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# TIDES

Tides are one of the most reliable phenomena in the world. As the sun rises in the east and the stars come out at night, we are confident that the ocean waters will regularly rise and fall along our shores. In oceanography, tides are commonly defined as the periodic variationsvin sea level that occur as a result of the gravitational forces of the Sun and the Moon. We most commonly observe tides along the coast but tides occur in the open ocean as well. Tides are a planetary phenomenon, caused by the gravitational attraction of other planetary bodies on Earthnamely the Sun and the Moon. The force of this attraction creates a very predictable rise and fall of sea level as the Earth rotates on its axis. When sea level is at its reatest height, the tide is said to be high. When sea level is at its lowest extent, the tide is said to be low. High tides bring water far up on the shore. When wave action is high, these high tides may damage homes and undercut coastal cliffs. On the other hand, low tides expose great expanses of the beach. Low tides are ideal for activities like observing tidepools or digging in the mud for clams.

## What Causes Tides?

Gravity is one major force that creates tides. In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton explained that ocean tides result from the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the oceans of the earth (Sumich, J.L., 1996). Newtons law of universal gravitation states that the gravitational attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies (Sumich, J.L., 1996; Thurman, H.V., 1994). Therefore, the greater the mass of the objects and the closer they are to each other, the greater the gravitational attraction between them (Ross, D.A. 1995).Tidal forces are based on the gravitational attractive force. With regard to tidal forces on the Earth, the distance between two objects usually is more critical than their masses. Tidal generating forces vary inversely as the cube of the distance from the tide generating object. Gravitational attractive forces only vary inversely to the square of the distance between the objects (Thurman, H.V., 1994). The effect of distance on tidal forces is seen in the relationship between the sun, the moon, and the Earths waters. Our sun is 27 million times larger than our moon. Based on its mass, the sun's gravitational attraction to the Earth is more than 177 times greater than that of the moon to the Earth. If tidal forces were based solely on comparative masses, the sun should have a tide-generating force that is 27 million times greater than that of the moon. However, the sun is 390 times further from the Earth than is the moon. Thus, its tide-generating force is reduced by 3903, or about 59 million times less than the moon. Because of these conditions, the suns tide-generating force is about half that of the moon (Thurman,.V.,1994). The relationship between the masses of the Earth, moon and sun and their

distances to each other play a critical role in affecting the Earth's tides. Although the sun is 27 million times more massive than the moon, it is 390 times further away from the Earth than the moon. Tidal generating forces vary inversely as the cube of the distance from the tide-generating object. This means that the suns tidal generating force is reduced by 3903 (about 59 million times) compared to the tidegenerating force of the moon. Therefore, the suns tide-generating force is about half that of the moon, and the moon is the dominant force affecting the Earths tides.

## Factors affecting tides

The moon is the primary factor controlling the temporal rhythm and height of tides. The moon produces two tidal bulges somewhere on the Earth through the effects of gravitational attraction. The height of these tidal bulges is controlled by the moons gravitational force and the Earths gravity pulling the water back toward the Earth. At the location on the Earth closest to the moon, seawater is drawn toward the moon because of the greater strength of gravitational attraction. On the opposite side of the Earth, another tidal bulge is produced away from the

moon. However, this bulge is due to the fact that at this point on the Earth the force of the moons gravity is at its weakest. Considering this information, any given point on the Earths surface should experience two tidal crests and two tidal troughs during each tidal period. The timing of tidal events is related to the Earths rotation and the revolution of the moon around the Earth. If the moon was stationary in space, the tidal cycle would be 24 hours long. However, the moon is in motion revolving around the Earth. One revolution takes about 27 days and adds about 50 minutes to the tidal cycle. As a result, the tidal period is 24 hours and 50 minutes in length. The second factor controlling tides on the Earths surface is the suns gravity. The height of the average solar tide is about 50 % the average lunar tide. At certain times during the moons revolution around the Earth, the direction of its gravitational attraction is aligned with the suns. During these times the two tide producing bodies act together to create the highest and lowest tides of the year. These spring tides occur every 14-15 days during full and new moons.

When the gravitational pull of the moon and sun are at right angles to each other, the daily tidal variations on the Earth are at their least . These events are called neap tides and they occur during the first and last quarter of the moon.

Types of Tides
The geometric relationship of moon and sun to locations on the Earths surface results in creation of three different types of tides.

In parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Asia, tides have one high and one low water per tidal day. These tides are called diurnal tides.

Semidiurnal tides have two high and two low waters per tidal day . They are common on the Atlantic coasts of the United States and Europe.

Many parts of the world experience mixed tides where successive highwater and lowwater stands differ appreciably . In these tides, we have a higher high water and lower high water as well as higher low water and lower low water. The tides around west coast of Canada and the United States are of this type.

The map shows the geographic distribution of these three tide types on the Earth.

## Tidal power technology

Hydrokinetic tidal power is derived from the conversion of the kinetic power in moving water to electricity and depends on the area of water intercepted by the device (a circular area for a horizontal axis rotor, rectangular area for a vertical axis rotor), the cube of the water velocity, and the efficiency at which the device extracts the power in the water and converts it to electricity. Mathematically this is described as

where P is the power generated by the turbine, is the density of seawater (n ominally 1024 kg/m3), U is the current velocity, A is the area of water intercepted by the device, and is the water -to-wire efficiency. There are many approaches to harvesting tidal energy.

1 Device Components
While there are a multitude of tidal energy devices under development, all hydrokinetic turbines include a set of common components: rotors, power train, mooring, and foundation. Additionally, all devices or arrays require electrical transmission to shore and protection against biological fouling. Lets have a look at the main components :

1.1 Rotor
As with wind turbines, the rotor extracts the power in tidal currents and converts it to rotating, mechanical energy. The axis of rotation may either be parallel to the flow direction (horizontal axis turbine) or perpendicular to the flow direction (cross flow or vertical axis turbine). In both cases, the rotors typically have aerofoil cross-sections and operate on the principle of hydrodynamic lift. Drag-style devices are also possible, but inherently less efficient. There are a number of rotor variations which generally trade-off efficiency against simplicity and capital cost including: variable fixed pitch, asymmetric fixed pitch, and symmetric fixed pitch. Depending on the site characteristics, a horizontal axis turbine may incorporate a yaw control mechanism (active or passive) to keep the rotor aligned with the flow direction. Cross flow turbines do not require yaw control. For both horizontal axis and cross-flow turbines, it is theoretically possible to increase device efficiency by incorporating a diffusing duct downstream of the rotor. However, there are two potential complications. First, in practice, it is very difficult to design a functional

diffusing duct, as evidenced by the fact that no commercial wind turbines incorporate diffusers. Second, because it is generally impractical to rotate the diffuser during slack water, diffusers are required both upstream and downstream of the rotor. The rotational speeds of turbine rotors are limited by efficiency and cavitation considerations. Ideally, a rotation rate is achieved that allows an optimal tip speed ratio (ratio of rotor tip velocity to current velocity). Depending on the rotor design, the optimal tip speed ratio may vary from 5 to 8. However, if the rotor tip speed exceeds a threshold value, cavitation bubbles may form. This is undesirable as cavitation reduces hydrodynamic performance, erodes the blade surfaces, and generates additional noise. While depth dependent, a rule of thumb is that tip speeds should be limited to 12 m/s (27 mph). For a 10m diameter turbine, this corresponds to approximately 23 RPM.

## 1.2 Power train

Once the rotor has converted the kinetic power in the currents into mechanical rotation, a power train is required to further convert rotation to electrical energy. Power trains may be generally separated into those incorporating a gearbox speed increaser between the rotor shaft and electrical generator, those in which the rotor shaft is directly coupled to the generator, and those in which the connection is hydraulic. When gearboxes are used, the tonal frequency of the high speed shaft may present a distinctive acoustic signature. In nearly all cases, power electronics are required to condition the power output before transmission to shore and interconnection with the grid. For example, the voltage may be stepped up from a few hundred volts to 11-35kV to decrease transmission losses between the array and shore.

1.3 Mooring
The rotor and power train must be moored to a foundation which resists the forces generated by the rotor.

In general, this mooring will be either a rigid or flexible connection. Examples of rigid connections include piles similar to those used in the offshore wind industry or tubular trusses. Because the amount of material required for a rigid mooring increases as the turbine moves up in the water column, the maximum hub height for a rigid mooring is limited by technical and economic considerations. Flexible moorings, consisting of cable or chain, have much lower material costs and do not limit hub height. However, a device with a flexible mooring must incorporate floats for buoyancy to offset the downward force generated by the device mass and tension on the mooring line.

1.4 Foundation
Whether flexible or rigid, the mooring must be anchored to the seabed in a way that secures both the turbine and mooring against movement. One option is a penetrating anchor, such as a driven or drilled pile, which is secured in the seabed. For most consolidated or rocky seabeds, a penetrating anchor provides the most holding power for the smallest footprint. However, because the anchor is generally driven or drilled from the surface, installation in water deeper than 50-60m may be uneconomical for a large diameter pile. In contrast, a gravity foundation does not significantly penetrate the seabed, but is held in place by its friction alone. Gravity foundations are lowered into position by a surface vessel and do not have a maximum deployment depth. However, for an equivalent resistive load, the footprint of a gravity foundation is greater than a penetrating foundation. Additionally, scour around a gravity foundation may require seabed preparation, such as laying scour mats, in advance of installation.

## 1.5 Electrical Transmission

Electrical transmission from devices to shore is an integral aspect of any tidal energy project. The nearshore area adjacent to a tidal energy project may contain particularly sensitive ecology which could be disturbed by trenching a cable into the seabed. In these cases, the preferred option is to utilize horizontal directional drilling (HDD) from the on-shore cable termination point (i.e., substation) seaward beyond the nearshore region (i.e., the cable will exit onto seabed at the 15m isobath). The feasibility of directional drilling is sitedependent, not appropriate in all soil types, and requires a careful geotechnical evaluation. From the point where the subsea cable emerges on the seabed (either at the waterline or HDD outlet), it is trenched, weighted, or bolted down (depending on the type of substrate) to prevent motion on its path to the device array. A similar approach is used to secure the cable between devices. The umbilical cables required to connect turbines to shore are comparable to those used in the offshore oil and gas industry and for the inter-connection of different locations or entire islands.

## 1.6 Fouling and Corrosion Protection

Fouling from biological growth on devices represents a significant performance risk (Orme et al. 2001). While turbines operating below the photic zone may be at lesser risk, fouling by barnacles, algae, and other organisms remains an issue for devices with long maintenance intervals. As a result, working surfaces are generally treated with an anti-fouling or foul release coating. Possible coatings include conventional biocide

paints and inert, low friction coatings. For economic or environmental reasons, other components of the foundation and support may remain uncoated, with sacrificial anodes providing corrosion protection.

## 2 Tidal Energy Devices

There are currently over 60 distinct technologies included in the DOEs Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) hydrokinetics database. However, only a handful of these have been deployed at-sea for extended duration. These devices are discussed in more detail in the following sections. These devices remain under active development and the specifications for these demonstrations should not be inferred to be applicable to all possible site developments. In addition to technical enhancements, site-specific factors are likely to be incorporated into device designs.

## Tidal turbines with horizontal axis :

Different types of Axial flow turbines 1-open turbines 2-shrouded turbines

Turbine position
we should know why the turbine should be positioned in the upper third of the water column to get max. power

## Pros and cons of both tidal power facilities

1-Tidal Barrages Mature technology that has been around for nearly 50 years. Reliable energy source. BUT High costs of construction Environmental impacts on marine life Low power output in comparison to other energy source like coal and nuclear power plants 2-Tidal Current Turbines Able to utilize both ebb and flood tides. Tidal current turbines are not large massive dam structure. BUT Tidal current turbine technology is young in its development. Installation and maintenance challenges. Environmental impacts are still being tested

## Environmental impacts on marine life

Tidal energy use involving dams creates many of the same environmental concerns as damming rivers. Tidal dams restrict fish migration and cause silt build up which affects tidal basin ecosystems in negative ways. Systems that take advantage of natural narrow channels with high tidal flow rates have less negative environmental impact than dammed systems. But they are not without environmental problems. Both systems use turbines that can cause fish kills. But these are being replaced by new, more fish friendly turbines. The art and science of environmentally friendly hydro engineering is well advanced and will certainly be applied to any tidal energy project. But even with dams, the environmental impact of tidal energy projects may prove to be smaller than our use of any other energy resource. Economics will severely limit the number of tidal energy projects.

finally , when we utilize tidal energy we decrease the use of fossil fuels and consequently protect our environment as we can see in the figure the amount of power required from power plants using fossil fuels decreases with the use of tidal technology

Tidal barrage
A tidal barrage is a dam-like structure used to capture the energy from masses of water moving in and out of a bay or river due to tidal forces.[1][2] Instead of damming water on one side like a conventional dam, a tidal barrage first allows water to flow into a bay or river during high tide, and releasing the water back during low tide. This is done by measuring the tidal flow and controlling the sluice gates at key times of the tidal cycle. Turbines are then placed at these sluices to capture the energy as the water flows in and out. Tidal barrages are among the oldest methods of tidal power generation, with projects being developed as early as the 1960s,

## There are 2 basic options for barrage design and operation.

Ebb Generation allows the water, by opening sluices, to fill the basin to the full normal level and the sluices are then closed at full tide. At this point, with the water level on both sides, there is the opportunity to use the turbines as pumps to raise the water level higher in the basin. The water is then held back for 1 or 2 hours while the sea level drops, the turbines are then opened and the water flows through the turbines for 4 or 5 hours producing electricity through to low tide. The energy returned by originally pumping the extra water over a very small head is much greater given the large head when it is released. Two-way Generation uses the turbines to generate on both flood and ebb tide. All the water flows through the turbines and the water is not held back at full tide. The energy produced is usually less than ebb generation but electricity is produced over a longer period of around 8 hours per tide.

Energy calculation E = 1/2 x A x x g x h^2 where: h is the vertical tidal range, A is the horizontal area of the barrage basin, is the density of water = 1025 kg per cubic meter and g is the acceleration due to the Earth's gravity = 9.81 meters per second squared.

Barrage Tidal Power does not appear to be a viable method for energy production for a number of reasons. The most important appear to be the very high capital cost, low return on investment due to the short daily electricity production period, and negative effects to the surrounding habitats. As a result, the focus of much of the remaining sections on Tidal Power will focus on Tidal Stream Generators.

Environmental impact
The placement of a barrage into an estuary has a considerable effect on the water inside the basin and on the ecosystem. Many governments have been reluctant in recent times to grant approval for tidal barrages. Through research conducted on tidal plants, it has been found that tidal barrages constructed at the mouths of estuaries pose similar environmental threats as large dams The construction of large tidal plants alters the flow of saltwater in and out of estuaries, which changes the hydrology and salinity and possibly negatively affects the marine mammals that use the estuaries as their habitat Turbidity Turbidity (the amount of matter in suspension in the water) decreases as a result of smaller volume of water being exchanged between the basin and the sea. This lets light from the Sun penetrate the water further, improving conditions for the phytoplankton. The changes propagate up the food chain, causing a general change in the ecosystem.

Salinity As a result of less water exchange with the sea, the average salinity inside the basin decreases, also affecting the ecosystem.[citation needed] "Tidal Lagoons" do not suffer from this problem Sediment movements Estuaries often have high volume of sediments moving through them, from the rivers to the sea. The introduction of a barrage into an estuary may result in sediment accumulation within the barrage, affecting the ecosystem and also the operation of the barrage

Fish Fish may move through sluices safely, but when these are closed, fish will seek out turbines and attempt to swim through them. Also, some fish will be unable to escape the water speed near a turbine and will be sucked through.

Reciprocating hydrofoil

Introduction
Technology incorporating an oscillating hydrofoil varies considerably from more commonly used rotational MEC devices. The oscillating hydrofoil induces hydrodynamic lift and drag forces due to a pressure difference on the foil section caused by the relative motion of the tidal current over the foil section. These forces induce a resultant tangential force to the fixing arm, which by driving reciprocating hydraulic rams pump, high-pressure hydraulic fluid to turn a hydraulic motor and electrical generator. This section will highlight the principles of operation, the degree of complexity in optimizing the device, the mathematical model developed; draw some conclusions and consequent recommendations. Engineering Business Ltd., in conjunction with funding from the DTI, developed the Stingray oscillating hydrofoil as a developmental prototype to prove the robustness of the concept, the design and technology and the economical feasibility. As it stands the inflated development costs of this device in the current economic climate is prohibitive and has caused the project to be suspended. The lessons that were learned from the development and testing of the full-scale 150kW prototype and have been implemented in a largescale second-generation model to be developed and tested at a later date. The model outlined by the developmental nature of the device has similar principles of operation to that of "Stingray" however our models is generic in nature and hence no direct comparison relating "Stingray's" performance should be extrapolated.

Principals of operation
The main principal of operation as introduced above is relatively quite simple. Given a positive or negative angle of attack relative to the tidal stream in-flow, the hydrofoil will rise and fall in an oscillating motion. The rate at which this cycle occurs is interdependent on a considerable number of hydrodynamic and mechanical variables. The lift which drives the device is dependent on the flow velocity and density, the foil surface area and aspect ratio and the foil profile characteristics, namely its lift and drag coefficients for an optimum angle of attack.

Figure 1 Unlike conventional rotational technologies, which once operational generate, at constant rotational speed, the lift acting on the oscillating hydrofoil approximates a sinusoidal decay from the horizontal to vertical arm positions. This non-linear velocity and loss in momentum cause the device to inherently have a large degree of mechanical complexity in developing and optimizing the devices power output. As the lift decays sinusoidal, the degree of oscillation has to be limited (approx 35) to prevent significant loss of lift. The maximum lift is governed by empirical optimum angle of attack. This angle of attack is relative to the inflow velocity, and as the hydrofoil is continually in motion through the inflow, this angle of attack must be controlled and dynamically optimized to maintain efficient performance. This is achieved by programmable logic control (PLC), which continually monitors mechanism parameters, the system hydraulic pressure, the inflow velocity and the arm position. The PLC signal then controls a hydraulic ram mounted on the oscillating arm to actuate the hydrofoil angle of attack. Holding the hydrofoil stably at its optimum angle of attack is critical, if the foil tends to wobble it significantly reduces lift, increases drag and decreases the overall cycle time. Furthermore this same system is used to overcome the pitching moment on the hydrofoil, stop its motion and return the cycle in the opposite direction. This characteristic is the single most limiting factor of the device. In changing the direction of oscillation, up to 15% of the device power rating is spent in firing hydraulic pressure accumulators to rapidly change the angle of attack. Similarly if this accumulation pressure is reduced,

the cycle time decreases and the overall power output is decreased. Lastly monitoring & optimization of power extraction is also required. As the lift and angular velocity is sinusoidal in nature so is the resultant power curve. Power takeoff from the cycle however is not constant and neither sinusoidal. Power extraction cyclically occurs only after the arms angular velocity has reached a rated cut in speed to allow the device to build up speed and power.

Modeling
The modeling undertaken and outlined below, is generic in comparison with the discussion above, as the requirements of this project is to indicate the power output and power coefficient for a given flow velocity and device size. A symmetrical, high lift, low drag foil profile was chosen to be the basis of the hydrofoil characteristics. The foil is symmetrical, and hence operates for positive and negative angles of attack. The hydrodynamic properties of the profile have been tested and are well documented. Foil endplates prevent the propagation of wingtip vortices and consequent loss of lift and induced drag and enables simplified analysis.

Figure 2 Section Profile The lift and drag coefficients, which are arrived at empirically, are illustrated below for varying angle off attack. The optimum angle of attack can be seen to be at 12. Larger angles of attack will induce drag and the device will stall, reducing lift, and power output.

## Figure 3 Coefficient of Lift

Figure 4 System Forces Assuming that the hydrofoil angle of attack (a) is maintained at a constant the resultant lift generated can be calculated by;

Equation 1 Lift Equation Where is water density, is bulk flow velocity, S is foil planer area and CL is the lift coefficient. Similarly the Drag experienced is calculated using;

Equation 2 Drag Equation Where CD is the drag coefficient. Further assuming that the buoyancy forces from the GRP hydrofoil balances the weight from the steel arm structure to prevent cyclic loading on the device, the system forces are resolved into tangential and normal forces to the direction of oscillation.

## Equation 4 Resultant Tangential Force

It should be noted that the drag experienced on the foil, could have positive effects depending on the phase of the cycle. Further more induced drag and stall at extreme angles of rotation can be used to accelerate change in oscillation direction and decrease the cycle time. The torque applied around the center of rotation is dependant on the arm length or the radius of rotation. However, the longer the arm, the more it weighs disturbing the buoyancy-weight balance of the arm-foil assembly. Further it will affect the system inertia and the cycle time accordingly. The instantaneous torque experienced is a product of the resultant Tangential force above by the Arm length.

## Equation 5 Instantaneous Torque

The cyclic torque is resolved by calculating the resultant tangential forces through the cycle angle of rotation from min to max. The output power cycle can then be calculated for a specified cycle time Ct.

## Equation 6 Instantaneous Power

Where w (omega) is the angular velocity in radians per second, and phi is the cycle phase angle. Again the cyclic power can be evaluated over the cycle and a root mean square gives the associated cycle power. Fig. 7 shows the resultant power curve for a model with a 2m/s flow velocity, a hydrofoil area of 45m2, arm length of 10.9metres and operates with a power coefficient (CP) of 0.12.

## Figure 7 Model Resultant Power Curve

Conclusions
It is apparent that the oscillating hydrofoil has a large degree of complexity with many system variables. This complexity requires continuous monitoring to operate the device at a considerable loss of power to the hydraulic actuation system. The device operates at a low coefficient of power. Optimization of the control system governing angle of attack is needed to decrease cycle time, increasing the power output. Simplification of the design to maintain system momentum in a rotational setup may reduce the power lost in actuating the foil angle of attack and minimize hydraulic pressure losses and hence increase output power. Operating 3 foils out of phase could also achieve this with their respective hydraulic systems linked. This would automatically provide a continuous high-pressure reserve to actuate each of the alternate foils and also minimize resultant lift from the seabed reducing mooring requirements & costs.