An application of PLC

- Remote Detection of illegal usage of Electricity

By :

Sujit Kr. Nayak M.Tech ELDT Roll : ELD09006

Plan of the Talk…
Introduction to PLC Idea about AMR Methods of illegal usage of Electricity The detection system System Review Conclusion References

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

2

Introduction to PLC Power Line Communication (PLC) is the technique in which the communication is takes place over the same line that deliver electricity. In this technique. a high frequency carrier is injected onto the power line.Tech ELDT 3 . It has a wide range of application possibilities. The data to be sent is modulated with the injected carrier. Nayak M. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) is an important among all. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.

Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) AMR a very useful application of PLC.Tech ELDT 4 . The reading of the Meter is translated into digital form in order to send the metering data from the user to a Base station. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M. This provides remote recording of usage of electricity of an user.

Nayak M.Tech ELDT 5 .Contd…(AMR) Rotating Disc in Meter Housing Incident Ray Reflected Ray Optical Sensor Marker Digital Signal Output Fig: Electromechanical movements to Digital signal Converter 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.

Receivers. Nayak M. and Host Computer.Contd…(AMR) The Digital metering data is send to the Base station using PLC modems. Controller. Host upload link.Tech ELDT 6 . The Base station unit consists of Modems. Data Concentrators. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.

AMR system setup… BASE STATION MODEM MODEM METER MODEM METER Fig: AMR communication setup Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 7 .

Methods of illegal usage of electricity Using Mechanical Objects Using a fixed Magnet Using external phase before the meter Switching the energy cable at meter connector box 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 8 .

Nayak M.The Detection & Control System… Subscriber 1 kWh PLC Subscriber 2 kWh PLC PLC Energy Meter PLC Energy Meter Distribution Transformer 220v AC PLC Energy Meter Host PLC PLC kWh To Control Center Subscriber N Fig: Schematic illustration of detection system of illegal electricity usage 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.Tech ELDT 9 .

Nayak M.Tech ELDT 10 . which is placed in subscriber’s locations. The recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters for every subscriber are sent to host PLC modem via PLC modems. The detector PLC s and energy meters is placed at the connection point between distribution main lines and subscriber’s line. energy meter chips reads the energy in kilowatt-hours and also send the data to host PLC unit. On the other hand.The Detection & Control System… In order to detect illegal usage of electricity. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. a PLC modem and an energy meter chip for every subscriber are added to an existing AMR system.

e. Then the subscriber address and error signal are combined and sent to the central control unit.The Detection & Control System… Hence. There is an illegal usage ). If there is any difference between two readings. Nayak M. there are two recorded energy data in host PLC unit. which comes from the AMR-PLC. which comes from the PLC modem at the connection points. an error signal is generated (i. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. These two recorded energy data are compared in the host PLC. one.Tech ELDT 11 . and the other.

Nayak M.Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 12 .The Detection & Control System… Connector Box for X Subscriber PLC Modem Energy meter chip X Subscriber Main power line 220 V AC PLC Modem kWh Meter Fig: Illegal detector system for one subscriber Host PLC unit Host PLC Modem uP Logic To control center Presented By: Sujit K.

L Fig: Modeling of the detection system Presented By: Sujit K.Working of the System… PLC Energy Meter KWh Meter Power Line L HOST PLC MODEM S PLC Optical Sensor Disk I. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 13 .

While only for a legal load in the system. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. The host PLC unit reads two recorded data coming from metering PLC units. two meters are accorded each other to compensate for any error readings. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 14 . An illegal load may be connected to the power line before the kilowatt-hour meter via an S switch.Working of the System… The energy value at the electromechanical kilowatthour meter is converted to digital data using by optical reflector sensor.

and therefore two recorded energy values are different from each other. the illegal load is connected to the system. The host PLC unit generate a error signal when it received two different records from the same subscriber.Working of the System… If the S switch is closed. This is the detection of the illegal usage of that user. Nayak M. Presented By: Sujit K.Tech ELDT 14 November 2009 15 .

Tech ELDT 16 . Nayak M. which includes a header. and other serial communication bits such as parity and stop bits. error correction bits. The protocol may also be changed according to the properties of the required system 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. energy value data. address.Working of the System… Data signaling between PLC modems has a protocol.

length. Fig: Effect of frequency on Bit Error rate Fig: Effect of line length (meters) on Bit-error probability 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Parameters on which the system depends The relations between frequency.Tech ELDT 17 . and bit-error probability are given in these figures shown.

fiber-optic cable. The host PLC unit must be placed after the distribution transformer. The system has two values of the energy consumption for every user. billing address etc). All host units in each distribution transformer may be connected to only one main center station via phone lines. The discussed system is for only one distributed power network and it should be repeated for all distribution power networks. the user is an illegal one. one is for AMR and the other is used to send the data from energy meter chip to host PLC modem. or RF links.Tech ELDT 18 . The energy meter must be installed in the connection box between a home line and main power lines. Operating software must be designed for the information of every subscriber in every sub power network (subscriber identification number.System Review… Every user has two PLC modems. if these two values are different. Nayak M. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.

It can not be used at high voltage power lines. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 19 . It is unable to detect any illegal load connected in between the distribution transformer and the energy meter.System Limitations….

Tech ELDT 20 . Nayak M. the distribution losses in India can be reduced effectively. Once this proposed detection systems are implemented in real power lines. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.Conclusion… If AMR and detector system are used together illegal usage of electricity might be detected.

19. Nayak M. October 2004. IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery. Sato. 2004. IEE Proceedings.Tech ELDT 21 . and Josep M. Takaki. H. Alex Vallejo. 4. Marta Majoral. No. H. C. IEEE Trans. and M. January 1990. 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. 137. “A Solution to Remote Detection of Illegal Electricity Usage via Power Line Communications”. Jan. Vol. Miura. Vol. No. Vol. Selga. 2. 111–117. Cavdar. Narita. I. H. Power Delivery. 24. H. 19. Cavdar. I .References… I. “Performance analysis of FSK power line communications systems over the time-varying channels: Measurements and modeling”. pp. “Automatic meter reading system by power line carrier communications”. Pt. N. IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery. Agustín Zaballos. No. April 2009. vol. “Survey and Performance Comparison of AMR Over PLC Standards”.

Nayak M.Tech ELDT 22 .Thank U… 14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K.

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