including an emphasis on the attraction of the dominant chord to the tonic-arose in this period. The late baroque period (1680-1750). grief and agitation were represented. Middle (1640-1680) iii.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ BAROQUE MUSIC (1600-1750) During the period from 1600 to 1750. Characteristics of Baroque Music Unity of Mood Baroque piece usually expresses one basic mood. Rhythm Rhythmic patterns heard at the beginning of a piece are repeated throughout it. The baroque period can be divide into three phases i. the new musical style spread from Italy to practically every country in Europe. Baroque melody gives an impression of dynamic expansion rather than of balance or symmetry. The beat. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 23 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Emotional states like joy. A short opening phrase is often followed by a longer phrase with unbroken flow of rapid notes. Rhythmic continuity provides a compelling drive and energy – the forward motion is rarely interrupted. at the time. Melody Many baroque melodies sound elaborate and ornamental and they are not easy to sing or remember. for example is emphasized far more in baroque music than in most Renaissance music. Late (1680-1750) Early baroque composers favored homophonic texture over the polyphonic texture typical of Renaissance music. these mood were called affections.
besides providing a steady flow of chords. Baroque composers often emphasized words by writing many rapid notes for a single syllable of text. The Baroque Orchestra Evolved into a performing group based on instrument of violin family. Texture Polyphonic : two or more melodic lines compete for the listener‘s attention in texture Chords and the Basso Continuo In a sense. The level of volume tends to stay constant for a stretch of time. the shift ids sudden. Heaven might be set to a high tone. Gradual changes through crescendo and decrescendo are not prominent features of baroque music. Baroque period chords became significant in themselves. and hell to a low tone. The new emphasis on chords and the bass part resulted in the most characteristic feature of baroque music. This alternation between loud and soft is called terraced dynamics.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Dynamic Paralleling continuity of rhythm and melody in baroque music is continuity of dynamic. like physically stepping from one level to another. this technique also displayed a singer‘s virtuosity. By modern standard the baroque orchestra was small. The basso continuo offered the advantage of emphasizing the allimportant bass part. The individual words and phrases of a text are repeated over and over as the music continuously unfolds. consisting of from ten to thirty or forty players. When the dynamics do shift. an accompaniment called bass continuo (Italian for continuous bass). Words and Music Baroque composers used music to depict the meaning of specific words. chords were mere by-products of the motion of melodic line. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT .
a small group of soloist is pitted against a larger group of players called the tutti (all). light and humorous MUSIC IN BAROQUE SOCIETY Before 1800. In ritornello form the tutti opens with the theme called the ritornello (refrain) – The theme. Composers frequently rearranged their own or other composers work‘s for different instrument. First and last movements of concerti grossi are often in ritornello form. the demand was for new music. or the flute and trumpet would imitate each other for extended sections on a piece. Along with an organ and a choir. such houses were located mainly in Italy. always played by the tutti.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Used of woodwind. which is based on alternation between tutti and solo sections. church music. Churches also needed music. Often one instrument was treated like another. to meet specific demands that came mainly from churches and aristocratic court. The music director supervised performances and composed much of the music required. return in different keys throughout the movement. dinner music and pieces for court concerts. audiences did not want to listen to pieces in an ―old-fashioned‖ style. and church music was often very grand. and percussion instruments was variable. Many baroque composers began their studies as choirboys. An oboe would play the same melody as the violins. THE CONCERTO GROSSO AND RITORNELLO FORM In a concerto grosso. most music was written to order. In every case. brass. Baroque musicians earned money by writing operas for commercial opera houses. Baroque composition in three movements may contain contrasts between a fast and energetic opening. including operas. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 25 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Between two or four soloist play with anywhere from eight to twenty or more musicians for the tutti. a slow and solemn middle and a conclusion That is quick. many baroque churches had an orchestra to accompany services. Baroque Form A movement is a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a longer composition. learning music in the choir school.
Brandenburg Concerto No.. Different melodic lines.... subject....MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Composers and Works Brandenburg Concertos No. v. by Johann Sebastian Bach.5 uses a string orchestra and a group of soloists consisting of a flute. ......... called voices.ect. vi.. subject……………………………………………. i. acting.. vii. ii. poetry.... viii.... Countersubject Episodes Pedal point (or organ point) Inversion Retrograde Augmentation Diminution Prelude THE ELEMENTS OF OPERA This unique fusion of music. The Fugue Polyphonic composition based on one main theme.. imitate the subject The top melodic line –whether sung or played is the soprano voice and bottom is the bass. dance. so called to differentiate it from another. called a subject.5 in D Major (about 1721). _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 26 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Composers and Works (Fugue) One of Bach‘s best-known organ pieces is the Little Fugue in G minor... scenery and costumes is a theatrical experience offering over whelming excitement and emotion... longer fugue in G minor....The opening of a fugue in four voices may be represented as follows: Soprano Alto Tenor Bass subject………………………………………………………ect. iv. violin and harpsichord... Another Element in Fugue....ect.ect. iii. Subject………………………..
Opera composers often lead into an aria with a recitative. is prompter‘s box. The libretto or text of the opera is usually written by librettist. takes roles calling for great dignity. who gives cues and reminds the singers of words or pitches if they momentarily forget. The creation of an opera involves the joint efforts of a composer and a dramatist. storms and supernatural effect. or dramatist. When three or more singers are involved. secondary soloist a chorus and sometimes dancers.all in costume. can execute rapid scales and trills Lyric Soprano – Rather light voice.Takes comic roles. ensemble. Most operas open with a purely orchestral composition called an overture or a prelude. near the footlights. On stage are star solo singer. characters and plot are revealed through song. can sing very rapidly Basso profundo – Very low range. is the prompter. bass) are divided more finely in opera. is capable of passionate intensity Lyric tenor – Relatively light. alto. Lighting and stage machinery are intricate and are used to create the illusion of fires. In this cramped space. invisible to the audience. a song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment. Some of the voice categories of opera are as follows: Contralto soprano – Very high range. The main attraction for many opera fans is the aria. is capable of heroic expression Basso buffo . a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech. Rising just over the edge of center stage. floods. Dramatic soprano – Full. rather than the speech used in ordinary drama. bright voice Dramatic tenor – Powerful voice. Opera demands performers who can sing and act simultaneously. tenor. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 27 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . the composition is called an An opera chorus generates atmosphere and makes comments on the action. The basic voice ranges (soprano. powerful voice.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ In opera. sings roles calling for grace and charm. and set to music by the composer. powerful voice.
poets and composers who began to meet regularly in Florence around 1575. Baroque opera marked the rise of virtuoso singers. then as music director. b) L’Incoronazione di poppea (The Coronation of Poppea. Served at the court of Mantua for twenty-one years. first as a singer and violist. 1642). it was usually done with the consent of impoverished parents who hoped their sons would become highly paid opera stars. Monterverdi Works : a) Orfeo (Orpheus. This group was known as the Camerata (Italian fellowship or society) included the composer Vincenzo Galilei. Chief among these was the castrato. Composers and Works (Opera) Claudio Monterverdi (1567-1643) The most important composers of the early baroque era. 1607). Castration of boy singers was common in Italy from 1600-1800. was born in Cremona. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 28 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . a male singer who had been castrated before puberty. father of the astronomer Galilei.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ OPERA IN THE BAROQUE ERA Born in Italy Prepared by musical discussions among a small group of nobles. Italy.
Composers and Works (Sonata) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 29 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . so called because they had three melodic lines: two high lines and a basso continuo. Henry Purcell Works: a) Dido and Aeneas (1689) THE BAROQUE SONATA Originated in Italy but spread to Germany. flutes or oboes) and two instruments for the basso continuo a keyboard instrument (organ or harpsichord) and a low instrument (cello or bassoon). violins. One of the main developments in instruments in instrumental music was the sonata. in homes and even in churches. England and France during the seventeenth century. Became a choirboy in the Chapel Royal. There are two instruments (commonly.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Henry Purcell (1659-1695) Called the greatest composers. Composers often write trio sonata. Played in palaces. Was born in London His father Musician in the king‘s service. a composition in several movements for one to eight instruments. and by his late teens his extraordinary talents were winning him important musical positions.
Mark‘s Cathedral. composers and conductor at the music school of the Pieta. No. and great-grandfather were all church organists or town musicians in Germany.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Arcangelo Corelli ~ The most prominent Italian violinist and composer of string music around 1700 was Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) Studied in Bologna ~ spent most his adult life in Rome. His father. No.1 from The Four Seasons (1725) Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) ~ Born in Eisenach. Bach Works: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 30 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . an institution for orphaned or illegitimate girls in Venice.grandfather. 10 (1689) Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) ~ was born in Venice. Op. Vivaldi was a violin teacher. Most of his life. Arcangelo Corelli works: a) Trio Sonata in A Minor. Op.8. His father was violinist at St. Vivaldi works: a) La Primavera (Spring).3. Concerto for Violin and String Orchestra. Also wrote for Venetian opera houses and sometimes took leave to visit foreign courts.
THE CHURCH CANTATA Cantata originally meant a piece that was sung. by Johann Sebastian Bach i. Works Composers (Suite) Suite No. Whether for solo instruments. First Movement: Overture ii. Fifth Movement: Gigue THE CHORALE AND CHURCH CANTATA The chorale. small group. or hymn tune was sung to a German religious text. Third Movement: Gavotte iv. vocal soloist. which was played. The hymn melody was sung in the top part and the tones of the supporting harmonies were sung in the three lower parts. or orchestra a baroque suite is made up of movements that are all written in the same key but differ in temp. meter and character.5 in D Major (about 1721) c) Mass in B Minor (Begun 1733) THE BAROQUE SUITE Baroque composers wrote suites. organ and a small orchestra.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ a) Prelude and Fugue in C Minor from The Well Tempered Clavier.3 in D Major (1729 – 1731). _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 31 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . which are set of dance-inspired movement. Book 1 (about 1722) b) Brandenburg Concerto No. These melodies were often harmonized for church choir. It had a German religious text. Fourth Movement: Bourree v. as distinct from a sonata. It was usually written for chorus. having only one note to a syllable and moving in steady rhythm. Second Movement: Air iii. Chorales were easy to sing and remember. either newly written or drawn from the bible or familiar hymns.
MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Works Composers (Cantata) Cantata No. ruft uns die stimme (Awake. Composers and Works (Oratorio) George Frederic Hande (1685-1759)l ~ Was born in halle German one Month before Johann Sebastian Bach. Part III – Expresses faith in the certainty of eternal Life through Christ as redeemer. scenery or costumes. Johann Sebastian Bach To fully appreciate it. My People ~ Accompanied recitative for tenor. A masterof Italian opera and English oratorio. but usually they are not intended for religious services. Works ~ Comfort Ye.140: Wachet auf. an oratorio is a large-scale composition for chorus.starts with the prophecy of the Messiah‘s coming and makes celestial announcements of Christ‘s birth and the redemption of humanity through his appearance. mankind‘s rejection of God‘s offer and mankind‘s utter defeat when trying to appose the power of the Almighty. Most oratorios are based on biblical stories. Handel not from a musical family . a Voice Is Calling Us. Part II – has been aptly described by by one Handel Scholar as ―the accomplishment of redemption by the sacrifice of Jesus. string and basso continuo _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 32 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . His father was barber. 1731) by.. string and basso continuo Larghetto (slow but less than largo) ~ Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted –Aria for tenor.surgeon who wanted his son to study with the local organist who was also composer Handel Works ~ Messiah (1741).is in three parts Part I. vocal soloist and orchestra. THE ORATORIO Like an opera. Today they are performed in either concert halls or churches. we perhaps should imagine ourselves as pious Lutherans of his time. it is usually set to a narrative text. Differ from opera in that it has no acting.
HWV 218 ‘Twas when the seas were roaring .HWV 228(19 Opera Almira . String. 1685 – Halle Died: April 14. Six Organ Concertos. 1759 – London Nationality: German born English composer Handel's Family Background: Handel was born to Georg Handel (1622-97) and Dorothea Taust (16511730). Handel‘s father. was a barber-surgeon for the Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels.HWV 5 .HWV 2 . Rinaldo English Songs Love‘s but the frailty of the mind .MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ~ For unto Us a Child Is Born – Chorus.1707 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 33 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Georg.1705 Rodrigo . Royal Fireworks Suite. Messiah. his mother was the daughter of a pastor.HWV 1 . FAMOUS WORK Water Music. Zadok the Priest.1704 Nero . Basso Continuo ~ Hallelujah – Chorus George Frideric Handel Born: February 23.
Watt invents engine (1769) steam . Faust (1808) . 1808 (1814) . The Social Contract (1762) . The Third of May.K.11772) .Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) 1770-1820 THE CLASSICAL ERA Philosophers and writers-especially Voltaire (1694-1778) and Denis Diderot (1713-1784) – saw their time as tuning point in history and referred to it as the ―age of enlightenment‖. K.1 in D Major (1759) -Mozart. Don Giovanni and Eine kleine Nachtmusik (1787) . Symphony No.Haydn Symphony No. Benard (1800) .David.Beethoven. 16 (1764) Arts and Letters .9 in D Minor (Choral.Goya.Beethoven.Napoleon becomes first consul of France (1799) . Ivanhoe (1819) Historical and Cultural Events .Mozart Symphony No.Haydn. Pride and Prejudice (1813) . The Swing (1776) . String 1750-1770 Quartets Op.Haydn. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 34 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Symphony No.Voltaire.Mozart.Austen.Goethe.Scott. Symphony No.Seven Years War (17561763) .5 in C Minor (1808) . Symphony No.1824) .Louis XVI reigns in France (1774-1792) . 45 in F# Minor (Farewell.Fragonard. Op.1798) _ Beethoven.Haydn Trumpet Concerto in Eb Major (1796) .Joseph II reigns in Austria (1780-1790) .94 (Surprise.Haydn.Publication of the French Encyclopedia begins (1751) .French Revolution begins (1789) .Rousseau. 1 (c. Candidate (1759) .David Napoleon at St.40 in G Minor.1757) .550 (1788) .13 (Pathetique.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ TIME LINE: CLASSICAL PERIOD (1750-1820) Dates Music . Symphony No. Piano Sonata in C Minor.1791) . Death OF Socrates (1787) .American Delaration of Independence (1776) . 1 in Eb Major.Napoleonic Wars (18031815) .
Example. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 35 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . the transition from the baroque style to the full flowering of the classical is called the preclassical period. graceful music. Characteristics of the Classical Style Contrast of Mood Dramatic Rhythm Flexibility of rhythm adds variety to classical music. The End of the Basso Continuo One reason why the basso continuo became obsolete was that more and more was music written for amateurs. excessively ornamented. Twinkle. Mid-eighteenth century composers entertained their listener with music offering contrasts of mood and theme. who could not master the difficult art of improvising from a figured bass. Violent political and social upheaval marked the seventy-year period from 1750 to 1820. THE CLASSICAL STYLE (1750-1820) In music history. For example. Little Star‘. and lacking in ethical content.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The ideas of enlightenment thinkers were implemented by several rules during the eighteenth century. Texture In contrast to the polyphonic texture of late baroque music. ‗Twinkle. Melody Classical melodies are among the most tuneful and easiest to remember. Emperor Joseph 11 of Austria. Dynamics and the Piano Classical composer‘s interest in expressing shades of emotion led to the widespread use of gradual dynamic change-crescendo and decrescendo. The theme style gallant (gallant style) was applied to this light. Later eighteenth century there was yet another change in taste. classical music is basically homophonic. in rococo art was thought frivolous. The themes of even highly sophisticated compositions may have a folk or popular flavor.
2 clarinets. This is used for a whole composition made up several movements. Unlike baroque composers. it was a standard group of four sections: o Strings: 1st Violin. 2 trumpets o Percussion: 2 timpani Classical composers exploited the individual tone colors of orchestral instrument. they did not treat one instrument like another. violas. 2 oboes. The sonata form movements consists of three main sections: Exposition First theme in tonic (home) key Bridge containing modulation from home key to new key Second theme in new key Closing section in key of second theme Development .MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Classical Orchestra Unlike the baroque orchestra. cellos. 2nd violin. modulations of different keys Recapitulation First theme in tonic key Bridge - _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 36 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . arranged as follows: Fast movement Slow Movement Dance – related movement Fast Movement SONATA FORM The term sonata form refers to the form of single movement it should not be confused with the term sonata. double basses o Woodwinds: 2 flutes. which could vary from piece to piece.New treatment of themes. 2 bassoons o Brass: 2 French horns. Classical Form There are often four movements.
The minuet movement of a symphony or string quartet is written for listening not dancing.40 in G Minor. Composers for Minuet and Trio Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (A Little Night Music. by Joseph Haydn Second Movement – andante Minuet and Trio The form known as minuet and trio. by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Third Movement: Minuet (Allegretto) – The A (minuet) section is stately. 550 (1788) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Composers and Works Symphony No. when a set of two dances would be followed by a repetition of the first dance. The trio section got its name during the baroque period. string quartets and other works. K. soft. and legato. 1971). 1787). mostly loud and staccato. is often used as the third movement of classical symphonies. with a clearly marked beat. Symphony No. 94 in Major (Surprise. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 37 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . sonata. either as an independent piece or as one movement of symphony. The second dance was known as a ‗TRIO‘ because it was usually played by three instruments. or minuet. Murmuring accompaniment contributes to the smooth flow of the music.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ - Second theme in tonic key Closing section in tonic key Coda In tonic key Composer and work (Sonata Form) Fourth Movement: Allegro assai (very fast) Works. Theme and Variations The form called theme and variations was a widely used in the classical period.525. The B (trio) section is intimate. or string quartet. K.
A Vigorous . .At its final return.Theme B is a lyrical legato melody . A Dance like movement (minuet or scherzo) iv. string quartet or sonata. Composers and Works (Rondo) String Quartet in C Minor. by Ludwig Beethoven Fourth Movement: Rondo (Allegro) . Composers : .MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Rondo A rondo features a tuneful main theme (A) which returns several times in alternation with other themes.Theme C is playful. A typical sequence is . prestissimo and leads into a frenzied concluding section.Mozart ~ Over forty ~ Wrote the symphony only when inspired ~ Longer than Mozart‘s or Haydn‘s and were conceives For Performance in large concert halls .4 (1798-1800). who required a steady flow of works for their palace concerts .18. in the style of a Gypsy dance. A Lyrical slow movement iii. A brilliant for heroic fast movement. with quick upward rushes. Patterns are ABACA and ABACABA. is made up of two repeated parts .Beethoven ~ Nine A classical symphony usually consists of four movements which evoke a wide range of emotions through contrasts of tempo and mood. dramatic fast movement ii. THE CLASSICAL SYMPHONY The great contribution of the classical period to orchestral music is the symphony.Haydn ~ wrote at least 104 symphonies ~ Composed for his employers. The rondo can be used either as an independent piece or as one movement of a symphony. the main theme (A) has a faster tempo. i. No. Op. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 38 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT .A.
. Fast _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 39 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . but its effect is dramatic because suspense has been built.Opening sets the mood for the movement and leads us to expect the soloist‘s entrance. . Slow iii. containing two expositions: i. Played by the orchestra. written for two violins.Music for the solo entry may be powerful or quiet. Fast A classical concerto begins with a movement in sonata form of a special kind. a viola and cello. CLASSICAL CHAMBER MUSIC Classical Chamber music is designed for the intimate setting of a room (chamber) in a home or palace. with one player to a part. i. Fast ii. rather than for a public concert hall. ii. Fast ii.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ THE CLASSICAL CONCERTO A classical concerto is a three-movement work for an instrumental soloist and orchestra. The most important form in classical chamber music is the string quartet. Slow iii. The second exposition begins with the soloist‘s first notes. It is performed by a small group of two to nine musicians. Like a symphony a string quartet usually consists of four movements: i. Minuet or scherzo iv. which presents several themes in the home key.
23 in A Major.488 (1786) d) Requiem in D Minor.550 (1788) c) Piano Concerto No. K. 626 (1791) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 40 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Austria Haydn Works: a) Don Giovanni (1787) b) Symphony No. 40 in G Minor. K.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Composers and Works Joseph Haydn 1732-1809 Was born in a tiny Austrian village called Rohrau. Haydn Works: a) Symphony No. 1791) b) Trumpet Concerto in E Flat Major (1976) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 1756-1791 Born in Salzburg. 94 in G Major (Surprise. K.
13 (Pathetique. in Bonn Germany He came from a family of musicians Haydn Works: a) Piano Sonata in C Minor.67 (1808) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 41 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . 1798) b) Symphony No.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827 Was born on December 16.5 in C Minor.1770. Op. Op.
No. The Starry Night (1889) -Munch. Sunrise (1874) -Cezanne.Keats. The Moldau (1874) -Dvorak. symphonies fantastique (1830) -Chopin. Symphony No. German Requiem (1868) -Tchaikovsky. Liberty Leading the people (1830) -Hugo. .12 (Revolutionary) (c. Op. Romance in G Minor for Violin and Piano (1853) -Wagner. La Boheme (1896). Nocturne in Eb major. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884) -Van Gogh. Etude in c minor.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Time Line: Romantic Period (1820-1900) Dates Music Arts and Letters Historical and Cultural Events Schubert. Dante and Virgil in Hell (1822) -Delacroix.9. The Gleaners -Darwin. Carnaval (1835) -Chopin. Op.2 (1831) -Chopin.Mendelssohn Violin Concerto in E Minor.9 in E Minor (From the New World. No. Belgium. The Evening Star (1835) -Dickens. origin of Species (1857) -Dostoevsky. Op. Transcendental Etude in F Minor (1851) -Verdi. Op. Crime and Punishment (1866) -Monet. Anna Karenina (1877) -Twain. Ode to a -Monroe Doctrine (1823) Nightingale (1819) . Die Walkure (1856) -Brahms. Still Life With Apples (1877) -Tolstoy.Delacroix. 10.Robert Schumann. Romeo and Juliet (1870) -Smetana. Poland (1830) -Queen Victoria reigns in England (1837-1901) -Revolutions in Europe (1848) -Marx and Engels. the Slave Ship 1840) -Dumas. 1893) -Puccini.53 (18842) . The Three Musketeers (1844) -Poe. The Communist Manifesto (1848) 1820-1850 1850-1900 -Franz Erlkonig (1815) -Berlioz. The Scream (1893) (1859) -American Civil War (18611865) -Franco-Prussian War (1870) -Bell invest telephone (1876) -Spanish-American War (1898) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 42 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . The Raven (1845) Revolutions in France. Rigoletto (1851) -Clara Wieck Schumann. Impression.The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831) -Friedrich.1831) . Oliver Twist (1837) -Tuner. Polonaise in Ab Major. 64 (1844) -Liszt. -Millet.
other composers. Countless songs and operas glorify romantic love. rapture and longing. Many romantics created music that sounds unique and reflects their personalities. All good poetry is the spontaneous over flow of powerful feelings‘. the lovers are unhappy and face over whelming obstacles.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Emotional subjectivity was a basic quality of romanticism in art. fantasy and enthusiasm for nature and the middle Ages are only a few aspects of romanticism in literature and painting. legends and history of their homelands. Composers of the romantic period continued to use the musical forms of the preceding classical era Romantic music linked more closely to the other arts particularly to literature Composers romantic such as Mendelssohn and Brahms created works that were deeply rooted in classical tradition. the English romantic poet. Liszt and Wagner. such as Berlioz. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 43 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Romanticism in Music (1820-1900) The romantic period in music extended from about 1820 to 1900. Wrote William Wordsworth. using the folk songs. Expressive Aims and Subjects Explored a universe of feeling that included flamboyance and intimacy. unpredictability and melancholy. often. dances. Romantic composers also dealt with subjects drawn from the Middle Ages and from Shakespeare‘s plays Nationalism and Exoticism Was an important political movement that influenced nineteenth century music Musical nationalism was expressed when romantic composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity. Subjectivity. were more revolutionary Charateristics of Romantic Music Individual of Style Romantic music puts unprecedented emphasis on self-expression and individuality of style.
Such demands compelled performers to attain a higher level of technical virtuosity. Hector Berlioz‘s Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration signaled the recognition of orchestration as an art in itself. In 1844. and violinists were asked to strike the strings with the wood of their bows. Flutists were required to play in the breath y low register. an orchestral work inspired by Shakespeare‘s play. Colorful Harmony Seeking greater emotional intensity.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fascination with national identity also led composers to draw an colorful materials from foreign lands. a trend known as musical exoticism. The image of Beethoven as a ‗free artist‘ inspired romantic musicians. composers emphasized rich. in Tchaikovsky‘s Romeo and Juliet. poem. idea or scene. Romantic composers were interested not only in pleasing their contemporaries but also in being judged favorably by posterity. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 44 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . who often composed to meet an inner need rather than fulfill a commission. agitated music depicts the feud between the rival families. and a funeralmarch rhythm suggests the lovers‘ tragic fate. Composers sought new ways of blending and combining tone colors to achieve the most poignant and intense sound. A programmatic instrumental piece can represent the emotions. The nonmusical element is usually specified by a title or by explanatory comments called a program. colorful and complex harmonies. Never before had timbre been so important New sounds were drawn from all instruments of the nineteenth-century orchestra. Program Music The nineteenth century was the great age of program music. a tender melody conveys young love. instrumental music associated with a story. Expressive Tone Color Romantic composers reveled in rich and sensuous sound. For example. characters and events of a particular story or it can evoke the sounds and motion of nature. using tone color to obtain variety of mood and atmosphere.
a no accident of romantic its mood.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ THE ART SONG One of the most distinctive forms in romantic music is the composition for solo voice and piano. Song composers would interpret a poem.Composed Form. Schubert’s Music Along with over 600 songs. the musical setting must accommodate their total emotional impact. Schubert left symphonies. And when he was nineteen. art song. repeating the same music for each stanza of the poem. or song cycle. chamber music for piano and strings. Became a choirboy in the court chapel and won a scholarship to the Imperial Seminary. an opera and mass. The Song Cycle Romantic art songs are sometimes grouped in a set. Poetry and music are intimately fused in the art song. string quartets. It is that this form flowered with the emergence of a rich body poetry in early nineteenth century. masses and operatic compositions. Strophic and Through . Born in Vienna. an exclusive boarding school. They created an intensely personal world with a tremendous variety of moods. translating atmosphere. When he was seventeen-year-old Schubert composed 143 songs including The Erlking. When a poem has several stanzas. and imagery into music. short piano pieces for two and four hands. Composers Romantic Per Franz Schubert(1797-1828) The earliest master of the romantic art song was unlike that of any great composer before him. the son of a schoolmaster. piano sonatas. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 45 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . Composers can use strophic form. he composed 179 works including two symphonies.
Germany. Clara Wieck Schumann premiered many works by her husband. Born in Zwickau. Carnaval (Carnival). Germany. his work is full of extra musical references Schumann‘s genius is most characteristically expressed in his songs and short piano pieces. usually programming one or more of her own compositions. both of which he usually organized into sets or cycles. Nachtstucke (Night Pieces). _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 46 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . She was the daughter of Marianne Wieck. and Frederich Wieck. a well-known piano pedagogue.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Robert Schumann (1810-1856) His works are intensely autobiographical and the are usually linked with descriptive titles. Between the ages of twelve and twenty she performed throughout Europe to great acclaim. Schumann’s Music Schumann thought of music in emotional. Fantasiestucke (Fantasy Pieces) – provide insight into his imagination. literary and autobiographical terms. Her father trained her tobe a child prodigy who would both earn money and demonstrate the superiority of his teaching methods. texts. His father was a bookseller from whom he acquired a love of literature. Dichterliebe (Poet‘s Love). Kinderscenen (scenes of Childhood). These titles of these sets . a singer and pianists. Born in Leipzig. Clara Wieck Schumann (1819-1896) One of the leading concert pianists of the nineteenth century. or programs.
10. Chopin’s Music By eighteen.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) Called the poet of the piano. Nocturne in E Flat Major. i.53 (1842) Franz Liszt (1811-1886) Was born in Hungary. magnetic young man performed superhuman feats at the piano and overwhelmed the European musical public. Chopin Works. Chopin evokes an infinite variety of moods. During the 1840s.12 (Revolutionary. But in these exquisite miniatures. where he met Shubert and Bethoven. Op. from melancholy to heroism.9. No. a handsome. Chopin had evolved an utterly personal and original style. Most of pieces are short. long-haired. As a boy of eleven. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 47 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . His father was an administrator for the same Esterhazy family that Haydn had served. Op. Etude in C Minor. Op. Polonaise in A Flat Major.2 (1830-1831) ii. was the only great composer who wrote almost exclusively for the piano. 1831) iii. Liszt studied in Vienna. No.
Op.MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Franz Liszt Music Liszt‘s Music is controversial. Many of his compositions are concerned with the devil or death and bear titles like Mephisto Waltz. It evokes a variety of moods but avoids emotional extremes Mendelssohn’s Works i. concertos. by age thirteen. other s revels in its extroverted romantic rhetoric. His father was a banker. or Funerailles (Funeral Ceremony). Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in E Minor. Allegretto molto vivace (very lively allegro) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 48 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT . to a wealthy and famous family. Some consider it vulgar and bombastic. Germany.10 in F Minor (1851) Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) Born in Hamburg. he had written symphonies. Transcendental Etude No. and grandfather was a distinguished Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. By the age of nine. Franz Liszt Works i. he was a brilliant pianist. Mendelssohn’s Music Mendelssohn‘s music radiates the elegance and balance of his personality.64 (1844) o First Movement: o Second Movement: o Third Movement: Allegro molto appassionato (very impassioned allegro) Andante Allegretto non troppo (transitional section). Totentanz (Dance of Death). sonatas and vocal works.
MUSIC APPRECIATION AND VOCAL DTU 0602 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 49 MIMIE FATIMAH ISMAIL CFS DEPARTMENT .
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