), (
) and (
)
Force carriers: W
, Z
0
, eight gluons and photon
4. Quantum gravity
String theory
Loop quantum gravity
Causal dynamical triangulation
Canonical general relativity
Noncommutative geometry
Twistor theory
5. String Theory
Each particle is identied as a particular vibrational mode of an elementary string.
String theory does not have adjustable dimensionless parameters.
The dimensionality of spacetime is xed.
There are two kinds of strings: open strings and closed strings.
The graviton appears as a vibrational mode of closed strings.
Bosonic strings live in 26 dimensions while superstrings in 10.
Mtheory is elevendimensional.
Our world is part of the Dbranes.
The AdS/CFT correspondence is a remarkable physical equivalence between a certain four
dimensional gauge theory and a closed superstring theory.
String theory has made good strides towards a statistical mechanics interpretation of black
hole entropy.
3
4 CHAPTER 1. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION
Chapter 2
Special Relativity and Extra
Dimensions
Summary and Supplement
1. Intervals and Lorentz transformations
x
= (x
0
, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (ct, x, y, z) (2.1)
a b = a
= a
0
b
0
+a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
+a
3
b
3
(2.2)
x
= L
, L
=
_
_
_
_
0 0
0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
(2.3)
2. Lightcone coordinates
x
+
=
1
2
(x
0
+x
1
), x
=
1
2
(x
0
x
1
) (2.4)
ds
2
=
dx
dx
=
_
_
_
_
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
_
_
_
_
(2.5)
a b = a
+
b
+
+a
+a
2
b
2
+a
3
b
3
, a
+
= a
, a
= a
+
(2.6)
p
+
=
1
2
(p
0
+p
1
) = p
, p
=
1
2
(p
0
p
1
) = p
+
(2.7)
Quick Calculations
2.1 With the relation = (1
2
)
1/2
, it is easy to verify that
(x
0
)
2
(x
1
)
2
(x
2
)
2
(x
3
)
2
=
2
_
(x
0
x
1
)
2
(x
0
+x
1
)
2
(x
2
)
2
(x
3
)
2
= (x
0
)
2
(x
1
)
2
(x
2
)
2
(x
3
)
2
(2.8)
2.2 Using Eq. (2.2), we can obtain
a
=
2
(a
0
a
1
)(b
0
b
1
) +
2
(a
0
+a
1
)(b
0
+b
1
) +a
2
b
2
+a
3
b
3
= a
0
b
0
+a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
+a
3
b
3
= a
(2.9)
2.3 Suppose that x
+
=
1
2
(x
0
+ x
1
) = (x
0
x
1
), then we have =
1
2
and = 1. Therefore,
such a transformation does not exist.
2.4
E
2
c
2
p p =
2
m
2
c
2
2
m
2
v
2
=
2
(1
2
)m
2
c
2
= m
2
c
2
.
2.5 Consider the plain (x, y) with the identication (x, y) (x+2R, y +2R). The resulting space
is a twodimensional torus.
5
6 CHAPTER 2. SPECIAL RELATIVITY AND EXTRA DIMENSIONS
Solutions to the Problems
2.1 (a) 1 C = (10
9
8.99 10
9
)
1
2
esu = 3 10
9
esu.
(b) If we set the Bolzmanns contant k
B
= 1, then [K] = [N m] = ML
2
T
2
.
(c) [e] = [esu] = M
1/2
L
3/2
T
1
, [] = ML
2
T
1
, [c] = LT
1
, so we have
e
2
c
=
(1.602 10
19
3 10
9
)
2
10
9
1.054 10
34
3 10
8
1
137
In the HeavisideLorentz system of units, such a dimensionless number becomes e
2
/4c.
2.2 (a) According to Eq. (2.4), we have
x
+
=
1
2
(x
0
+x
1
) =
1
2
(1 )(x
0
+x
1
) =
1
1 +
x
+
(2.10a)
x
=
1
2
(x
0
x
1
) =
1
2
(1 +)(x
0
x
1
) =
1 +
1
x
(2.10b)
x
2
= x
2
(2.10c)
x
3
= x
3
(2.10d)
(b) From Eq. (2.4), we can obtain x
0
=
1
2
(x
+
+x
), x
1
=
1
2
(x
+
x
). Then,
x
+
=
1
2
(x
0
+ cos x
1
sin x
2
) =
1 + cos
2
x
+
+
1 cos
2
x
sin
2
x
2
(2.11a)
x
=
1
2
(x
0
cos x
1
+ sin x
2
) =
1 cos
2
x
+
+
1 + cos
2
x
+
sin
2
x
2
(2.11b)
x
2
= sin x
1
+ cos x
2
=
sin
2
(x
+
+x
) + cos x
2
(2.11c)
x
3
= x
3
(2.11d)
(c) This case diers strikingly from that of (a).
x
+
=
1
2
_
(x
0
x
3
) +x
1
=
+ 1
2
x
+
+
1
2
x
2
x
3
(2.12a)
x
=
1
2
_
(x
0
x
3
) x
1
=
1
2
x
+
+
+ 1
2
x
2
x
3
(2.12b)
x
2
= x
2
(2.12c)
x
3
= (x
0
+x
3
) =
2
(x
+
+x
) +x
3
(2.12d)
2.3 (a) With the relations a
0
= a
0
, a
1
= a
1
, a
2
= a
2
and a
3
= a
3
, we can obtain
a
0
= (a
0
+ a
1
), a
1
= (a
0
+a
1
), a
2
= a
2
, a
3
= a
3
(2.13)
(b) We refer to the inverse Lorentz transformation.
x
0
=
x
0
x
0
x
0
+
x
1
x
1
x
0
= (
x
0
+
x
1
) (2.14a)
x
1
=
x
0
x
0
x
1
+
x
1
x
1
x
1
= (
x
0
+
x
1
) (2.14b)
x
2
=
x
2
(2.14c)
x
3
=
x
3
(2.14d)
(c) Using the rst quantization method, we have
p
= (
E
c
, p
x
, p
y
, p
z
) = (
1
c
i
t
, i
x
, i
y
, i
z
) =
i
(2.15)
7
2.4 (a) The identication yields a semicircle. There are two xed points: x = 0, 1. A foundamental
domain can be chosen as [0, 1].
(b) As we know, x = 1 are identied and y = 1 are identied. Then it is obvious that there
are four xed points: (0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0) and (1, 1).
2.5 Let tan = , then we can obtain the following from the inverse Lorentz transformation:
x
0
= tan x
1
+
1
x
0
, x
0
= cot (x
1
1
x
1
). (2.16)
It is obvious that the x
0
and x
1
axes appear in the original spacetime diagram as oblique axes.
The angle between the x
0
axis and the x
0
aixs is equal to that between the x
1
axis and the x
1
axis, i.e. = arctan. Diagrams for the axes are drawn in Fig. 2.1.
x
1
x
0
x
1
x
0
O
x
1
x
0
x
1
x
0
O
Fig. 2.1 The left illustrates how the axes appear when > 0, while the right is for < 0.
2.6 (a) In lightcone coordinates, it can be written as (x
+
, x
) (x
+
, x
2R).
(b) With the relations ct = (ct
+x
) and x = (ct
+x
), we can obtain
_
ct
+x
ct
+x
_
ct
+x
ct
+ x
_
+
2
_
R
R
_
_
x
ct
_
x
ct
_
+ 2
1 +
1
_
R
R
_
(2.17)
(c) From the following, we can see that the velocity parameter = R/
_
R
2
+R
2
s
and that the
compactication radius R
c
= R
s
.
_
ct
+x
ct
+x
_
ct
+x
ct
+x
_
+
2
__
R
2
+R
2
s
R
_
_
x
ct
_
x
ct
_
+ 2
_ _
R
2
+R
2
s
+R
R
_
R
2
+R
2
s
_
(d) For example, (0, 0) and (2R, 2
_
R
2
+R
2
s
) are related by the identication.
(e) Lightlike compactication with Radius R arises by boosting a standard compactication with
radius R
s
with Lorentz factor
_
R
2
+R
2
s
/R
s
, in the limits as R
s
0.
2.7 (a) Using the result in 2.2 (a), we can rewrite the identication (x
0
, x
1
) (x
0
, x
1
) as
(x
+
, x
) (e
x
+
, e
), where e
1 +
1
(2.18)
The range of is (, ) and the orbifold xed point is (0, 0).
(b) The spacetime diagram refers to Fig. 2.2. From Eq. (2.18), we see that e
x
+
e
= x
+
x
.
So the identication above relates points on the curves of x
+
x
= a
2
.
(c) ds
2
= 2dx
+
dx
= 2dx
+
d(
a
2
x
+
) = 2(
a
x
+
)
2
(dx
+
)
2
> 0. Therefore, the interval is spacelike.
(d) We choose (e
, e
2
) as the integrating interval, then we have
_
e
2
e
2a
x
dx
2a (2.19)
8 CHAPTER 2. SPECIAL RELATIVITY AND EXTRA DIMENSIONS
x
1
x
0
x
+
x
= a
2
.
2.8 (a) The energy eigenvalues are E
kl
=
2
2m
_
(
k
a
)
2
+ (
l
R
)
2
, so we have
Z(a, R) =
_
0
_
0
exp
_
E
kl
kT
_
dk dl =
mkTaR
2
2
(2.20)
The results for a particle in a twodimensional box with sides a and 2R are the same.
(b) Since R a, the lowest new energy level can be seen as E
01
. Then, we have
E
n0
< kT < E
01
_
n
a
_
2
<
2mkT
2
<
1
R
2
(2.21)
And Z(a, R) in this regime with the leading correction due to the small extra dimension is
Z(a, R) = exp
_
2
2mkTR
2
_
_
0
exp
_
2
2mkT
_
k
a
_
2
_
dk =
a
2mkT
exp
_
2
2mkTR
2
_
Chapter 3
Electromagnetism and Gravitation
in Various Dimensions
Summary and Supplement
1. Classical electrodynamics
Maxwells equations in the HeavisideLorentz system of units
E =
1
c
B
t
(3.1a)
B = 0 (3.1b)
E = (3.1c)
B =
1
c
j +
1
c
E
t
(3.1d)
The Lorentz force
dp
dt
= q
_
E +
1
c
v B
_
(3.2)
Vector and scalar potentials
B = A (3.3a)
E =
1
c
A
t
(3.3b)
2. Relativistic electrodynamics
A
= (, A
1
, A
2
, A
3
), A
= (, A
1
, A
2
, A
3
) (3.4)
F
=
_
_
_
_
0 E
x
E
y
E
z
E
x
0 B
z
B
y
E
y
B
z
0 B
x
E
z
B
y
B
x
0
_
_
_
_
(3.5)
= 0 (3.6)
j
= (c, j
1
, j
2
, j
3
),
=
1
c
j
(3.7)
3. Gravitation and Plancks length
ds
2
= g
(x)dx
dx
, g
(x)g
(x) =
(3.8)
g
(x) =
+ h
(x),
2
h
) +
h = 0 (3.9)
x
= x
(x), h
(3.10)
P
=
_
G
c
3
= 1.61 10
33
cm, t
P
=
_
G
c
5
= 5.4 10
44
s, m
P
=
_
c
G
= 2.17 10
5
g (3.11)
9
10 CHAPTER 3. ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION IN VARIOUS DIMENSIONS
Quick Calculations
3.1 Under the gauge transformations, E is invariant:
E
=
1
c
t
_
A+
_
_
1
c
t
_
=
1
c
A
t
= E (3.12)
3.2 As we know, F
is antisymmetrical: F
= F
. Therefore, we have
T
+T
(F
+F
) +
(F
+F
) +
(F
+F
) = 0 (3.13a)
T
+T
(F
+F
) +
(F
+F
) +
(F
+F
) = 0 (3.13b)
3.3 With the denition F
, we can obtain
F
+F
(F
+F
) = 0 (3.14a)
F
0i
+F
0i
=
0j
ik
F
jk
+F
0i
=
ik
F
0k
+F
0i
= 0 (3.14b)
F
ij
F
ij
=
ik
jl
F
kl
F
ij
=
ik
jl
F
kl
F
ij
= 0 (3.14c)
The last one holds because the indices i, j = 1, 2, 3.
3.4 The following proof will use the property of the gamma function: (x + 1) = x(x).
vol(S
d1
(R)) =
2
d/2
(
d
2
)
R
d1
=
d
dR
B
d
(R) B
d
(R) =
2
d/2
(
d
2
)
R
d
d
=
d/2
(1 +
d
2
)
R
d
(3.15)
3.5 Since (
3
2
) =
1
2
m
are the same in all dimensions, we have
[G
(D)
]
M
L
D1
= [G]
M
L
3
=
[c]
3
[]
M
L
G
(D)
_
(D)
P
_
D1
=
c
3
(D)
P
(D)
P
_
D2
=
G
(D)
c
3
= (
P
)
2
G
(D)
G
Solutions to the Problems
3.1 We will check the case for = 1. As we know, ds = c dt, E
10
= E
x
, E
11
= 0, E
12
= B
z
, and
F
13
= B
y
, it is easy to obtain
dp
x
dt
=
q
c
_
F
10
dx
0
dt
+F
11
dx
1
dt
+F
12
dx
2
dt
+F
13
dx
3
dt
_
=
q
c
_
cE
x
+B
z
dy
dt
B
y
dz
dt
_
= q
_
E
x
+
1
c
(v
y
B
z
v
z
B
y
)
(3.16)
For = 0, we have F
00
= 0, F
01
= E
x
, F
02
= E
y
, F
03
= E
z
and p
0
=
E
c
. Then,
1
c
dE
dt
=
q
c
(E
x
v
x
+E
y
v
y
+E
z
v
z
)
dE
dt
= qE v = F v (3.17)
Since F
and x
is independent of A
, it is
a gauge invariant equation.
11
3.2 (a) T is nonvanishing only when each of its three indices takes a dierent value.
0
F
12
+
1
F
20
+
2
F
01
=
1
c
B
z
t
+
E
y
x
E
x
y
= 0 (3.18a)
0
F
13
+
1
F
30
+
3
F
01
=
1
c
B
y
t
+
E
z
x
E
x
z
= 0 (3.18b)
0
F
23
+
2
F
30
+
3
F
02
=
1
c
B
x
t
+
E
z
y
E
y
z
= 0 (3.18c)
1
F
23
+
2
F
31
+
3
F
12
=
B
x
x
+
B
y
y
+
B
z
z
= 0 (3.18d)
The rst three are the components of Eq. (3.1a) and the last one is just Eq. (3.1b).
(b)
F
0
x
=
E
x
x
+
E
y
y
+
E
z
z
=
1
c
j
0
= (3.19a)
F
1
x
=
1
c
E
x
t
+
B
z
y
B
y
z
=
1
c
j
1
(3.19b)
F
2
x
=
1
c
E
y
t
B
z
x
+
B
x
z
=
1
c
j
2
(3.19c)
F
3
x
=
1
c
E
z
t
+
B
y
x
B
x
y
=
1
c
j
3
(3.19d)
The rst one is just Eq. (3.1c) and the last three are the components of Eq. (3.1d).
3.3 (a) Using the ansata E
z
= B
x
= B
y
= 0, we can easily obtain the following from the Maxwells
equations and the force law in four dimensions.
E
y
x
E
x
y
=
1
c
B
z
t
,
E
x
x
+
E
y
y
= (3.20)
B
z
y
=
1
c
j
1
+
1
c
E
x
t
,
B
z
x
=
1
c
j
2
+
1
c
E
y
t
(3.21)
(b) With the Lorentz covariant formulation, we have A
= (, A
1
, A
2
), j
= (c, j
1
, j
2
), and
F
=
_
_
0 E
x
E
y
E
x
0 B
z
E
y
B
z
0
_
_
, F
=
_
_
0 E
x
E
y
E
x
0 B
z
E
y
B
z
0
_
_
(3.22)
Then
= 0 and
=
1
c
j
1
c
v
x
B
z
) (3.23)
3.4 (a) Since A
is timeindependent, we have
0
F
ij
= 0. Then,
T
0ij
=
0
F
ij
+
i
F
j0
+
j
F
0i
=
i
E
j
j
E
i
= 0 (3.24)
This condition is satised because E = () = 0.
(b) With the relations vol(S
d1
(r)) = 2
d/2
r
d1
/(
d
2
) and E = d/dr, we have
__
E dS = q E(r) =
(
d
2
)
2
d/2
q
r
d1
(r) =
(
d
2
1)
4
d/2
q
r
d2
(3.25)
3.5 f = f r +f (
r
r
) = f
(r) +f(r)[(
1
r
) r +
1
r
r] = f
(r) +
d1
r
f(r).
3.6 By the denition, we have
_
1
0
dt t
z1
_
e
t
n=0
n!
(1)
n
_
+
N
n=0
n!
(1)
n
1
z +n
+
_
1
dt e
t
t
z1
= (z) +
n=0
n!
(1)
n
_
1
z +n
_
1
0
t
n+z1
dt
_
= (z)
(3.26)
12 CHAPTER 3. ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION IN VARIOUS DIMENSIONS
The function of the rst integral has the order of O(t
z+N
). For (z) > N 1, the integral on
[0, 1] will always converge. So the righthand side above is well dened. And also, we can obtain
the following identity:
(z) =
(z +N + 1)
z(z + 1) (z +N)
(3.27)
Obviously, z = 0, 1, 2, . . ., are poles for (z). The value of residue at z = n is
Res[(z), n] = lim
zn
(z +n)(z) =
(1)
n
n!
(3.28)
3.7 (a) The gravitational Bohr radius for a hydrogen atom is
2
/Gm
3
= 2.2 10
32
m.
(b) Suppose kT = (8M)
1
G
, then we have
[E] = [G]
[c]
[]
M
1
ML
2
T
2
= M
+1
L
3++2
T
2
= 1, = 3, = 1
(3.29)
For M = 10
6
M
, M
= 2 10
30
kg, the temperature is T = 6.15 10
14
K. And for the black
hole whose temperature is room temperature (300K), its mass will be M = 4.2 10
20
kg.
3.8 We use the eective potential V
e
(r) = V
g
(r) +J
2
/2mr
2
to discuss the planetary motion.
_
S
d1
g dS =
_
B
d
g d(vol) = 4G
(D)
m g(r) =
2(
d
2
)
d/21
G
(D)
m
r
d1
=
d
dr
V
g
(r)
V
g
(r) =
(
d
2
1)
d/21
G
(D)
m
r
d2
(3.30)
From the condition
d
dr
_
V
e
(r)
r=r0
= 0, we can solve r
0
. Then,
d
2
V
e
dr
2
r=r0
=
(4 d)J
2
mr
4
0
(3.31)
For d = 3, it is positive, so the planetary circular orbits in the fourdimensional world are stable
under perturbations; while for d 4, they are not stable.
3.9 (a) Using the result in Eq. (3.30), we can directly write down the expression:
V
(5)
g
(r) =
G
(5)
M
r
2
(3.32)
(b) The circel can be constructed by the identication of R
1
: w w + 2na, thus we have
V
(5)
g
(x, y, z, 0) =
n=
G
(5)
M
[R
2
+ (2na)
2
]
(3.33)
(c) For R a, the potential becomes
V
(5)
g
(x, y, z, 0) =
_
G
(5)
M
dt
R
2
+ (2at)
2
=
G
(5)
M
2aR
=
GM
R
, (3.34)
in which we have used the relation G
(5)
= 2aG.
3.10 (a) Using the following identity
n=
1
1 + (nx)
2
=
1
x
coth
_
1
x
_
, (3.35)
we can nd an exact closedform expression for the potential:
V
(5)
g
(x, y, z, 0) =
G
(5)
M
R
2
R
2a
coth
_
R
2a
_
=
GM
R
coth
_
R
2a
_
(3.36)
13
(b) For R a, we can expand the result above to the leading correction:
V
(5)
g
(x, y, z, 0) =
GM
R
1 +e
1 e
GM
R
_
1 + 2e
), (3.37)
where = R/a. When = 5.3, the correction is of order 1%.
(c) Using the following identity
cothx =
1
x
+
x
3
x
3
45
+
2x
5
945
+ , 0 < x < , (3.38)
we can expand the gravitational potential when R a:
V
(5)
g
(x, y, z, 0)
GM
R
_
2a
R
+
R
6a
_
=
G
(5)
M
R
2
_
1 +
R
2
12a
2
_
(3.39)
The rst term has the same form to the gravitational potential discussed in 3.9 (a) .
14 CHAPTER 3. ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION IN VARIOUS DIMENSIONS
Chapter 4
Nonrelativistic Strings
Summary and Supplement
1. Equations of motion for transverse oscillations
2
y
t
2
= v
2
0
2
y
x
2
, v
0
=
T
0
0
(4.1)
y(t, x) = h
+
(x v
0
t) +h
(x +v
0
t) (4.2)
2. The nonrelativistic string Lagrangian
L
_
y
t
,
y
x
_
=
1
2
0
_
y
t
_
2
1
2
T
0
_
y
x
_
2
(4.3)
P
t
=
L
y
, P
x
=
L
y
,
P
t
t
+
P
x
x
= 0 (4.4)
Quick Calculations
4.1 As we vary: y(t, x) y(t, x) +y(t, x), the variation is
S =
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
1
2
0
_
y
t
_
2
1
2
T
0
_
y
x
_
2
_
=
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
0
y
t
(y)
t
T
0
y
x
(y)
x
_
4.2 When we vary the motion by y, the variation of the action is given by
S =
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
P
t
y +P
x
y
_
=
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
t
_
P
t
y
_
P
t
t
y +
x
_
P
x
y
_
P
x
x
y
_
=
_
a
0
_
P
t
y
_
t=t
f
t=ti
dx +
_
t
f
ti
_
P
x
y
_
x=a
x=0
dt
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
P
t
t
+
P
x
x
_
y
(4.5)
4.3 With the relations P
t
=
0
y and P
x
= T
0
y
t=t
f
t=ti
dx +
_
t
f
ti
_
P
x
y
_
x=a
x=0
dt
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
P
t
t
+
P
x
x
_
y
=
_
a
0
_
0
y
t
y
_
t=t
f
t=ti
dx +
_
t
f
ti
_
T
0
y
x
y
_
x=a
x=0
dt
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
2
y
t
2
T
0
2
y
x
2
_
y
Solutions to the Problems
4.1 For small oscillations, the horizontal force dF
h
is
dF
h
= T
0
_
1 +
_
y
x
_
2
_
1
2
x+dx
T
0
_
1 +
_
y
x
_
2
_
1
2
x
= T
0
y
x
2
y
x
2
dx (4.6)
Since y/x 1, it is much smaller than the vertical force dF
v
.
15
16 CHAPTER 4. NONRELATIVISTIC STRINGS
4.2 For the small longitudinal oscillations, the equation can be derived as
T(x +dx) T(x) =
0
z
x
x+dx
0
z
x
x
=
0
2
z
x
2
dx =
0
2
z
t
2
2
z
t
2
=
0
2
z
x
2
(4.7)
Thus, the velocity of the waves is
_
0
/
0
.
4.3 (a) Suppose u = v
0
t and w = u a, then we can obtain the following:
y(t, 0) = h
+
(v
0
t) +h
(v
0
t) = 0 h
+
(u) = h
(u) (4.8)
y(t, a) = h
+
(a +u) +h
(a u) = 0 h
+
(u+a) h
+
(ua) = 0 h
+
(w) = h
+
(w+2a) (4.9)
(b) From the initial conditions, we have
y
t=0
= h
+
(x) +h
(x) = 0,
y
t
t=0
= v
0
h
+
(x) +v
0
h
(x) (4.10)
The second equation can be rewritten by the integrating in two dierent intevals, which gives
dierent functions of h
+
(u). For 0 < x < a, we have
h
+
(x) +h
(x) =
_
x
0
a
_
1
a
_
d h
+
(u) =
1
2
_
u
3
3a
2
u
2
2a
c
_
(4.11)
For a < x < 0, it becomes
h
+
(x) +h
(x) =
_
x
0
a
_
1 +
a
_
d h
+
(u) =
1
2
_
u
3
3a
2
+
u
2
2a
+c
_
(4.12)
We can extand h
+
(u) for all u with the periodic conditions h
+
(u) = h
+
(u + 2a).
(c) For x and v
0
t in the domain D =
_
(x, v
0
t) 0 x v
0
t < a
_
, the wave function is
y(t, x) =
1
2
_
(x v
0
t)
3
3a
2
(x v
0
t)
2
2a
_
1
2
_
(x +v
0
t)
3
3a
2
(x +v
0
t)
2
2a
_
= v
0
t
_
x
a
x
2
a
2
v
2
0
t
2
3a
2
_
(4.13)
(d) From the function above, we can obtain
y
t
= v
0
_
x
a
x
2
a
2
v
2
0
t
2
a
2
_
= v
0
_
1
4
_
x
a
1
2
_
2
_
v
2
0
t
2
a
2
(4.14)
Obviously, at t = 0 the midpoint x = a/2 has the largest velocity. It is easy to concluce that the
velocity of the midpoint reaches zero at t
0
= a/2v
0
and y(t
0
, a/2) = a/12.
4.4
4.5
4.6 (a) The variation S of the action under a variation q of the coordinate can be derived as
S =
_
dt L(q(t), q(t); t) =
_
dt
_
L
q
q +
L
q
q
_
=
_
dt
_
L
q
q +
d
dt
_
L
q
q
_
_
d
dt
L
q
_
q
_
=
_
dt
_
L
q
d
dt
L
q
_
q
(4.15)
Then, S = 0 gives the famous EulerLagrange equation
L
q
d
dt
L
q
= 0 (4.16)
(b) The derivation is similar to that in part (a):
S =
_
d
D
xL((x),
(x)) =
_
d
D
x
_
L
+
L
)
_
=
_
d
D
x
_
L
_
L
_
=
_
d
D
x
_
L
(4.17)
Then we can obtain the EulerLagrange equation for the dynamical eld (x)
L
= 0 (4.18)
Chapter 5
The Relativistic Point Particle
Summary and Supplement
1. Action for a relativistic point particle
L = mc
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
, H =
mc
2
_
1 v
2
/c
2
, p =
L
v
=
mv
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(5.1)
x
= x
(), S = mc
_
ds = mc
_
f
i
_
dx
d
dx
d
d (5.2)
2. Equations of motion
(dx
) = d(x
),
dp
d
= 0,
d
2
x
ds
2
= 0 (5.3)
S = mc
_
P
ds +
q
c
_
P
A
(x) dx
(5.4)
Quick Calculations
5.1 Since x
i
and x
f
are xed under the variation, we have
S
nr
=
_
1
2
mv
2
dt =
_
mv v
0
dt = mv
0
_
dx = 0 (5.5)
5.2 For any arbitrary parameter
(), we have
dp
d
=
dp
d
= 0
dp
= 0 (5.6)
Solutions to the Problems
5.1 For the new parameter = f(s), we have
d
2
x
ds
2
=
d
ds
_
dx
d
df
ds
_
=
d
2
x
d
2
_
df
ds
_
2
+
dx
d
d
2
f
ds
2
= 0
d
2
f
ds
2
= 0 f = as +b, (5.7)
where a and b are constants independent of s.
5.2 If we reexpress the integrand ds using the parameterized worldline, i.e.
ds =
_
dx
d
dx
d
d (5.8)
then we can obtain the following
d
2
x
ds
2
=
d
2
x
d
2
_
d
ds
_
2
+
dx
d
d
2
ds
2
= 0
dx
d
dx
d
d
2
x
d
2
1
2
dx
d
d
d
_
dx
d
dx
d
_
= 0 (5.9)
5.3
17
18 CHAPTER 5. THE RELATIVISTIC POINT PARTICLE
5.4 (a) Using the relations A
= (, A) and dx
dp
d
+
q
c
_
f
i
d
_
A
dx
d
+A
_
dx
d
__
=
_
f
i
d x
dp
d
+
q
c
_
f
i
d
_
A
dx
d
+
d
d
(A
)
dA
d
x
_
=
_
f
i
d x
dp
d
+
q
c
_
f
i
d
_
A
dx
d
A
dA
d
x
_
=
_
f
i
d x
dp
d
+
q
c
_
f
i
d
_
A
_
dx
d
x
=
_
f
i
d
_
dp
d
+
q
c
F
dx
d
_
x
(5.13)
Then, S = 0 gives the equation of motion:
dp
d
=
q
c
F
dx
d
(5.14)
5.6
5.7
Chapter 6
Relativistic Strings
Summary and Supplement
1. Area functional for spatial surfaces
A =
_
d
1
d
2
_
x
1
x
1
__
x
2
x
2
_
_
x
1
x
2
_
2
(6.1)
g
ij
=
x
i
x
i
, ds
2
= g
ij
d
i
d
j
, A =
_
d
1
d
2
g, g = det(g
ij
) (6.2)
2. The NambuGoto action
A =
_
dd
_
_
X
_
2
_
X
_
2
_
X
_
2
(6.3)
S =
T
0
c
_
f
i
d
_
1
0
d
_
(
X X
)
2
(
X)
2
(X
)
2
(6.4)
, S =
T
0
c
_
dd
, = det(
) (6.5)
3. Equation of motion, boundary conditions, and Dbranes
L(
X
, X
) =
T
0
c
_
(
X X
)
2
(
X)
2
(X
)
2
(6.6)
P
=
L
=
T
0
c
(
X X
)X
(X
)
2
X
_
(
X X
)
2
(
X)
2
(X
)
2
(6.7)
P
=
L
X
=
T
0
c
(
X X
)
X
(X
)
2
X
_
(
X X
)
2
(
X)
2
(X
)
2
(6.8)
Equation for relativistic string:
P
+
P
= 0 (6.9)
Dirichlet boundary condition:
X
(,
) = 0, = 0,
= 0 or
1
(6.10)
Free endpoint condition: P
(,
) = 0,
= 0 or
1
(6.11)
4. Action in terms of transverse velocity
X
= (c,
X
t
),
X
= (0,
X
) (6.12)
v
=
X
t
_
X
t
X
s
_
X
s
, v
2
=
_
X
t
_
2
_
X
t
X
s
_
2
(6.13)
S = T
0
_
dt
_
1
0
d
_
ds
d
_
_
1
v
2
c
2
, L = T
0
_
ds
_
1
v
2
c
2
(6.14)
19
20 CHAPTER 6. RELATIVISTIC STRINGS
5. Motion of open string endpoints
P
=
T
0
c
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2
__
X
s
X
t
_
X
+
_
c
2
_
X
t
_
2
_
X
s
_
(6.15)
P
0
=
T
0
c
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2
_
X
s
X
t
_
= 0 v
X
s
= 0 (6.16)
P
= T
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
_1
2 X
s
= 0 v
2
= c
2
(6.17)
Quick Calculations
6.1 Using the chain rule of derivatives, we can obtain
A =
_
d
1
d
2
_
x
1
__
1
_
2
_
x
2
__
2
_
2
_
x
2
_
2
_
2
_
2
=
_
d
1
d
_
x
1
__
x
2
_
_
x
2
_
2
(6.18)
6.2 Using the chain rule, we can prove that
M
ij
M
jk
=
i
k
=
i
k
=
i
k
,
M
ij
M
jk
=
k
=
k
=
i
k
(6.19)
6.3 For a point on the worldsheet where all tangent vectors are spcelike with the exception of one
that is null, we have
X
=
X
v
2
() = ( + 1)
2
X
0 (6.20)
When = 1, the tangent vector v = 0.
6.4 With the relations
X X
=
X
, (
X)
2
=
X
, and (X
)
2
= X
, it is easy to verify
Eq. (6.7) and Eq. (6.8).
Solutions to the Problems
6.1 Since the oscillations are small, we have
ds
2
= dX dX = (dx, dy) (dx, dy) = dx
2
+dy dy dx
2
(6.21)
Then the following approximation holds:
v
=
X
t
_
X
t
X
s
_
X
s
_
x
t
,
y
t
_
_
x
t
,
y
t
_
(1, 0)(1, 0) =
_
0,
y
t
_
(6.22)
Furthermore, the action reduces to be
S T
0
_
dt
_
dx
_
1
1
c
2
_
y
t
_
2
T
0
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
1
1
2c
2
_
y
t
_
2
_
(6.23)
Up to an additive constant aT
0
(t
f
t
i
), it is just the action for a nonrelativistic string performing
small transverse oscillations, since
0
= T
0
/c
2
.
6.2 We start our derivation with the NambuGoto action and work in the static gauge:
S
T
0
c
_
f
i
d
_
1
0
d
_
0
_
X
_
2
(c
2
)
= T
0
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
1
0
d
= T
0
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
1 +
_
y
x
_
2
T
0
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
_
1 +
1
2
_
y
x
_
2
_
= aT
0
(t
f
t
i
) T
0
_
t
f
ti
dt
_
a
0
dx
1
2
_
y
x
_
2
(6.24)
21
6.3
6.4 In this problem, we are discussiong the time evolution of a closed circular string. It is clear to
us that
R(t) = v
, so we have
L = T
0
_
ds
_
1
R
2
(t)/c
2
= 2R(t)T
0
_
1
R
2
(t)/c
2
(6.25)
Then, we can obtain the Hamilonian
H =
R
L
R
L =
2T
0
R
R
2
_
1
R
2
/c
2
_
2
R
c
2
_
+ 2RT
0
_
1
R
2
/c
2
=
2R(t)T
0
_
1
R
2
(t)/c
2
(6.26)
Acording to the energy onservation law,
H = 0. It gives
d
dt
R(t)
_
1
R
2
(t)/c
2
= 0
R
2
(t) R(t)
R(t) = c
2
R(t) = Rcos
_
ct
R
_
, (6.27)
which has already satised the intial conditions: R(0) = R and
R(0) = 0.
6.5 By the denition, it is easy to obtain
P
=
T
2
0
[c
2
(
t
X)
2
]
c
2
v
2
__
c
2
(
t
X)
2
(
s
X)
2
(
s
X
t
X)
2
_
= 0 v = 
t
X = c (6.28)
6.6 From Eq. (6.14), we know that
L = T
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
ds
d
(6.29)
Then, the canonical momentum density and the Hamiltonian density are given by
P(t, ) =
L
(
t
X)
= T
0
1
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2
_
1
c
2
v
2
(
t
X)
_
ds
d
=
T
0
c
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2 ds
d
v
(6.30)
H = P(t, )
X
t
L =
T
0
c
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2 ds
d
v
2
+T
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
ds
d
=
T
0
c
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2 ds
d
(6.31)
The total Hamiltonian can be written as
H =
_
d H =
T
0
c
2
_
ds
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2
=
0
_
ds
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2
, (6.32)
where
0
is the rest mass of a string rasing solely from the tension.
6.7 (a) The conditions satised by P
0
, P
i
, and P
a
at the endpoint are stated as follows:
P
0
(t, 0) = 0, P
i
(t, 0) = 0,
P
(t, 0) = 0 (6.33)
(b) If the string ends on a D0brane, then the = 0 endpoint is xed in the spacetime. Therefore,
all boundary conditions are automatially satised.
(c) For a string ending on a D1brane, we have
P
0
=
T
0
c
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2
_
X
s
X
t
_
= 0 v
X
s
= 0 (6.34)
(d)
22 CHAPTER 6. RELATIVISTIC STRINGS
Chapter 7
String Parameterization and
Classical Motion
Summary and Supplement
1. Choosing a parameterization
X
X
t
= 0, v
=
X
t
(7.1)
X X
= 0, X
2
= c
2
+v
2
, X
2
=
_
ds
d
_
2
(7.2)
P
=
T
0
c
2
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2 ds
d
X
t
, P
= T
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
_1
2 X
s
(7.3)
t
_
T
0
_
1 v
2
/c
2
ds
d
_
= 0, H =
_
T
0
ds
_
1 v
2
/c
2
(7.4)
T
0
c
2
1
_
1 v
2
/c
2
v
t
=
s
_
T
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
X
s
_
, T
e
= T
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
(7.5)
2. Wave equation and constraints
d
=
ds
_
1 v
2
/c
2
,
1
[0,
1
],
1
=
E
T
0
(7.6)
Wave equation:
2
X
2
1
c
2
2
X
t
2
= 0 (7.7)
Parameterization condition:
X
t
X
= 0 (7.8)
Parameterization condition:
_
X
_
2
+
1
c
2
_
X
t
_
2
= 1 (7.9)
Free boundary condition:
X
=0
=
X
=1
= 0 (7.10)
P
=
T
0
c
2
X
t
, P
= T
0
X
(7.11)
3. General motion of an open string
X(t, ) =
1
2
_
F(ct +) +F(ct )
, [0,
1
] (7.12)
dF(u)
du
2
= 1 and F(u + 2
1
) = F(u) +
2
1
c
v
0
(7.13)
F(u) =
1
_
cos
u
1
, sin
u
1
_
, X(t, ) =
1
cos
1
_
cos
ct
1
, sin
ct
1
_
(7.14)
23
24 CHAPTER 7. STRING PARAMETERIZATION AND CLASSICAL MOTION
Quick Calculations
7.1 With the periodic conditon of F(u), it is easy to show that
X(t = t
0
+ 2
2
/c, ) =
1
2
_
F(ct
0
+ 2
1
+) +F(ct
0
+ 2
1
)
=
1
2
_
F(ct
0
+) +F(ct
0
)
+
2
1
c
v
0
= X(t = t
0
, ) +
2
1
c
v
0
(7.15)
Therefore, v
0
is the average velocity of any point on the string calculated over any time interval
of duration 2
1
/c.
Solutions to the Problems
7.1 (d) The length of an open string parameterized with engery is given by
ds =
_
1
v
2
c
2
d =
_
1
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
d (7.16)
7.2 (a) For the rotating string, we have v
/c
2
=
T
0
_
1 4s
2
/
2
(7.17)
It has singularities at the endpoints s = /2. And the total energy is given by
E =
_
ds E(s) =
_
/2
/2
ds
T
0
_
1 4s
2
/
2
=
2
T
0
(7.18)
(b) The average energy density is T
0
/2, so we have
T
0
_
1 4s
2
/
2
=
2
T
0
s =
2
4
2
(7.19)
(c) The energy carried by the string on the interval [s, s] is given by
E =
_
s
s
dx
T
0
_
1 4x
2
/
2
= T
0
arcsin
2s
(7.20)
7.3 (a) The general solution for X(t, ) in terms of a vector function F(u) is given by
X(t, ) =
1
2
_
F(ct +) +F(ct )
(7.21)
The following parameterization conditions are required
_
X
1
c
X
t
_
2
= 1
dF(u)
du
2
= 1 (7.22)
X
t
(0, ) =
c
2
_
F
() +F
()
= 0
dF(u)
du
=
dF(u)
du
F(u) = F(u) (7.23)
(b) We should impose this condition: X(t, +
1
) = X(t, ), i.e.
F(ct + +
1
) +F(ct
1
) = F(ct +) +F(ct )
F( +
1
) +F(
1
) = F() + F()
F( +
1
) = F()
(7.24)
(c) t
P
=
1
/c, X(t
P
, ) = X(0, ).
25
7.4 (a) Using the boundary condition at =
1
, we nd
X(t,
1
) = x
1
+
1
2
_
F(ct +
1
) F(ct
1
)
= x
2
F(u + 2
1
) F(u) = 2(x
2
x
1
) (7.25)
(b) From the parameterization conditions, we can obtain
_
X
1
c
X
t
_
2
= 1
dF(u)
du
2
= 1 (7.26)
(c) According to the information above, we have
X
(t, 0) = F
(u) =
_
sin cos
u
c
, sin sin
u
c
, cos
_
F(u) =
_
c
sin sin
u
c
,
c
sin cos
u
c
, u cos
_
(7.27)
(d) Using the result in part (a), it is easy to obtain
2
_
c
sin cos
(u +
1
)
c
sin
1
c
,
c
sin sin
(u +
1
)
c
sin
1
c
,
1
cos
_
=2(x
2
x
1
) = 2(0, 0, L
0
) =
c
1
,
1
=
L
0
cos
(7.28)
(e) Now, we can directly write down the wave function for this relativistic jumping rope:
X(t, ) =
_
sin cos
ct
1
sin
1
,
1
sin sin
ct
1
sin
1
, cos
_
(7.29)
(f) First, we calculate the value of v
2
:
v
=
_
c sin sin
ct
1
sin
1
, c sin cos
ct
1
sin
1
, 0
_
v
2
= c
2
sin
2
sin
2
_
1
_
(7.30)
Then, the energy distributed in the string is given by
E(z) = T
0
_
1
v
2
c
2
_
1
2
= T
0
_
1 sin
2
sin
2
_
1
__
1
2
= T
0
_
1 sin
2
sin
2
_
z
L
0
__
1
2
(7.31)
7.5 (a) This ansatz is consistent with the constraints on F(u).
(b) It is easy to see that X
(t, ) =
1
2
_
F
(ct +) + F
(ct )
, so we have
X
(0, 0) = F
()
dy
d
= sin
_
cos
1
_
(7.32)
(c) X
(t, 0) = F
(ct).
(d) We will nd an integral relation between a,
1
and :
F(u + 2) F(u) =
_
_
u+21
u
cos
_
cos
x
1
_
dx,
_
u+21
u
sin
_
cos
x
1
_
dx
_
=
_
_
21
0
cos
_
cos
x
1
_
dx,
_
21
0
sin
_
cos
x
1
_
dx
_
=
_
_
21
0
cos
_
cos
x
1
_
dx, 0
_
a =
_
1
0
cos
_
cos
x
1
_
dx
(7.33)
Assume that is small, then the following approxiamtion holds:
a
_
1
0
_
1
1
2
2
cos
2
x
1
_
dx =
1
_
1
1
4
2
_
(7.34)
(e) Using the following identity
J
0
(z) =
1
_
0
cos(z cos ) d, (7.35)
we can obtain
a =
_
1
0
cos
_
cos
x
1
_
dx =
1
_
0
cos( cos ) d
a
1
= J
0
() (7.36)
26 CHAPTER 7. STRING PARAMETERIZATION AND CLASSICAL MOTION
7.6 (a) We only need to examine the components.
1
2
_
cos
_
cos
(ct +)
1
_
+ cos
_
cos
(ct )
1
__
=cos
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
+ cos
(ct )
1
_
cos
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
cos
(ct )
1
_
=cos
_
cos
ct
1
cos
1
_
cos
_
sin
ct
1
sin
1
_
(7.37)
1
2
_
sin
_
cos
(ct +)
1
_
+ sin
_
cos
(ct )
1
__
=sin
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
+ cos
(ct )
1
_
cos
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
cos
(ct )
1
_
=sin
_
cos
ct
1
cos
1
_
cos
_
sin
ct
1
sin
1
_
(7.38)
When ct =
1
/2, the second component is zero. That is to say, the string is horizontal.
(b) It is easy to see that
X/c =
1
2
_
F
(ct +) F
(ct )
. Then we have
1
2
_
cos
_
cos
(ct +)
1
_
cos
_
cos
(ct )
1
__
=sin
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
+ cos
(ct )
1
_
sin
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
cos
(ct )
1
_
=sin
_
cos
ct
1
cos
1
_
sin
_
sin
ct
1
sin
1
_
(7.39)
1
2
_
sin
_
cos
(ct +)
1
_
sin
_
cos
(ct )
1
__
=cos
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
+ cos
(ct )
1
_
sin
2
_
cos
(ct +)
1
cos
(ct )
1
_
=cos
_
cos
ct
1
cos
1
_
sin
_
sin
ct
1
sin
1
_
(7.40)
Therefore, the instantaneous transverse velocity satises
1
c
X
t
sin
_
sin
ct
1
sin
1
_
(7.41)
For = /2, the string midpoint =
1
/2 reaches the speed of lignt when ct =
1
/2, meaning
that the string is horizontal.
(c) For =
2/2 and ct =
1
/4, we have
sin
_
2
1
2
sin
1
_
= 1 =
1
2
(7.42)
For ct =
1
/3, we have
sin
_
3
2
sin
1
_
= 1 = 0.174
1
or 0.826
1
(7.43)
Chapter 8
Worldsheet Currents
Summary and Supplement
1. Conserved currents on the worldsheet
S =
_
d
0
d
1
L(
0
X
,
1
X
), (
0
,
1
) = (, ) (8.1)
j
=
L
(
)
, (j
0
, j
1
) =
_
L
,
L
X
_
= (P
, P
) (8.2)
p
() =
_
1
0
P
d,
dp
d
= 0, p
=
_
(P
d P
d) (8.3)
2. Lorentz symmetry and associated currents
X
+X
, X
(8.4)
M
= X
,
M
+
M
= 0 (8.5)
M
=
_
(M
d M
d), M
= M
(8.6)
3. The slope parameter
E
2
, J =
E
2
2T
0
c
,
=
1
2T
0
c
(8.7)
Quick Calculations
8.1 We will use the divergence theorem to prove the result.
dQ
i
d
0
=
_
d
1
d
2
d
k
j
0
i
0
=
_
d
1
d
2
d
k
_
j
1
i
1
+
j
2
i
2
+ +
j
k
i
k
_
=
_
V
j dA = 0
8.2 For the xed 2by2 matrix A
ab
that satises A
ab
v
a
v
b
= 0, we have
A
11
v
1
v
1
+A
12
v
1
v
2
+A
21
v
2
v
1
+A
22
v
2
v
2
= 0 A
11
= 0, A
12
= A
21
, A
22
= 0 (8.8)
8.3 For a 4by4 matrix
that satises
must be
antisymmetric.
8.4
.
8.5 For the boost with very small , we have
x
0
x
0
= ( 1)x
0
x
1
x
1
01
= (8.9)
x
1
x
1
= x
0
+ ( 1)x
1
x
0
10
= (8.10)
And all other values are zero.
27
28 CHAPTER 8. WORLDSHEET CURRENTS
8.5 J = I, E =
1
2
I
2
J
E.
8.6 [
] = [E]
2
, [] = [E]T, [c] = LT
1
[
s
] = L.
Solutions to the Problems
8.1 (a) The variation can be written as q(t) = nq, where is an innitesimal constant and n is
the rotation axis. Then we have
q
= q +n q q
2
= q
2
+
2
(n q)
2
q
2
(8.11)
The Lagrangian only depends on q
2
, therefore L is invariant.
(b) The conserved charge associated with this symmetry transformation is given by
Q =
L
q
q = p (n q) = n (q p) = n J, (8.12)
where J is the vector angular momentum.
8.2 (a) The variation of coordinates and the conserved charges are given by
q
i
(t) =
i
(t)h(q(t); t),
i
Q
i
=
L
q
a
q
a
(8.13)
Considering the EulerLagrange equations, we can obtain
i
dQ
i
dt
=
d
dt
_
L
q
a
_
q
a
+
L
q
a
d
dt
(q
a
) =
L
q
a
q
a
+
L
q
a
d
dt
(q) = 0 (8.14)
(b) For a world with no spatial dimentions, = 0. And the corresponding equations become
i
j
0
i
=
L
a
,
d
dt
j
0
i
= 0, Q
i
= cq
i
(8.15)
8.3
8.4 (a) T
0
= 8.5 10
14
GeV m
1
,
s
= 1.92 10
14
cm.
(b)
= 2.58 10
33
GeV
2
, T
0
= 3 10
47
GeV m
1
.
8.5 For the relativistic jumping rope, we have
X(t, ) =
_
sin cos
ct
1
sin
1
,
1
sin sin
ct
1
sin
1
, cos
_
(8.16)
P
=
T
0
c
2
X
t
=
T
0
c
sin sin
1
_
sin
ct
1
, cos
ct
1
, 0
_
(8.17)
Then, the zcomponent of angular momentum is given by
J
z
= M
12
=
_
1
0
(X
1
P
2
X
2
P
1
) d =
T
0
1
c
sin
2
_
1
0
sin
2
1
d =
T
0
2
1
2c
sin
2
(8.18)
Since
1
= E/T
0
, we have found
J
z
=
E
2
2T
0
c
sin
2
J
z
= (sin
2
)
E
2
(8.19)
8.6 With the EulerLagrange equation, we can show that
dQ
dt
=
d
dt
_
L
q
_
q +
L
q
d
dt
(q)
d
dt
=
L
q
q +
L
q
q L = 0 (8.20)
For the transformation q(t) q(t) + q(t), we have
L =
L
q
q +
L
q
q =
_
d
dt
_
L
q
_
q +
L
q
q
_
=
d
dt
_
L
q
q
_
=
L
q
q (8.21)
Q =
L
q
q =
L
q
q Q = 0 (8.22)
29
8.7 The proof is very similar to that in Eq. (8.20):
i
j
_
L
(
a
)
_
a
+
L
(
a
)
=
L
a
+
L
(
a
)
(
a
) L = 0
(8.23)
For the transformation
a
(
)
a
(
) +
a
, we have
L =
L
a
+
L
a
(
a
) =
_
L
a
_
a
+
L
a
_
=
_
L
a
_
=
L
a
=
L
(8.24)
=
L
_
L
L
_
j
=
L
L (8.25)
It is easy to see that j
0
0
= H, i.e. the Hamiltonian density.
30 CHAPTER 8. WORLDSHEET CURRENTS
Chapter 9
Lightcone Relativistic Strings
Summary and Supplement
1. The parameterization
X
0
(, ) = c, n
(, ) = (9.1)
= c = 1, L = T, M = L
1
,
s
=
(9.2)
S =
1
2
_
f
i
d
_
1
0
d
_
(
X X
)
2
(
X)
2
(X
)
2
(9.3)
open strings: (n p) =
_
0
d n P
(, ), n X(, ) = 2
(n p) (9.4)
closed strings: (n p) = 2
_
0
d n P
(, ), n X(, ) =
(n p) (9.5)
2. Constraints and wave equations
X X
= 0,
X
2
+X
2
= 0, (
X X
)
2
= 0 (9.6)
P
=
1
2
, P
=
1
2
,
X
= 0 (9.7)
3. Wave equation and mode expansions
X
(, ) = f
0
+f
1
+
n=1
(A
n
cos n + B
n
sin n) cos n (9.8)
A
n
cos n +B
n
sinn = i
_
2
/n(a
n
e
in
a
n
e
in
), f
1
= 2
(9.9)
X
(, ) = x
0
+ 2
n=1
(a
n
e
in
a
n
e
in
)
cos n
n
(9.10)
0
=
n
= a
n,
n
= a
n, n 1 (9.11)
X
(, ) = x
0
+
0
+i
n=0
1
n
n
e
in
cos n (9.12)
nZ
n
e
in()
(9.13)
4. Lightcone solution of equations of motion
n
=
_
1
2
,
1
2
, 0, . . . , 0
_
, n X = X
+
, n p = p
+
(9.14)
X
+
(, ) =
p
+
, p
+
=
2
_
0
d p
+
(, ), = 2, 1 (9.15)
X
I
= (X
2
, X
3
, . . . , X
d
),
X
= (2
p
+
)
1
(
X
I
X
I
)
2
(9.16)
31
32 CHAPTER 9. LIGHTCONE RELATIVISTIC STRINGS
x
+
0
= 0,
+
n
=
+
n
= 0, n = 1, 2, . . . , (9.17)
n
=
1
p
+
L
n
, L
n
=
1
2
pZ
I
np
I
p
, 2p
+
p
=
1
0
(9.18)
=
1
p
+
nZ
L
n
e
in()
=
1
4
p
+
(
X
)
2
(9.19)
M
2
= 2p
+
p
p
I
p
I
=
1
n=1
na
I
n
a
I
n
(9.20)
Quick Calculations
9.1 e = c/ = 2 10
5
10
18
= 2 10
13
eV = 20 TeV.
9.2 Since t
is timelike:
v
=
_
t
t X
__
t
t X
_
= t
(t X
)
2
X
< 0 (9.21)
9.3 It is obvious that X
(, ) is real.
9.4 Using the relation
0
= L
n
/p
+
, we can rewrite the expression as
X
(, ) = x
0
+
0
+i
n=0
1
n
n
e
in
cos n
= x
0
+
1
p
+
L
0
+
i
p
+
n=0
1
n
L
n
e
in
cos n
(9.22)
9.5 When all a
I
n
vanish, we have L
n
= 0 for n 1. Therefore, X
(, ) = x
0
+
0
.
Solutions to the Problems
9.1 (a) (n
+b
)(n
+b
) = b
0. Therefore, b
is spacelike of null.
(b) If b
is null, we have b
(n
) = 0 and n
)(n
) = 0. Then (b
)(n
) = 0.
Therefore, b
= n
.
(c) The set of vectors b
that satises n
.
Therefore, it is a space of dimension (D
1
). And the subset of null vectors forms a subspace of
dimension one.
(d) For D = 2 and n X = X
+
, we can obtain
n
=
_
1
2
,
1
2
_
, n
=
_
2
,
1
2
_
(9.23)
9.2 (a) Using Eq. (9.16), we can nd
=
(
X
I
)
2
+ (
X
I
)
2
2
p
+
,
=
(
X
I
)(
X
I
)
p
+
(9.24)
From the consistency condtion
_
(
X
I
)
2
+ (
X
I
)
2
= 2
_
(
X
I
)(
X
I
)
X
I
=
2
X
I
(9.25)
(b) If the transverse coordinates X
I
satisfy the wave function, then it follows
= (
p
+
)
1
(
2
X
I
)(
2
X
I
X
I
) = 0 (9.26)
(c) The coordinates satisfying Neumann boundary conditions means that
X
I
= 0 at = 0, ,
while satisng Dirichlet boundary conditions indicates that
X
I
= 0. Since
is determined
by the product of
X
I
and
X
I
, it is always zero. Therefore, X
)
1
n=1
n
= (
)
1
(a
2
+a
2
) = 2a
2
/
.
(b) The length of the string is given by l = 2M
= 2a
a(e
i
e
i
) cos = 2
ia(e
i
+e
i
) cos = 2
0
=
1
2
_
(2)
1
(2)
1
+
(3)
1
(3)
1
= a
2
, L
0
= 0 (n = 0). X
(, ) = a
2
/p
+
.
(d) = t = t/l. The value of p
+
can be determined by the following
X
1
(, ) =
1
2
(X
+
X
) = (
2p
+
a
2
2p
+
) = 0 p
+
=
a
(9.29)
9.4 (a)
X
2
(, ) = x
2
0
+i
a(e
i
e
i
) cos = 2
1
2
1
2
m
2
2
_
, (
2
m
2
) = 0 (10.1)
(t, x) = ae
iEpt+ipx
+a
e
iEptipx
, E
p
=
_
p
2
+m
2
(10.2)
(x) =
_
d
D
p
(2)
D
e
ipx
(p), (p
2
m
2
)(p) = 0 (10.3)
x
T
= (x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
d
),
_
2
x
+
+
x
I
x
I
m
2
_
(x
+
, x
, x
T
) = 0 (10.4)
p
T
= (p
2
, p
3
, . . . , p
d
),
_
i
x
+
1
2p
+
_
p
I
p
I
+m
2
_
_
(x
+
, p
+
, p
T
) = 0 (10.5)
x
+
=
p
+
m
2
,
_
i
1
2m
2
_
p
I
p
I
+m
2
_
_
(, p
+
, p
T
) = 0 (10.6)
_
a
p
, a
= 1,
_
a
p
, a
= 1,
_
a(t), a
(t)
=
_
a
(t), a(t)
= 2iE
p
(10.7)
H = E
p
_
a
p
a
p
+a
p
a
p
_
, P = p
_
a
p
a
p
a
p
a
p
_
(10.8)
2. Maxwell elds
2
A
( A) = 0, p
2
A
(p A) = 0 (10.9)
A
(p) A
(p) +ip
(p), A
+
(p) = 0 (10.10)
p A = 0, p
+
A
= p
I
A
I
, p
2
A
I
= 0 (10.11)
3. Gravitational elds
p
2
h
(p
+p
+p
h = 0 (10.12)
h
(p) = ip
(p) +ip
= 0 (10.14)
p
+
h
I
= p
J
h
IJ
, p
+
h
= p
I
h
I
, p
2
h
IJ
= 0 (10.15)
Quick Calculations
10.1 By the denition, we have
H =
0
L =
2
_
1
2
1
2
()
2
1
2
m
2
2
_
=
1
2
2
+
1
2
()
2
+
1
2
m
2
2
(10.16)
10.2 With the massshell condition, we have
p
2
+m
2
= 2p
+
p
+p
I
p
I
+m
2
= 0 p
=
1
2p
+
_
p
I
p
I
+m
2
_
(10.17)
35
36 CHAPTER 10. LIGHTCONE FIELDS AND PARTICLES
10.3
0
p
and
p
are given by
p
=
1
_
2V E
p
_
a(t)e
ipx
+ a
(t)e
ipx
,
p
=
i
_
2V E
p
_
a(t)e
ipx
a
(t)e
ipx
p (10.18)
Using the quantization condition, we can integrate the action as
S =
_
dt
_
d
d
x
_
1
2V E
p
a(t) a
(t)
1
2V E
p
a(t)a
(t)p
2
1
2V E
p
a(t)a
(t)m
2
_
=
_
dt
_
d
d
x
1
V
_
1
2E
p
a(t) a
(t)
1
2
E
p
a(t)a
(t)
_
=
_
dt
_
1
2E
p
a(t) a
(t)
1
2
E
p
a(t)a
(t)
_
(10.19)
10.4 With the quantization condition, it is easy to obtain
H =
_
d
d
x
_
1
2V E
p
a(t) a
(t) +
1
2V E
p
a(t)a
(t)p
2
+
1
2V E
p
a(t)a
(t)m
2
_
=
1
2E
p
a(t) a
(t) +
1
2
E
p
a(t)a
(t)
(10.20)
10.5 Using the relations
_
a(t), a
(t)
=
_
a
(t), a(t)
= 2iE
p
, we can easily check that
[q
2
(t), p
2
(t)] =
1
4E
p
_
a(t) a
(t), a(t) a
(t)
=
1
4E
p
(2iE
p
2iE
p
) = i (10.21)
[q
1
(t), p
2
(t)] =
1
4iE
p
_
a(t) +a
(t), a(t) a
(t)
=
1
4iE
p
(2iE
p
2iE
p
) = 0 (10.22)
10.6 Using the facts
_
a
p
, a
=
p,k
and
_
a
p
, a
= 0, we can obtain
Pa
p1
a
p2
a
pn
 =
k
ka
k
(a
p1
a
k
+
p1,k
)a
p2
a
pn

=
k
ka
p1
a
k
(a
p2
a
k
+
p2,k
) a
pn
 +p
1
a
p1
a
p2
a
pn

=
k
n=1
p
n
a
p1
a
p2
a
pn

(10.23)
Similarly, we can prove that Ha
p1
a
p2
a
pn
 =
k
n=1
E
n
a
p1
a
p2
a
pn
.
10.7 We only need to prove that Na
p1
a
p2
a
pn
 = na
p1
a
p2
a
pn
.
Solutions to the Problems
10.1 Using the results in Eq. (10.18) and the quantizition condition
_
L1
0
dx
1
_
L
d
0
dx
d
exp(2ip x) = 0, (10.24)
we can evaluate the integral and obtain
P =
ip
2V E
p
_
d
d
x
_
a(t)e
ipx
+ a
(t)e
ipx
_
a(t)e
ipx
a
(t)e
ipx
=
ip
2V E
p
_
d
d
x
_
a
(t)a(t) a(t)a
(t)
=
ip
2E
p
( a
a aa
)
(10.25)
Then, with the exoression of a(t), it is easy to get
P =
ip
2E
p
(iE
p
)
__
a
p
e
iEpt
a
p
e
iEpt
__
a
p
e
iEpt
+a
p
e
iEpt
_
_
a
p
e
iEpt
+a
p
e
iEpt
__
a
p
e
iEpt
+a
p
e
iEpt
_
= p(a
p
a
p
a
p
a
p
)
(10.26)
37
10.2 (a) Using the quantizition condition, we can prove that
1
V
_
dx
f(x
)e
ipx
=
1
V
_
dx
f(p
)e
i(p
p)x
= f(p) (10.27)
Plug this back into the Fourier series, we can obtain a representation for the delta function:
_
dx
f(x
)
d
(x x
) =
1
V
p
_
dx
f(x
)e
ip(xx
d
(x x
) =
1
V
p
e
ip(xx
)
(10.28)
(b) For the complete scale eld expansion, we have
(t, x) =
0
(t, x) =
i
2V
p
_
E
p
_
a
p
e
iEptipx
a
p
e
iEpt+ipx
_
(10.29)
Then, it is very easy to show that
_
(t, x), (t, x
= i
d
(x x
) (10.30)
10.3 (a) For the Lorentz covariant equation A
= B
, = 0, 1, . . . , d, we have
A
+
=
1
2
(A
0
+A
1
) =
1
2
(B
0
+B
1
) = B
+
(10.31)
A
=
1
2
(A
0
A
1
) =
1
2
(B
0
B
1
) = B
(10.32)
It is obvious that A
I
= B
I
for I = 2, . . . , d.
(b) By the denition, we can obtain
R
++
= A
+
B
+
=
1
2
(A
0
+A
1
)
1
2
(B
0
+B
1
) =
1
2
(R
00
+R
01
+R
10
+R
11
) (10.33)
R
+
= A
+
B
=
1
2
(A
0
+A
1
)
1
2
(B
0
B
1
) =
1
2
(R
00
R
01
+R
10
R
11
) (10.34)
R
+
= A
B
+
=
1
2
(A
0
A
1
)
1
2
(B
0
+B
1
) =
1
2
(R
00
+R
01
R
10
R
11
) (10.35)
R
= A
=
1
2
(A
0
A
1
)
1
2
(B
0
B
1
) =
1
2
(R
00
R
01
R
10
+R
11
) (10.36)
Then, it is easy to see that an equaltiy R
= S
++
=
= 0,
+
=
+
= 1 (10.37)
(d) For the antisymmetric electromagnetic eld strength
F
=
_
_
_
_
0 E
x
E
y
E
z
E
x
0 B
z
B
y
E
y
B
z
0 B
x
E
z
B
y
B
x
0
_
_
_
_
, (10.38)
we can calculate the lightcone components
F
++
= F
= 0, F
+
= E
x
, F
+
= E
x
(10.39)
F
+2
=
1
2
(E
y
+B
z
), F
+3
=
1
2
(E
z
B
y
) (10.40)
F
2
=
1
2
(E
y
B
z
), F
3
=
1
2
(E
z
+B
y
) (10.41)
F
22
= F
33
= 0, F
23
= B
x
, F
32
= B
x
(10.42)
38 CHAPTER 10. LIGHTCONE FIELDS AND PARTICLES
10.4 For the uniform constant electric eld E = E
0
e
x
, we can choose
A
= (E
0
x, E
0
x, 0, 0), (10.43)
which automatically satises the condition A
+
= 0. Then, we have
A
=
2
2
(A
0
A
1
) =
2E
0
x = E
0
(x
x
+
), A
I
= 0 (10.44)
10.5 A pure gauge of a gravitational eld is dened as h
(p) = ip
(p) +ip
= p
(p
+p
) h
= i
(i)(p
+p
)
p
2
(10.45)
we can see that: if p
2
= 0, setting
= p
and
= p
, we can obtain
H
+H
(B
+B
) +
(B
+B
) +
(B
+B
) = 0 (10.46)
Similarly, H
+H
= 0, H
+H
= 0. Therefore, H
, we have
H
) +
) +
) = 0 (10.47)
(b) It is easy to see that
) =
(10.48)
(c) In the momentum space,
(p) =
+ p
+
(p) =
1
2
_
0
+p
0
+
1
+p
1
_
= 0 =
+
p
+
(10.49)
(d)
10.7 (a) Recall that F
, then we have
L =
1
4
(F
) m
2
A
bm
m
2
bm
2
( A)
= m
2
(A
) m
)
(10.50)
where we have chosen b = 1. So the action will be invariant under the gauge transformation.
(b) The eld equations are given by
L
A
= 0 m
2
A
= 0 (10.51)
L
= 0
2
m( A) = 0 (10.52)
(c) If we set = /m, then
(p A)p
= 0, p A = 0 (p
2
+m
2
)A
= 0 (10.53)
If p
2
= m
2
, we can only have trivial solutions A
= 0.
Chapter 11
The Relativistic Quantum Point
Particle
Summary and Supplement
1. Lightcone point particle
= x
2
, S =
_
f
i
Ld , L = m
_
x
2
(11.1)
x
+
=
p
+
m
2
, x
2
=
1
m
2
, p
= m
2
x
, p
2
+m
2
= 0 (11.2)
p
=
1
2p
+
(p
I
p
I
+m
2
), x
() = x
0
+
p
m
2
, x
I
() = x
I
0
+
p
I
m
2
(11.3)
2. Quantization of the point particle
_
x
I
, x
0
, p
I
, p
+
_
,
_
x
I
(), x
0
(), p
I
(), p
+
()
_
(11.4)
_
x
I
(), p
J
()
= i
IJ
,
_
x
0
(), p
+
()
= i
+
= i (11.5)
H() =
1
2m
2
p
+
()p
() =
1
2m
2
_
p
I
()p
I
() +m
2
(11.6)
i
(, p
+
, p
T
) =
1
2m
2
_
p
I
p
I
+m
2
_
(, p
+
, p
T
) (11.7)
p
+
, p
T
_
a
p
+
,pT
 , (, p
+
, p
T
) (, p
+
, p
T
) (11.8)
3. Lightcone Lorentz generators
x
() =
(), M
= x
()p
() x
()p
() (11.9)
(M
= M
,
_
M
, x
()
= i
() i
() (11.10)
[M
, M
] = i
+i
(11.11)
M
+
=
1
2
(x
0
p
+
+p
+
x
0
), M
I
= x
0
p
I
1
2
(x
I
0
p
+p
x
I
0
) (11.12)
Quick Calculations
11.1 For the state , t = e
iHt
, we can easily check that
i
d
dt
, t = i(iH)e
iHt
 = H, t (11.13)
11.2 For the corresponding Heisenberg operators, we have
_
1
(t),
2
(t)
=
_
e
iHt
1
e
iHt
, e
iHt
2
e
iHt
= e
iHt
_
1
,
2
e
iHt
=
3
(t) (11.14)
39
40 CHAPTER 11. THE RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM POINT PARTICLE
11.3 Since [x
0
(), p
I
()] = 0, then we can obtain
i
dx
0
()
d
=
1
2m
2
_
x
0
(), p
I
p
I
+m
2
= 0 (11.15)
11.4 For
= 0 and
+
=
I
= 0, it is easy to check that
x
() =
_
i
(), x
()
=
_
i
+
p
+
(), x
()
=
+
=
(11.16)
11.5 Using the fact [x
0
, 1/p
+
] = i/p
+2
, we can show that
_
x
0
, p
=
_
x
0
,
1
2p
+
(p
I
p
I
+m
2
)
=
1
2
_
x
0
,
1
p
+
(p
I
p
I
+m
2
) = i
p
I
p
I
+m
2
2p
+2
= i
p
p
+
(11.17)
11.6 According to Eq. (11.5), we have
_
M
, x
()
= x
()
_
p
(), x
()
()
_
p
(), x
()
= i
() i
() (11.18)
11.7 We observe that: the rst two terms are antisymmetric for the indices and , and the last two
terms are also antisymmetric for the indices and .
11.8 By the denition, we can directly prove that
M
+
= x
+
p
p
+
=
1
2
(x
0
+x
1
)(p
0
p
1
)
1
2
(x
0
x
1
)(p
0
+p
1
) = x
1
p
0
x
0
p
1
= M
10
(11.19)
Solutions to the Problems
11.1 For the Heisenberg operator, we can prove its equation of motion
i
d(t)
dt
= i
d
dt
e
iHt
e
iHt
= i(iHe
iHt
)e
iHt
+ie
iHt
(iHe
iHt
) = [(t), H] (11.20)
11.2 (a) According to the Schrodinger equation, we have
i
d , t
dt
= i
dU(t)
dt
 = HU(t)  i
dU(t)
dt
= HU(t) (11.21)
(b) This result has been proven in Eq. (11.20).
(c) This result has been proven in Eq. (11.14).
11.3 Using the Hamiltons canonical equations
dq
dt
=
H
p
,
dp
dt
=
H
q
, (11.22)
we can prove the time evolution of an operator in the classical phase space:
dv
dt
=
v
t
+
v
p
dp
dt
+
v
q
dq
dt
=
v
t
v
p
H
q
+
v
q
H
p
=
v
t
+{v, H} (11.23)
11.4 The variation L can be derived as follows
L =
L
x
+
L
x
=
d
d
_
L
x
+
L
x
) =
(L) (11.24)
And the associated charge is given by
()Q =
L
x
() ()L = 0 (11.25)
11.5 (a) [M
, p
] = [x
, p
] = [x
, p
]p
[x
, p
]p
= i
.
(b) [x
, x
] = [x
, x
]p
+x
[p
, x
] = i
. Then, we have
[M
, M
] = [x
, x
] [x
, x
] [x
, x
] + [x
, x
]
= (i
) (i
)
(i
) + (i
)
= i
+i
(11.26)
(c) In the light cone coordinates, we have
+
=
+
= 1,
II
= 1 and the others are zero.
41
11.6 (a) First, we calculate the value of [x
I
0
, p
].
[x
I
0
, p
] = [x
I
0
,
1
2p
+
(p
I
p
I
+m
2
)] =
p
I
p
+
[x
I
0
, p
I
] =
ip
I
p
+
(11.27)
Then, it is easy to obtain
M
I
= x
0
p
I
1
2
(x
I
0
p
+p
x
I
0
) = x
0
p
I
x
I
0
p
+
1
2
[x
I
0
, p
] = x
0
p
I
x
I
0
p
+
ip
I
2p
+
(11.28)
(b) Now, we shall prove the lightcone gauge commutator
[M
I
, M
J
] = [x
0
p
I
,
ip
J
2p
+
] [x
0
p
I
, x
J
0
p
] [x
I
0
p
, x
0
p
J
] + [x
I
0
p
, x
J
0
p
] + [
ip
I
2p
+
, x
0
p
J
]
=
ip
I
p
J
2p
+2
ix
J
0
p
I
p
p
+
+
ix
I
0
p
J
p
p
+
+ (
ix
J
0
p
I
p
p
+
ix
I
0
p
J
p
p
+
) +
ip
I
p
J
2p
+2
= 0
(11.29)
where we have used the following relations:
[x
I
0
, p
] =
ip
I
p
+
, [x
0
,
1
p
+
] =
i
p
+2
, [x
0
, p
] =
ip
p
+
(11.30)
11.7 (a) By the denition, we have
M
+
=
1
2
(x
m
2
)p
+
1
2
p
+
(x
m
2
) =
p
+
p
m
2
1
2
(x
p
+
+p
+
x
) (11.31)
(b)
42 CHAPTER 11. THE RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM POINT PARTICLE
Chapter 12
Relativistic Quantum Open Strings
Summary and Supplement
1. Lightcone Hamiltonian and commutators
(x
I
(), x
0
, P
I
(), p
+
),
_
x
I
(, ), x
0
(), P
I
(, ), p
+
()
_
(12.1)
[X
I
(, ), P
J
(, )] = i
IJ
(
), [x
0
(), p
+
()] = i (12.2)
X
+
= 2
p
+
, L
0
= 2
p
+
p
, H = 2
p
+
_
0
d P
(12.3)
H() =
_
0
d
_
P
I
(, )P
I
(, ) +
X
I
(, )X
I
(, )
(2
)
2
_
(12.4)
2. Commutation relations for oscillators
_
(
X
I
X
I
)(, ), (
X
J
X
J
)(,
= 4
i
IJ
d
d
(
) (12.5)
_
(
X
I
X
I
)(, ), (
X
J
X
J
)(,
= 0, ,
[0, ] (12.6)
,n
Z
e
im
(+)
e
in
(+
)
[
I
m
,
J
n
] = 2i
IJ
d
d
(
) (12.7)
[
I
m
,
J
n
] = m
mn
IJ
,
I
0
=
p
I
(12.8)
[x
I
0
,
J
0
] =
i
IJ
, [x
I
0
,
J
n
] = 0, n = 0 (12.9)
I
n
= a
I
n
n,
I
n
= a
I
n
n, (
I
n
)
=
I
n
(12.10)
[a
I
m
, a
J
n
] =
mn
IJ
, [a
I
m
, a
I
n
] = [a
I
m
, a
J
n
] = 0 (12.11)
3. Strings as harmonic oscillators
S =
_
dd L =
1
4
_
d
_
0
d (
X
I
X
I
X
I
X
I
) (12.12)
X
I
(, ) = q
I
() + 2
n=1
q
I
n
()
cos n
n
(12.13)
X
I
(, ) = x
I
0
+ 2
p
I
+i
n=1
(a
I
n
e
in
a
I
n
e
in
)
cos n
n
(12.14)
4. Transverse Virasoro operators
n
=
1
p
+
L
n
, L
n
=
1
2
pZ
I
np
I
p
, (L
n
)
= L
n
(12.15)
L
0
=
1
2
I
0
I
0
+
p=1
I
p
I
p
+
1
2
(D 2)
p=1
p (12.16)
43
44 CHAPTER 12. RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM OPEN STRINGS
2
=
1
p
+
(L
0
+a), M
2
=
1
(a +
n=1
na
I
n
a
I
n
) (12.17)
a =
1
2
(D 2)
p=1
p, (s) =
n=1
1
n
s
, (1) =
1
12
(12.18)
[L
m
,
I
n
] = n
I
m+n
, [L
m
, x
I
0
] = i
I
m
(12.19)
[L
m
, L
n
] = (m +n)L
mn
+
D2
12
(m
3
m)
mn
(12.20)
[L
m
, X
I
(, )] =
m
X
I
+
m
X
I
(12.21)
m
(, ) = ie
im
cos m,
m
(, ) = e
im
sin m (12.22)
X
I
( +
m
, +
m
) = X
I
(, ) +[L
m
, X
I
(, )] (12.23)
5. Lorentz generators
M
=
1
2
_
0
(X
) d (12.24)
M
= x
0
p
0
p
n=1
1
n
(
n
) (12.25)
M
I
= x
0
p
I
1
4
p
+
_
x
I
0
(L
0
+a) + (L
0
+a)x
I
0
p
+
n=1
1
n
(L
I
n
I
n
L
n
) (12.26)
[M
I
, M
J
] =
1
p
+2
m=1
_
I
m
J
m
J
m
I
m
_
_
m
_
1
D2
24
_
+
1
m
_
D 2
24
+a
__
(12.27)
D = 26, a = 1, [M
I
, M
J
] = 0, 2
=
1
p
+
(L
0
1), H = L
0
1 (12.28)
6. Constructing the state space
a
I
n
p
+
, p
T
_
= 0, n 1, I = 2, . . . , 25 (12.29)
 =
n=1
25
I=2
(a
I
n
)
n.I
p
+
, p
T
_
(12.30)
N
n=1
na
I
n
a
I
n
, M
2
=
1
(1 +N
) (12.31)
[N
, a
I
n
] = na
I
n
, [N
, a
I
n
] = na
I
n
(12.32)
N
 = N
 , N
n=1
25
I=2
n
n,I
(12.33)
tachyons: N
= 0,
M
2
= 1, number of states = 1 (12.34)
photons: N
= 1,
M
2
= 0, number of states = D 2 (12.35)
massive tensors: N
= 2,
M
2
= 1, number of states = (D 2)(D + 1)/2 (12.36)
7. Tachyons and Dbrane decay
Quick Calculations
12.1 Since (x
I
0
)
= x
I
0
, (
I
0
)
=
I
0
, and the index n is summed over all integers except zero, we can
see that
_
X
I
(, )
_
= X
I
(, ).
45
12.2 Using the denition in Eq. (12.12), we can obtain
S =
1
4
_
d
_
0
d
_
q
I
() q
I
() + 4
n=1
q
I
n
() q
I
n
()
cos
2
n
n
4
n=1
q
I
n
()q
I
n
()nsin
2
n
_
=
1
4
_
d
_
q
I
() q
I
() + 4
n=1
q
I
n
() q
I
n
()
2n
4
n=1
q
I
n
()q
I
n
()
n
2
_
=
_
d
_
1
4
q
I
() q
I
() +
n=1
_
1
2n
q
I
n
() q
I
n
()
n
2
q
I
n
()q
I
n
()
__
(12.37)
12.3 Using the relations in Eq. (12.9), we can see that
[L
m
, x
I
0
] =
1
2
pZ
[
J
mp
J
p
, x
I
0
] = [
I
0
, x
J
0
]
J
m
= i
IJ
J
m
= i
I
m
(12.38)
12.4 For p = 1,
2p
p
=
p
2p
, therefore we have
L
2
=
1
2
pZ
2p
p
=
1
2
1
+ (
0
2
+
1
3
+
2
4
+ ) (12.39)
Similarly, for p = 1,
2p
p
=
p
2p
, therefore we have
L
2
=
1
2
pZ
2p
p
=
1
2
1
+ (
2
0
+
3
1
+
4
2
+ ) (12.40)
12.5 For the oscillators including Lorentz indices, we can verify that
1
4
[
I
1
I
1
,
J
1
J
1
] =
1
2
(
I
1
[
I
1
,
I
1
]
J
1
+
J
1
[
I
1
,
I
1
]
I
1
)
=
1
2
(
IJ
I
1
J
1
+
IJ
J
1
I
1
) =
D 2
2
+
I
1
I
1
(12.41)
12.6 It is easy to check the expressions. Note that the numbers n, m n, p and m p that appear
on the oscillator are all positive.
12.7 Suppose that
m
n=1
n
2
= am
3
+ bm
2
+ cm, then you can use the specila cases for m = 1, 2 , 3
to determine the values of a, b, c.
12.8 For the transformation generated by i(L
m
+L
m
), the parameters are given by
= i(
m
+
m
) = (e
im
+e
im
) cos m = 2 cos m cos m (12.42)
= i(
m
+
m
) = i(e
im
e
im
) sin m = 2 sinm sin m (12.43)
12.9 Since M
=
1
2
_
0
d
_
2
(x
0
x
0
) +i2
n=0
1
n
(
n
) cos
2
n
= x
0
p
0
p
n=1
1
n
(
n
)
(12.44)
12.10 If the basis states  and 
, ) =
IJ
(p
+
p
+
)(p
T
p
T
) = 0 (12.45)
12.11 Substitute the expression for , t into the Schrodingers equation satised by the general states,
then the result will be obvious.
46 CHAPTER 12. RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM OPEN STRINGS
12.12 Using the EulerLagrange equation, we can directly obtain that
L
= 0 V
() +
= 0 (12.46)
Solutions to the Problems
12.1
12.2 For the mode expansion of X
I
(, ), its derivatives are given by
X
I
(, ) =
nZ
I
n
e
in
cos n, X
I
(, ) = i
nZ
I
n
e
in
sin n (12.47)
Using the commutator in Eq. (12.8), we can easily obtain
_
X
I
(, ), X
J
(,
= 2
mZ
_
I
m
e
im
sin m,
nZ
J
n
e
in
sin n
= 2
IJ
mZ
msinm sinm
= 0
(12.48)
_
X
I
(, ),
X
J
(,
= 2
mZ
_
I
m
e
im
cos m,
nZ
J
n
e
in
cos n
= 2
IJ
mZ
mcos m cos m
= 0
(12.49)
12.3 (a) Since
I
0
commutes with all other oscillators, it does not contribute to our calculations
presented here. So we have
[X
I
(, ), P
J
(,
)] =
_
x
I
0
+i
m =0
1
m
I
m
e
im
cos m,
1
nZ
J
n
e
in
cos n
=
1
[x
I
0
,
J
0
] +
i
IJ
m =0
cos m cos m
= i
IJ
1
mZ
cos m cos m
(12.50)
(b) By the basic result of Fourier series, we can obtain
_
0
f(
)(
) d
= f() =
1
nZ
cos n
_
0
f(
) cos n
(12.51)
Then, it gives the following representation of the delta function
(
) =
1
nZ
cos n cos n
(12.52)
12.4 For x < 1, the series
n=0
x
n
= 1/(1 x) holds. Then, we have
_
0
dt
t
s
1
e
t
1
=
_
0
dt
n=1
e
nt
=
n=1
1
n
s
_
0
dxe
x
x
s1
= (s)(s) (12.53)
For the small t, the following expansion holds
1
e
t
1
1
t(1 +
t
2
+
t
2
6
)
=
1
t
_
1
t
2
t
2
6
+
t
2
4
+O(t
3
)
=
1
t
1
2
+
t
12
+O(t
2
) (12.54)
And it is obvious that
_
1
0
dt t
s1
_
1
t
+
1
2
t
12
_
+
1
s 1
1
2s
+
1
12(s + 1)
= 0, (12.55)
47
therefore we can rewrite Eq. (12.53) as
(s)(s) =
_
1
0
dt t
s1
_
1
e
t
1
1
t
+
1
2
t
12
_
+
1
s 1
1
2s
+
1
12(s + 1)
+
_
1
dt
1
e
t
1
(12.56)
Using the small t expansion, we can see that the function of the rst integral has the order of
O(t
s+1
). For (s) > 2, the integral on [0, 1] will always converge. So the righthand side above
is well dened. Recall the pole struction of (s): Res[(s), n] = (1)
n
/n!, we have
Res[(s), 0](0) =
1
2
(0) =
1
2
Res[(s), 1](1) =
1
12
(1) =
1
12
(12.57)
We can also obtain the result from the following formula:
(s) = 2
s
s1
sin
s
2
(1 s)(1 s) (12.58)
12.5 For m +n = 0, [L
m
, L
n
] = (mn)L
m+n
. Then, we can check that
[L
m
, L
n
] = (mn)L
m+n
= (n m)L
n+m
= [L
n
, L
m
] (12.59)
[L
m
, [L
n
, L
k
]] + [L
n
, [L
k
, L
m
]] + [L
k
, [L
m
, L
n
]]
=[L
m
, (n k)L
n+k
] + [L
n
, (k m)L
k+m
] + [L
k
, (mn)L
m+n
]
=
_
(n k)(mn k) + (k m)(n k m) + (mn)(k mn)
m+n+k
=0
(12.60)
For the Virasoro operators built with just one type of oscillator, we have
[L
m
, L
n
] =
_
(n m)L
n+m
+
1
12
(n
3
n)
n+m,0
= [L
n
, L
m
] (12.61)
[L
m
, [L
n
, L
k
]] + [L
n
, [L
k
, L
m
]] + [L
k
, [L
m
, L
n
]]
=[L
m
, (n k)L
n+k
] + [L
n
, (k m)L
k+m
] + [L
k
, (mn)L
m+n
]
=
_
(n k)(mn k) + (k m)(n k m) + (mn)(k mn)
L
m+n+k
+
1
12
_
(n k)(m
3
m) + (k m)(n
3
n) + (mn)(k
3
k)
m+n+k,0
=0
(12.62)
12.6 (a) A(m) = A(m), A(0) = 0.
(b) Now, we consider the Jacobi identity for L
m
, L
n
and L
k
with m+n +k = 0.
[L
m
, [L
n
, L
k
]] + [L
n
, [L
k
, L
m
]] + [L
k
, [L
m
, L
n
]]
=[L
m
, (n k)L
n+k
] + [L
n
, (k m)L
k+m
] + [L
k
, (mn)L
m+n
]
=
_
(n k)(mn k) + (k m)(n k m) + (mn)(k mn)
L
0
+
_
(n k)A(m) + (k m)A(n) + (mn)A(k)
m
L
m
reparametrizes the coordinate of the string while keeping
= 0. They form a subalgebra of the Virasoro algebra. For m = n, we have
[L
m
L
m
, L
n
L
n
] = (mn)(L
m+n
L
mn
) (m +n)(L
mn
L
nm
) (12.65)
(b)
48 CHAPTER 12. RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM OPEN STRINGS
12.9 (a) It is easy to verify that
m
= me
im
cos m =
m
,
m
= ime
im
sin m =
m
(12.66)
(b) For the change of coordinates, we have
X = (1 +
X,
X = (1 +
X (12.67)
X = (1 +
)
2
X = 0
X = 0 (12.68)
(
X)
2
+ (
X)
2
= (1 +
)
2
_
(
X)
2
+ (
X)
2
= 0 (
X)
2
+ (
X)
2
= 0 (12.69)
12.10 (a) If the orientation of this second string is the direction of decreasing , then it equals the rst
one.
(b)
12.11 (b) The critical points are given by V
() = 0.
V
1
() =
1
0
(
0
) = 0
c
= 0,
0
(12.70)
V
2
() =
1
2

_
1 + ln
2
2
0
_
= 0
c
= 0,
e
(12.71)
V
3
() =
1
2
2
0
(
2
2
0
) = 0
c
= 0,
0
(12.72)
(c) The mass of the scalar particle for the critical point
is given by m(
) = V
).
V
1
() =
1
0
(2
0
) m(0) =
1
, m(
0
) =
1
(12.73)
V
2
() =
1
2
_
2 + ln
2
2
0
_
m(0) = , m
_
e
_
=
1
2
(12.74)
V
3
() =
1
2
2
0
(3
2
2
0
) m(0) =
1
2
, m(
0
) =
1
(12.75)
Chapter 13
Relativistic Quantum Closed
Strings
Summary and Supplement
1. Mode expansions and commutation relations
X
(, ) = X
L
( +) +X
R
( ), X
(, ) = X
(, + 2) (13.1)
X
L
(u) =
1
2
x
L
0
+
_
0
u +i
_
n=0
1
n
n
e
inu
(13.2)
X
R
(v) =
1
2
x
R
0
+
_
0
v +i
_
n=0
1
n
n
e
inv
(13.3)
0
=
0
,
0
=
2
p
, x
L
0
= x
R
0
= x
0
(13.4)
X
(, ) = x
0
+
0
+i
_
n=0
1
n
e
in
(
n
e
in
+
n
e
in
) (13.5)
+X
= 2X
L
( +) =
nZ
n
e
in(+)
(13.6)
= 2X
R
( ) =
nZ
n
e
in()
(13.7)
[
I
m
,
J
n
] = m
mn
IJ
, [
I
m
,
J
n
] = m
mn
IJ
, [
I
m
,
J
n
] = 0 (13.8)
[ a
I
m
, a
J
n
] =
mn
IJ
, [a
I
m
, a
J
n
] =
mn
IJ
, [x
I
0
, p
J
] = i
IJ
(13.9)
X
+
=
p
+
,
p
+
X
+, H =
p
+
p
(13.10)
2. Closed string Virasoro operators
=
1
2
p
+
(
X
)
2
(13.11)
(
X
+X
)
2
= 4
nZ
n
e
in(+)
, (
X
)
2
= 4
nZ
L
n
e
in()
(13.12)
n
=
2
p
+
(
n
1),
n
=
2
p
+
(L
n
1) (13.13)
0
=
4
p
I
p
I
+
N
, L
0
=
4
p
I
p
I
+N
,
L
0
= L
0
(13.14)
n=1
n a
I
n
a
I
n
, N
n=1
na
I
n
a
I
n
,
N
= N
(13.15)
1
p
+
(L
0
+
L
0
2) =
, M
2
= p
2
=
2
(N
+
N
2) (13.16)
49
50 CHAPTER 13. RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM CLOSED STRINGS
3. Closed string states space
R
IJ
=
S
IJ
+A
IJ
+S
IJ
, tr
S
IJ
= 0, S
=
S
D 2
(13.17)
Graviton elds:
I,J
S
IJ
a
I
1
a
J
1
p
+
, p
T
_
(13.18)
KalbRamond elds:
I,J
A
IJ
a
I
1
a
J
1
p
+
, p
T
_
(13.19)
Dilaton elds: S
a
I
1
a
J
1
p
+
, p
T
_
(13.20)
4. A brief look at superstring theories
G
(10)
g
2
(
)
4
, G g
2
, g
2
o
g, g e
(13.21)
I
1
(, ) =
I
1
( ),
I
2
(, ) =
I
2
( +) (13.22)
I
1
(, 0) =
I
2
(, 0),
I
1
(, ) =
I
2
(, ) (13.23)
Ramond boundary condition:
I
(, ) = +
I
(, ) (13.24)
NeveuSchwarz boundary condition:
I
(, ) =
I
(, ) (13.25)
I
(, ) =
rZ+1/2
b
I
r
e
ir()
, b
I
r
b
I
r
= b
I
r
b
I
r
= 0 (13.26)
NS sector:
9
I=2
n=1
(
I
n
)
n,I
9
J=2
r=
1
2
,
3
2
,
(b
J
r
)
r,J
NS
p
+
, P
T
_
(13.27)
I
(, ) =
nZ
d
I
n
e
ir()
, ground states:
R
A
_
, A = 1, . . . , 16 (13.28)
R sector:
9
I=2
n=1
(
I
n
)
n,I
9
J=2
m=1
(d
J
m
)
m,J
R
A
_
p
+
, P
T
_
(13.29)
NS Sector:
M
2
=
1
2
+N
, R Sector:
M
2
= N
(13.30)
bosonic states: b
I
1/2
NS
p
+
, p
T
_
, fermionic states: R
a
1
p
+
, p
T
_
(13.31)
NSNS massless elds: g
, B
, , b
I
1/2
b
J
1/2
NS
L
NS
R
p
+
, p
T
_
(13.32)
Type IIA, Type IIB, E
8
E
8
heterotic, SO(32) heterotic, Type I (13.33)
Quick Calculations
13.1 By the denition of
L
m
and L
m
, we can obtain
_
m
, x
I
0
=
1
2
pZ
_
J
p
J
mp
, x
I
0
=
_
J
0
, x
I
0
J
m
= i
_
2
IJ
J
m
= i
_
2
I
m
(13.34)
_
L
m
, x
I
0
=
1
2
pZ
_
J
p
J
mp
, x
I
0
=
_
J
0
, x
I
0
J
m
= i
_
2
IJ
J
m
= i
_
2
I
m
(13.35)
13.2 First, we point out that the following relations hold
_
m
,
I
n
= n
I
m+n
,
_
L
m
,
I
n
= n
I
m+n
,
_
L
m
,
I
n
=
_
m
,
I
n
= 0 (13.36)
Then, using Eq. (13.5), we can prove that
_
0
, X
I
(, )
=
_
0
, x
I
0
+i
_
n=0
1
n
e
in
_
0
,
I
n
e
in
= i
_
2
I
0
i
_
n=0
I
n
e
in(+)
=
i
2
(
X
+X
)
(13.37)
51
_
L
0
, X
I
(, )
=
_
L
0
, x
I
0
+i
_
n=0
1
n
e
in
_
L
0
,
I
n
e
in
= i
_
2
I
0
i
_
n=0
I
n
e
in()
=
i
2
(
X
)
(13.38)
13.3 The 16 ground states are listed as follows:
R
a
1
: 0 ,
2
1
0 ,
3
1
0 ,
4
1
0 ,
3
2
0 ,
4
2
0 ,
4
3
0 ,
4
1
0 (13.39)
R
a
2
:
1
0 ,
2
0 ,
3
0 ,
4
0 ,
3
1
0 ,
4
1
0 ,
4
1
0 ,
4
2
0 (13.40)
We can see that the eight ground states R
a
1
have an even number of fermionic operators and
the other eight states R
a
2
have an odd number of fermionic operators.
13.4 From Eq. (13.26), we can conlcude that all states in the turncated NS sector have halfinteger
N
M
2
.
13.5 The numbers of graviton, KalbRamond, and dilaton states in ten dimensions are 35, 28, and 1.
Add these numbers up and we just get 64.
Solutions to the Problems
13.1 (a)
(b) Using Eq. (13.7), we have
[(
X
I
X
I
)(, ), (
X
J
X
J
)(,
)] = 2
mZ
e
im()
[
I
m
,
nZ
J
n
e
in(
)
= 2
mZ
m
IJ
e
im(
)
= 4
i
IJ
d
d
(
)
(13.41)
Then, it is obvious that the following holds
(
) =
1
2
mZ
e
im(
)
(13.42)
13.2
13.3 (a) Dene f(
0
) = e
iP0
X
I
(, )e
iP0
, then we have
df
d
0
= e
iP0
_
X
I
0
_
e
iP0
,
d
2
f
d
2
0
= e
iP0
_
2
X
I
2
0
_
e
iP0
, . . . (13.43)
By the Taylors theorem, we can obtain
f(
0
) = f(0) +
n=0
n
0
n!
_
d
n
f
d
n
0
_
0=0
=
n=0
n
0
n!
_
2
X
I
2
0
_
= X
I
(, +
0
) (13.44)
(b) The relaion holds for the following reasons
_
e
iP0
X
I
(, )e
iP0
_
= e
iP0
X
I
(, )e
iP0
(13.45)
_
e
iP0
X
I
(, )e
iP0
_
= e
iP0
X
I
(, )e
iP0
(13.46)
(c) Using Eqs. (13.6) and (13.7), we can obtain
nZ
e
iP0
I
n
e
iP0
e
in(+)
=
nZ
I
n
(, )e
iP0
e
in(++0)
(13.47)
52 CHAPTER 13. RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM CLOSED STRINGS
nZ
e
iP0
I
n
e
iP0
e
in()
=
nZ
I
n
(, )e
iP0
e
in(0)
(13.48)
e
iP0
I
n
e
iP0
=
I
n
e
in0
, e
iP0
I
n
e
iP0
=
I
n
e
in0
(13.49)
(d) Using the reults above, we have
e
iP0
U = (e
iP0
I
m
e
iP0
)(e
iP0
I
n
e
iP0
) U =
I
m
I
n
e
i(mn)0
U (13.50)
The invariance of U under
0
transformation requires
0
= 2k.
13.4 (a) Using Eq. (13.12), we can obtain
_
2
0
d
X
I
X
I
=
nZ
_
2
0
d e
in
(
n
e
in
L
n
e
in
) = 2
0
L
0
) (13.51)
13.5
13.6
13.7 (a) b
i1
b
i2
: 8 7 + 1 = 57. b
i1
b
i2
b
i3
: 8 7 6 + 1 = 337. b
i1
b
i2
b
i3
b
i4
: 8 7 6 5 + 1 = 1681.
Part II
DEVELOPMENTS
53
Chapter 14
Dbranes and Gauge Fields
Summary and Supplement
1. Quantizing open strings on Dpbranes
DD: X
a
(, )
=0
= X
a
(, )
=
= x
a
, a = p + 1, . . . , d (14.1)
NN: X
m
(, )
=0
= X
m
(, )
=
= 0, m = 0, 1, . . . , p (14.2)
(14.3)
(14.4)
(14.5)
2.
(14.6)
(14.7)
3.
(14.8)
(14.9)
Quick Calculations
14.1
14.2
14.3
Solutions to the Problems
14.1
14.2
14.3
55
56 CHAPTER 14. DBRANES AND GAUGE FIELDS
Appendices
57
Appendix A
Elements of E
8
A.1 Introduction
Source from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E8 (mathematics)
In mathematics, E
8
is the name given to several closely related exceptional simple Lie groups and Lie
algebras of dimension 248; the same notation is sometimes used for their root lattice, which has rank 8.
The designation E
8
comes from Killing and Cartans classication of the complex simple Lie algebras,
which fall into four innite families labeled A
n
, B
n
, C
n
, D
n
, and ve exceptional cases labeled E
6
, E
7
,
E
8
, F
4
, and G
2
. The E
8
algebra is the largest and most complicated of these exceptional cases.
The E
8
Lie group has applications in theoretical physics, in particular in string theory and supergravity.
The group E
8
E
8
serves as the gauge group of one of the two types of heterotic string and is one of
two anomalyfree gauge groups that can be coupled to the N = 1 supergravity in 10 dimensions. E
8
is the Uduality group of supergravity on an eighttorus (in its split form). One way to incorporate
the standard model of particle physics into heterotic string theory is the symmetry breaking of E
8
to
its maximal subalgebra SU(3) E
6
. In 1982, Michael Freedman used the E
8
lattice to construct an
example of a topological 4manifold, the E
8
manifold, which has no smooth structure. In February
2008, Garret Lisi published a particle physics theory based on the E
8
Lie group.
59
60 APPENDIX A. ELEMENTS OF E
8
Appendix B
Modular Forms
B.1 Introduction
Source from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modular form
In mathematics, a modular form is a (complex) analytic function on the upper halfplane satisfying
a certain kind of functional equation and growth condition. The theory of modular forms therefore
belongs to complex analysis but the main importance of the theory has traditionally been in its
connections with number theory. Modular forms appear in other areas, such as algebraic topology and
string theory. A modular function is a modular form of weight 0: it is invariant under the modular
group, instead of transforming in a prescribed way, and is thus a function on the modular region (rather
than a section of a line bundle). Modular form theory is a special case of the more general theory of
automorphic forms, and therefore can now be seen as just the most concrete part of a rich theory of
discrete groups.
61
62 APPENDIX B. MODULAR FORMS
Bibliography
[1] B. Zwiebach, A First Course in String Theory. Cambridge University Press, 2004.
[2] M.B. Green, J.H. Schwarz, and E. Witten, Superstring Theory, Volume 1: Introduction. Cambridge
University Press, 1987.
63