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180 out-of-phase power divider based on double-sided parallel striplines

J.-X. Chen, C.H.K. Chin, K.W. Lau and Q. Xue


h
Z0

port 3
Z0 Z1 Z1

R
Z0

h/2

A novel 180 out-of-phase power divider based on double-sided parallel striplines (DSPSL) is proposed. The proposed power divider has a relative bandwidth of about 100%. The 180 out-of-phase characteristic between the two output ports is frequency independent, which is suitable for various applications of wide bandwidth. In addition, the characteristic impedance of the transmission lines for the input and output is 50 O, and it allows easy integration with other microwave components. The proposed power divider has been demonstrated and veried. The experimental results are presented and show good performance.

port 1

port 2

w3 w1

l
top layer a w2

Introduction: The power divider is a key component extensively used in microwave and communications systems. According to the phase difference between the two output ports, power dividers can be classied into two types: in-phase dividing types and 180 out-of-phase ones [1]. It is well known that the former are realised easily using microstrip line. For the latter case, it is very useful for realising pushpull circuits [2]. Many researchers have proposed several structures using coupled microstrip-slot lines [1] and asymmetrical coplanar striplines (ACPS) [3]. However in [3], it was mentioned that the low impedance was difcult to realise for ACPS, and the port impedance had to be chosen as 100 O. Generally, the impedance transformer is needed for 50 O characteristics impedance in most microwave systems, which can lead to an increase in system size. In this Letter, we propose a novel 180 outof-phase power divider based on DSPSL. The characteristic impedance of the transmission lines for the input and output is 50 O, and the 180 out-of-phase characteristic between the two output ports is frequency independent. The two conditions enable easy integration with other microwave components and wideband applications. Proposed power divider: Figs. 1a and b show a 3D view and the dimensional layouts of the proposed power divider, respectively. The two circuits on the top and bottom layers have identical size. A perfect electric conductor (PEC) is inserted in the mid-layer (a distance h=2 from either the top or bottom layer), and the PEC is divided into two parts by a slit: PEC-1 and PEC-2. PEC-1 converts the DSPSL into a combination of two identical microstrip lines placed back-to-back, and it has no inuence on the signal transmission because the eld distribution is unchanged [4]. When the RF signal is excited at port 1 with DSPSL-type, the signals on the top and bottom strips are out-ofphase, which is frequency independent. PEC-2 provides a common ground for the two microstrip-type output ports (port 2 and 3 shown in Fig. 1a). A resistor R is embedded between PEC-1 and PEC-2 to isolate the two output ports. Using the analyzing method of odd and even modes [2], the characteristic impedance of each section can be achieved: Z0 50 O for the input and output, and the characteristic p impedance of the back-to-back microstrip line is Z1 Z0= 2 35.35 O, with an isolation resistor R Z0=2 25 O. Centred at 2.15 GHz, the proposed power divider is designed and fabricated on the substrate with a dielectric constant of er 2.94 and a thickness of h 1.524 mm. Its dimensions are as follows: w2 3.2 mm, l 18.1 mm (lg=4 for the centre frequency), s 1.0 mm w1 5.0 mm, a 10.0 mm, and w3 1.93 mm. w1 and a are the width and length of the 50 O DSPSL for the input, and w3 is the width of the 50 O microstrip line on the substrate with thickness h=2 0.762 mm for the two outputs. In addition, the inserted PEC is thin enough and its thickness can be neglected. Measured results: Figs. 2a and b show the measured S-parameters and phase of the proposed power divider using an HP 8510 network analyser. The insertion loss is less than 0.5 dB, the return loss is better than 10 dB, and the imbalance of the insertion loss between the two output ports is less than 0.2 dB from 1 to 3.3 GHz. At this frequency range, the phase difference between the two output ports is in the region of 180 3.5 , which illustrates the feature of frequency independence. The relative bandwidth is about 100%, which is much wider than that of the out-of-phase power divider in [2]. The isolation between the two outputs is larger than 15 dB in the range 1.052.92 GHz. The measured results verify our proposed idea.

PEC-1

PEC-2

mid layer

bottom layer

Fig. 1 Layout of proposed power divider


a 3D view b Schematic layout
0 5
magnitude, dB

10 15 20 25 1 2 frequency, GHz
a 200 150 100 ang (S21) ang (S31) S11 S21 S31 S32

phase, deg

50 0 50 100 150 200 0 1 2 frequency, GHz b 3 4 ang (S31) ang (S21)

Fig. 2 Measured results


a S-parameters b Phase

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 12th October 2006 Vol. 42 No. 21

Conclusions: We have presented a novel 180 out-of-phase power divider based on the DSPSL. The proposed power divider has a relative bandwidth of about 100%, and the insertion loss is less than 0.5 dB. The dividers output amplitude imbalance is 0.2 dB and the phase difference is 180 3.5 over a broad bandwidth. The characteristic impedance of the transmission lines for the input and output is 50 O, which allows easy integration with other microwave components. The proposed power divider will be very useful in many applications in pushpull circuits with wide bandwidth and microwave systems.

J.-X. Chen, C.H.K. Chin, K.W. Lau and Q. Xue (Wireless Communications Research Center, Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, Peoples Republic of China) E-mail: jjxchen@hotmail.com References
1 Ogawa, H., Hirota, T., and Aikawa, M.: New MIC power divider using coupled microstrip-slot lines: two-sided MIC power divider, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 1985, MTT-33, (11), pp. 11551164 2 Chiu, L., Yum, T.Y., Xue, Q., and Chan, C.H.: A wideband compact parallel-strip 180 wilkinson power divider for push-pull circuitries, IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett., 2006, 16, pp. 4951 3 Fan, L., and Chang, K.: A 180 out-of-phase power divider using asymmetrical coplanar stripline, IEEE Microw. Guid. Wave Lett., 1996, 6, (11), pp. 404406 4 Kim, S.-G., and Chang, K.: Ultrawide-band transitions and new microwave components using double-sided parallel-strip lines, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., 2004, 52, pp. 21482151

Acknowledgment: The work described in this Letter was fully supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China [Project No. CityU121905]. # The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2006 5 June 2006 Electronics Letters online no: 20061767 doi: 10.1049/el:20061767

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 12th October 2006 Vol. 42 No. 21