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Chng 1 - GII THIU 1.1. TNH HNH NGHIN CU H VI C - IN (MEMS) TRONG V NGOI NC NI CHUNG V LNH VC TI NI RING 1.1.1. Ngoi nc Nm 1939, nh bc hc W. Schottky pht minh ra bn dn mi ni P-N u tin, iu ny m ra mt chn tri mi cho mt ngnh cng nghip vi c in t (MEMS - MicroElectro-Mechanical Systems) y non tr nhng ha hn rt tim nng. Tri qua nhiu giai on pht trin, n nay ngnh cng nghip vi c - in (MEMS) c nhng buc pht trin vt bc v c s ng gp to ln n s pht trin khoa hc v cng ngh trn th gii. C th k qua mt vi ct mc pht trin trong lnh vc ny nh: ch to transitor u tin (1948), ch to IC u tin (1958), ch to Sensor p sut (1983) v n nhng nm gn y vi vic ch to ra si quang hc (2000) gip lm tng kh nng tc truyn thng tin trong lnh vc vin thng. S liu t hnh 1.1 cho thy rng: li nhun thu c t cc sn phm nh Sensor pressure, inertial sensor, inkjet head tng t gn 5 t USD nm 2004 ln n 8.5 t USD nm 2007. c bit, sn phm cm bin p sut (Pressure sensor) c s pht trin kh mnh, gi tr li nhun nm 2004 t sn phm ny l Hnh 1.1. Li nhun t cc sn phm trong lnh vc MEMS t 2004 n 2007 [41]. hn 1 t USD pht trin ln ti gn hn 2 t USD nm 2008.

1.1.2. Trong nc Trong Chin lc pht trin khoa hc v cng ngh Vit Nam n nm 2010[12] a ra mt s hng c in t mi, c trin vng, nh: h vi c in t (MEMS) v h nano c in t (NEMS) Nhng nm qua, Vit Nam tr thnh im dng chn ca cc nh u t nc ngoi. Trong s c khng t cng ty hng u c sn phm cn n cc linh kin c ch to t cng ngh MEMS. C th thy iu ny nhng in hnh nh Canon Inc m ra mt nh my ti khu cng nghip Thng Long, H Ni t nm 2002 v mt ti Khu cng nghip Qu V, Bc Ninh sn xut my in phun vi s vn u t gn 100 triu USD, cng sut 700.000 sn phm/thng dnh cho xut khu, doanh thu d kin l 400 triu USD/nm[13]. Mt trong nhng chi tit quan trng trong thit b my in l b phn phun mc c ch to bng cng ngh MEMS. Trong ngnh t l Honda vi mt nh my Vnh Phc, Toyota vi mt nh my trung tm M Linh v mt khu cng nghip Thng Long cng h thng cc nh my v tinh nhiu a phng, Ford vi mt nh my hon chnh ti Hi Dng. Mt s lng ln cc chi tit c ch to bng cng ngh MEMS lp t trong cc xe t gm vi cm bin p sut cho h thng nhin liu v ch th p sut lp xe, gia tc k cho b phn ti kh an ton (airbag), vn tc gc cn bng xe hot cho cc thit b nh v khi xe lu thng trong h thng giao thng (navigations) Nhn xt v li ch ca vic p dng cng ngh ny vo ngnh cng nghip Vit Nam, do trnh pht trin cc ngnh cng ngh cao nc ta cn hn ch, vic pht trin cng ngh MEMS s cho php chng ta thc hin cc chin lc i tt n u v nhng tim nng to ln phc v cho nhiu ngnh cng nghip khc nhau. Hin nay rt nhiu sn phm ca cng ngh MEMS nh cm bin MEMS qun tnh dng trong cc h thng iu khin, cng nghip robot loi nh vi cc microsensor dng con quay vi c cho cc thit b iu khin bay, k thut mi trng vi cc microsensor o m, o PH, ng dng y sinh vi cc microsensor o p sut mu, o nng Glucose, nng kh Vit Nam c tn trn bn nng cng ngh

Micro-Nano th gii, cn c nhng c s nghin cu ch to v a ra th trng nhng sn phm trn c s cng ngh ny. Mt khi nhng nh sn xut b thuyt phc rng chng ta c th p ng c nhng yu cu k thut trong sn xut, ch to linh kin MEMS ti Vit Nam khi vic u t xy dng nhng nh my ti Vit Nam cho nhng mc ch ny l hon ton c tnh kh thi. Hin nay, nghin cu v ng dng trong lnh vc MEMS ti Vit Nam cha thc s pht trin mnh m [06, 08, 12, 13]. iu ny c th d dng nhn thy bi 2 l do: Lnh vc nghin cu ny i hi trang thit b hin i v chnh xc cao. i ng cn b trong lnh vc ny cha thc s mnh v nhiu. Tuy c mt s nghin cu v cm bin p sut [6, 12] nhng thc s vn ng dng cm bin p sut vo trong cuc sng nhm phc v li ch dn sinh vn vp phi bi ton kh gii: Cha tm ra c ton b quy trnh t thit k n ch to, ng gi v ng dng chip cm bin p sut. Bn cnh , hin nay trn th trng c hng ngn chng loi chip cm bin p sut xut x t nhiu nc trn th gii vi gi thnh cng khc nhau t gi thp nht vi trm ngn VN n gi vi trm ngn USD M. 1.2. TNG QUAN MEMS V MT S NG DNG 1.2.1. Gii thiu tng quan MEMS MEMS (vit tt ca cm t MicroElectroMechanical Systems) l h thng vi cin. MEMS l s tch hp ca cc yu t c (mechanical elements), cm bin(sensors), b kch hot (actuators) v cc yu t in chung (electronics) trn cng mt chip bng cng ngh vi ch to (micro-fabrication tech) [40]. Trong khi nhng thnh phn c thuc tnh in t (electronics) c ch to dng cng ngh mch tch hp (IC) nh : CMOS, bipolar, BICMOS, th nhng thnh phn vi c (micro-mechanical components) c ch to dng qu trnh vi c (micromachining) ph hp l loi b c chn la nhng phn wafer Si hoc thm vo nhng lp c cu trc mi to nn cc thit b c v c in.

MEMS ha hn cch mng ha cc loi sn phm bng cch mang cc yu t vi c in li vi nhau trn mt nn Silicon c bn theo cng ngh vi c, bng cch to ra cc h thng trn chip hon chnh (systems on chip). MEMS l mt cng ngh cho php pht trin cc sn phm thng minh, tng kh nng tnh ton ca cc Hnh 1.2. H thng vi c in (MEMS) [27]. yu t vi in t vi cc vi cm bin v cc b vi kch hot c v iu khin. Ngoi ra, MEMS cn m rng kh nng thit k v ng dng. Trong mt h thng, s tch hp cc yu t vi in xem l b no, v MEMS tng cng thm kh nng nh l mt v tay cho h thng vi in t, iu ny cho php vi h thng nhn bit v iu khin h thng theo mi trng. Cc cm bin tp hp cc thng tin t mi trng thng qua vic o c cc yu t nhit, c, quang, ha, sinh, cc hin tng t. Sau , cc yu t in x l thng tin t cm bin, ri tc ng trc tip n b kch hot . H thng p ng li bng cch di chuyn, thay i v tr, d tm, lc, theo iu khin mi trng theo mun. 1.2.2. Lch s MEMS Lch s MEMS, cng vi nh ngha ca n ph thuc vo s pht trin ca cc quy trnh vi c. Nm 1900. Cc quy trnh in quang u tin xc nh v khc c tnh di thang o milimet. Trong nhng nm 1940. S pht trin ca cht bn dn (Ge v Si).

Nm 1947. S ra i ca transistor, bo trc s khi u nn cng nghip mch bn dn. Nm 1949. Kh nng pht trin Si n tinh th ci tin transistor bn dn, tuy nhin chi ph cao v tin cy cha t yu cu. Nm 1959. Tin s Feynman a ra bi din thuyt ni ting c ta C rt nhiu ch di y . Trong , ng ta trnh by s lng khong trng khng l c sn theo n v o micro. Nm 1960. S pht minh ca quy trnh ch to khi phng (planar) ci tin r rt tin cy v gi thnh ca linh kin bn dn. Ngoi ra, cng ngh phng cho php tch hp nhiu linh kin bn dn ln mt mu Si. S pht trin ny bo trc s khi u ca nn cng nghip IC. Nm 1960. Vi s pht trin ca transistor hiu ng trng oxit bn dn kim loi (MOSFET), nn cng nghip IC t c nhng hiu qu lin tip i vi cc mch phc tp c thu nh. Nm 1964. Transistor cng cng hng, c sn xut bi Nathenson, linh kin MEMS ch to khi u tin. S chuyn ng tnh in ca thanh m in cc cng bng vng thay i c tnh in ca linh kin. Nm 1970. S pht trin ca vi x l, c nhiu ng dng hp l lm bin i x hi, p ng to nhu cu v cng ngh IC cao hn. Trong nhng nm 1970 v 1980. Nn thng mi MEMS c bt u bi nhiu cng ty sn xut ra cc phn cho nn cng nghip t ng. Nm 1982. Bi tho lun ca Kurt Petersen vi ta Si nh l mt vt liu c (Silicon as a mechanical material) trnh by s pht trin ca nhiu linh kin theo cng ngh vi c v c xem l cng c lm tng s hiu bit v nhng kh nng m cng ngh MEMS mang li.

Nm 1984. Howe v Muller thuc i hc California pht trin quy trnh vi c b mt Si a tinh th v c dng sn xut cc mch tch hp dng cng ngh MEMS. Cng ngh ny l c bn cho cc sn phm MEMS. Nm 1989. Cc nh nghin cu UCB v MIT pht trin c lp ng c u tin theo cng ngh micro c iu khin bng tnh in. Trong nhng nm 1990. S pht trin mnh v s lng ln linh kin, cng ngh v cc ng dng m rng phm vi nh hng ca MEMS v ngy nay vn ang tip tc. Nm 1991. Cc mu ni dng cng ngh micro c pht trin ti UCB bi Pister m rng quy trnh x l poly c gia cng vi b mt sao cho cu trc ln c th c tp hp li, cui cng gii thiu nhng bc x l c bit ca MEMS ba chiu. 1.2.3. Mt s ng dng

Hnh 1.3. Mt s ng dng ca MEMS trong cng nghip t [27].

Lnh vc u tin p dng cc thit b MEMS chnh l ngnh cng nghip ang pht trin mnh m ti thi im nhng nm 90: ngnh cng nghip t. Thit b u tin ng dng cng ngh MEMS l gia tc k ti kh vi kch thc ch bng tinh th ht ng. Ngoi li th v kch thc, gia tc k ti kh cn lm gim ng k gi thnh. Ban u mt gia tc k khi ni vi mt mch in t c gi thnh l 50$, th n hin nay, mt gia tc k tch hp trn cng mch in t ch cn khong 10$. Gia tc k ti kh ang c sn xut vi s lng 35 triu thit b mi nm v khng ch dng , n cn ang c nghin cu c cc chc nng thng minh nh c p ng ring i vi cc li xe c kh ngi v cn nng khc nhau. Hay mt thit b khc l bnh xe thng minh, bn trong bnh xe s c mt thit b MEMS o p sut v thng tin v cho b x l bng sng radio. N c kh nng bo cho ngi li xe bit trc 50 dm trc khi cn phi thay th. Trong lnh vc ng dng t, cc thit b MEMS khc ch yu nhm vo an ton, an ninh hay theo di mi trng, v d nh : o lng nhin liu, vi valve iu chnh dng nhin liu v khng kh sao cho ph hp, t ng gm dy bo him, h thng kha ca da trn sinh trc hc hoc RFID, h thng nh v GPS.

Hnh 1.4. MEMS trong mn hnh [27].

Hnh 1.5. MEMS trong u phun mc in [27].

Lnh vc th hai cng pht trin nhanh khng thua km l lnh vc in t dn dng v my tnh, vi u in phun, u c t ca cng, vi h thng gng trong projector, chuyn mch quang. Cng vi cuc cch mng v my tnh c nhn l s

cn thit khng th thiu ca thit b lu tr ( cng). Ri s ch ng ca cc sn phm my in phun v projector, mt thit b khng bao gi vng mt trong bt k mt cng ty hay mt trung tm nghin cu no. Ngoi ra cn cc thit b khc nh HDTV (Highdefinition TV), mn hnh phng TFT, LCD vi ma trn vi im. Mt trong nhng ng dng chnh ca cng ngh MEMS c gi tr thng mi: l ch to u vit mc in phun, dng linh kin p in. ng dng ny c Epson thng mi ho. ng dng mc in phun dng nguyn tc p tr c thng mi ho bi HP, Canon, Lexmark Cng ngh my in phun tin n giai on u vit, in nhanh, gi thnh r, trong khi my in Laser c gi tr cao, tc in mu ca Laser li khng nhanh hn v ht mc Laser ln hn. Tuy nhin, ng dng u mc in phun c th phun trn bt k dung mi hay loi giy in no. Cc loi mc khc nhau, bao gm DNA, cht cm quang, pht sng hu c. Cng ngh ny m ra mt hng i mi cho phng php to vi mch khng dng mask, ci thin v tc phun, ng vai tr quan trng trong sn xut i lng ca cng ngh vi mch.

Hnh 1.6. MEMS trong h thng truyn quang [27]. Vi h thng hin nay cng ang c pht trin mnh m tng ngy trong lnh vc vin thng di ng, cc th h di dng c tung ra lin tc vi cc tnh nng mi, tch hp ngy mt nhiu cc chc nng nhng li lun c xu hng thu nh li. Cc

thit b passive v active c tch hp nh chuyn mch, in dung, in cm, b cng hng, b lc, nhm tng tn s s dng, chn lc v gim nhiu parasit, nng cao cht lng cuc thoi, m rng bng tn lm vic. Khng nhng th, mt chic in thoi di ng trong tng lai gn c th c trang b c cng mini, my nh s, my quay s, h thng sinh trc hc. Cng ngh MEMS c s dng thnh cng trong cng ngh Switch quang hc, micro-mirror c th xoay i hng chiu laser trong vin thng, c th dng trong h thngchiu sng. MEMS c mt hu ht trong mt h thng vin thng hnh 1.7.

Hnh 1.7. MEMS trong h thng vin thng [28].

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Lnh vc ha v y sinh hc hin l hng pht trin trong tng lai nhm chm sc sc khe, chun an v phn tch ri iu tr chi tit hn, trnh c cc sai st v gim gi thnh cc sn phm y hc. V d in hnh l cc cm bin p sut v cm bin ha cht, o nng cc cht c trong mu, hay h thng kch thch c v
Hnh 1.8. MEMS trong lnh vc y sinh

dy thanh nhn to, ri h thng vi phu thut, h thng h tr tim (pacemaker).

[25].

Cc vi mi tim v cng nh (khong 150 m) c th di chuyn trong mch mu v mang thuc trc tip n cc khu vc ni tng v tim thuc vo . Lnh vc ha v y sinh hc hin l hng pht trin trong tng lai nhm chm sc sc khe, chun an v phn tch ri iu tr chi tit hn, trnh c cc sai st v gim gi thnh cc sn phm y hc. V d in hnh l cc cm bin p sut v cm bin ha cht, o nng cc cht c trong mu, hay h thng kch thch c v dy thanh nhn to, ri h thng vi phu thut, h thng h tr tim (pacemaker). Cc vi mi tim v cng nh (khong 150 m) c th di chuyn trong mch mu v mang thuc trc tip n cc khu vc ni tng v tim thuc vo . Mt ng dng mi v quan trng ca cng ngh vi c in t l h thng chuyn thuc vo c th. Thuc khi ung ch c th hp th 10% , ta c th b cc phn t thuc rt nh vo cc cell, t cc my bm siu vi c th bm thuc vo c th con ngi qua cc l chn lng, tng hiu qu s dng thuc. Ngoi ra, cn c lnh vc hng khng v tr, y l mt lnh vc ln i hi tnh an tan v an ninh rt cao, tin cy phi ln d gi c c th t. Thng c s

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dng trong lnh vc cp cao v qun i. Cc thit b MEMS ny gm : gia tc k, i hng k, b vi dn tin, cc cm bin p sut, cm bin dng kh Cc lnh vc ng dng ca MEMS rt ln, cc lnh vc khng ch dng li nh trn, m ngy mt i vo nhiu lnh vc khc. Trong tng lai gn, chng ta c th thy c s c mt ca cc thit b MEMS khp mi ni, y thc s l mt cuc cch mng. Cc thit b MEMS trong tng lai, khng nhng ch c cc chc nng n gin m s t ng thc thi a chc nng, v c kh nng t cung cp ngun, hay lin kt khng dy vi cc thit b trung tm. 1.3. PHNG SCH V MT S THIT B PHNG SCH 1.3.1. Gii thiu phng sch [11] Phng sch l mi trng dng trong sn xut hay nghin cu m trong tp cht mi trng l rt thp nh bi, vi khun trong khng kh, cc phn t ha cht v hi ha hc. Hay chnh xc hn, phng sch l phng c th iu khin mc tp cht hay l s phn t trn n v milimet khi vi cng mt kch thc phn t c th. V d nh vi khng kh mi trng cng nng thn cha 35,000,000 phn t /m3 vi ng knh 0,5 micromet th phng sch thuc ISO9. Phng sch c ng dng trong sn xut bn dn, k thut sinh hc v nhng lnh vc khc m c s nhy cm vi tp cht mi trng. Khng kh vo phng sch t bn ngoi s c lc loi tr bi v khng kh bn trong c gi n nh nh my lc khng kh hiu qu cao (High Efficiency Particulate Air - HEPA) v my lc tp cht khng kh bc thp (Ultra Low Penetration Air - ULPA) loi b cc tp cht sinh ra bn trong. Nhng ai i vo hay ra khi phng s i qua kha khng kh (c th c c bung phun khng kh) v phi mc bo v nh o, m, mt n bo v, giy v gng tay. Cc thit b trong phng sch gim thiu tp cht ngay c r lau v thng cng c bit. Cc thit b

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c thit k gim thiu tp cht v d dng lm sch thit b. Cc vt liu ph bin nh giy, ch, vi c to t si t nhin thng b loi b hay c thay th. 1.3.2. Tiu chun phng sch [11] C kh nhiu cc Tiu chun Quc t nh ngha v Phng sch. Cc lnh vc lin quan n khi nim phng sch c ngnh Sinh hc, Dc phm, Vi in t v nhiu ngnh khc na. C cc tiu chun quc t quan trng v phng sch l: US Federal Std 209E 1992 EEC cGMP 1989 France AFNOR 1989 German VDI 2083 1990 British BS 5295 1989 Japan JIS B 9920 1989 ISO EN 14611-1 1999 Australia AS 1386 1989 Cc tiu chun ny thng c cc phn chnh nh sau: Nguyn l Kim sot khng gian sch (Principles of Clean Space Control): a ra cc nguyn l kim sot mt khng gian sch. C 6 mc khng kh sch c m t v cc ch dn v vic la chn kiu thi gi, kim sot nhit v m, iu chnh p sut khng kh, vt liu v k thut xy dng cng nh cc quy trnh tin hnh. Cc khng gian sch c th t c trong phm vi mt phng hoc trong phm vi v tr lm vic hoc trong phm vi bung nh trong mt phng. Cc phng sch thi gi tng lp (Laminar Flow Cleanrooms): M t cc yu cu i vi phng sch c thi gi tng lp, vi sch khng kh ti thiu t cp 3.5 theo tiu chun phng sch.

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Cc phng sch c thi gi thng thng (Non-laminar Flow Cleanrooms) Cp 350 v cao hn: M t cc yu cu i vi phng sch c thi gi thng thng vi sch khng kh ti thiu t Cp 350 theo tiu chun phng sch. Cc phng sch c thi gi thng thng (Non-laminar Flow Cleanrooms) Cp 3500: M t cc yu cu i vi phng sch c thi gi thng thng vi sch khng kh ti thiu t Cp 3500 theo tiu chun phng sch. V tr lm vic sch (Clean Workstations): M t cc yu cu i vi v tr lm vic sch. Thc hin v Kim tra v phng sch (Operation and Inspection of Cleanrooms): a ra cc gi v yu cu i vi vic tin hnh v kim tra v phng sch c thi gi tng lp v phng sch c thi gi thng thng. Ti liu tham kho cho 3 giai on nh gi cho 3 giai on khc nhau ca phng sch (phng sch ang c thit lp, phng sch tnh v phng sch ang trong vn hnh). Lp t v s dng V tr lm vic sch (Installation and Use of Clean Workstations): a ra cc gi v thc hnh lp t, vn hnh, duy tr v kim tra v tr lm vic sch (c thi gi tng lp) nh c m t trong tiu chun phng sch.

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1.3.3. Mt s thit b phng sch [36] Mt s thit b c bn c s dng trong phng sch

Quang khc - Lithography

Bc bay ha hc plasma tng cng PECVD

nhit, khuch tn, v Oxi ha Annealing, diffusion and oxidation

o dy v khc x ca lp mng

Khc phn ng Ion - RIE

L chn khng - Vacuum Oven

Hnh 1.9. Mt s thit b trong phng sch.

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1.4. MC TIU V NHIM V CA TI 1.4.1. Mc tiu ti Nghin cu thit k v m phng ch to H Vi C in Cm bin p sut (MEMS) vi mc tiu nh sau Tm hiu tnh hnh nghin cu MEMS trong v ngoi nc, cp nht cng ngh hin nay trn th gii. Tm hiu mt s cng on ch to v k thut MEMS. Tm hiu v qui trnh ch to MEMS. Tm hiu v cc loi cm bin p sut c ch to bng cng ngh MEMS. Tm hiu v qui trnh thit k mt n cho n cm bin v cho wafer 4 inch. Tm hiu v s dng mt s phn mm m phng: ANSYS, CoventorWare, Intellisuite, AutoCAD, 1.4.2. Nhim v ti Nghin cu thit k v m phng ch to H Vi C in Cm bin p sut (MEMS) vi mt s nhim v c ra: Xy dng v tnh ton thng s cho m hnh cm bin p sut loi p tr. Xy dng qui trnh ch to cm bin p sut loi p tr vi ng dng c th. M phng thuc tnh cm bin: C in Nhit. M phng ch to cm bin p sut loi p tr. xut b mt n trn wafer 4 inch cho vic ch to th nghim.