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An application of PLC

- Remote Detection of illegal usage of Electricity

By :

Sujit Kr. Nayak M.Tech ELDT Roll : ELD09006

Plan of the Talk


Introduction to PLC Idea about AMR Methods of illegal usage of Electricity The detection system System Review Conclusion References

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

Introduction to PLC
Power Line Communication (PLC) is the technique in which the communication is takes place over the same line that deliver electricity. In this technique, a high frequency carrier is injected onto the power line. The data to be sent is modulated with the injected carrier. It has a wide range of application possibilities. Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) is an important among all.

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

Automatic Meter Reading (AMR)


AMR a very useful application of PLC. This provides remote recording of usage of electricity of an user. The reading of the Meter is translated into digital form in order to send the metering data from the user to a Base station.

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

Contd(AMR)

Rotating Disc in Meter Housing Incident Ray Reflected Ray Optical Sensor Marker Digital Signal Output

Fig: Electromechanical movements to Digital signal Converter

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

Contd(AMR)

The Digital metering data is send to the Base station using PLC modems. The Base station unit consists of Modems, Receivers, Data Concentrators, Controller, Host upload link, and Host Computer.

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

AMR system setup


BASE STATION MODEM MODEM METER

MODEM

METER

Fig: AMR communication setup


Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

14 November 2009

Methods of illegal usage of electricity

Using Mechanical Objects Using a fixed Magnet Using external phase before the meter Switching the energy cable at meter connector box

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

The Detection & Control System


Subscriber 1

kWh PLC

Subscriber 2

kWh PLC

PLC

Energy Meter

PLC

Energy Meter

Distribution Transformer

220v AC
PLC Energy Meter

Host PLC

PLC

kWh
To Control Center

Subscriber N

Fig: Schematic illustration of detection system of illegal electricity usage


14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 9

The Detection & Control System


In order to detect illegal usage of electricity, a PLC modem and an energy meter chip for every subscriber are added to an existing AMR system. The detector PLC s and energy meters is placed at the connection point between distribution main lines and subscribers line. The recorded data in kilowatt-hour meters for every subscriber are sent to host PLC modem via PLC modems, which is placed in subscribers locations. On the other hand, energy meter chips reads the energy in kilowatt-hours and also send the data to host PLC unit.
14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 10

The Detection & Control System


Hence, there are two recorded energy data in host PLC unit, one, which comes from the AMR-PLC, and the other, which comes from the PLC modem at the connection points. These two recorded energy data are compared in the host PLC. If there is any difference between two readings, an error signal is generated (i.e. There is an illegal usage ). Then the subscriber address and error signal are combined and sent to the central control unit.
14 November 2009 Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT 11

The Detection & Control System


Connector Box for X Subscriber PLC Modem Energy meter chip

X Subscriber Main power line 220 V AC PLC Modem

kWh Meter

Fig: Illegal detector system for one subscriber

Host PLC unit

Host PLC Modem

uP

Logic

To control center Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

14 November 2009

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Working of the System


PLC
Energy Meter

KWh Meter

Power Line

HOST PLC MODEM

S PLC
Optical Sensor

Disk

I.L

Fig: Modeling of the detection system


Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

14 November 2009

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Working of the System


The energy value at the electromechanical kilowatthour meter is converted to digital data using by optical reflector sensor. An illegal load may be connected to the power line before the kilowatt-hour meter via an S switch. While only for a legal load in the system, two meters are accorded each other to compensate for any error readings. The host PLC unit reads two recorded data coming from metering PLC units.

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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Working of the System


If the S switch is closed, the illegal load is connected to the system, and therefore two recorded energy values are different from each other. The host PLC unit generate a error signal when it received two different records from the same subscriber. This is the detection of the illegal usage of that user.
Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

14 November 2009

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Working of the System


Data signaling between PLC modems has a protocol, which includes a header, address, energy value data, error correction bits, and other serial communication bits such as parity and stop bits. The protocol may also be changed according to the properties of the required system

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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Parameters on which the system depends


The relations between frequency, length, and bit-error probability are given in these figures shown.

Fig: Effect of frequency on Bit Error rate

Fig: Effect of line length (meters) on Bit-error probability

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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System Review
Every user has two PLC modems; one is for AMR and the other is used to send the data from energy meter chip to host PLC modem. The energy meter must be installed in the connection box between a home line and main power lines. The host PLC unit must be placed after the distribution transformer. Operating software must be designed for the information of every subscriber in every sub power network (subscriber identification number, billing address etc). The system has two values of the energy consumption for every user, if these two values are different, the user is an illegal one. The discussed system is for only one distributed power network and it should be repeated for all distribution power networks. All host units in each distribution transformer may be connected to only one main center station via phone lines, fiber-optic cable, or RF links.

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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System Limitations.
It can not be used at high voltage power lines. It is unable to detect any illegal load connected in between the distribution transformer and the energy meter.

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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Conclusion
If AMR and detector system are used together illegal usage of electricity might be detected. Once this proposed detection systems are implemented in real power lines, the distribution losses in India can be reduced effectively.

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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References
I. H. Cavdar, A Solution to Remote Detection of Illegal Electricity
Usage via Power Line Communications,
Vol. 19, No. 4, October 2004. IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery,

Agustn Zaballos, Alex Vallejo, Marta Majoral, and Josep M. Selga,


Survey and Performance Comparison of AMR Over PLC Standards, IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 24, No. 2, April 2009.

I. H. Cavdar, Performance analysis of FSK power line


communications systems over the time-varying channels: Measurements and modeling, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 19, pp. 111117, Jan.
2004.

N. Miura, H. Sato, H. Narita, and M. Takaki, Automatic meter


reading system by power line carrier communications,
Vol. 137, Pt. C, No. I , January 1990. IEE Proceedings,

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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Thank U

14 November 2009

Presented By: Sujit K. Nayak M.Tech ELDT

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