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Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

Randolph, K., & Wilson-Younger, D. (2012). "Is No Child Left Behind Effective For All Students?" Parents Don't Think So. Online Submission 1) In K. Randolph and D. Wilson-Youngers Is No Child Left Behind Effective For All

Students? Parents Dont Think So the authors focuses on the pros and cons of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and how it has affect education. The authors also included the perspective of the parents, in terms of how the NCLB has benefited or hindered their child. Randolph and Wilson-Younger stated that holding educational facilities and teachers accountable for what a child learns in the classroom, has positively impacted education. However the inability for numerous states to find highly qualified teachers and meet the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) leaves parents, as well as congress in distress. It also hinders the opportunity and the inability for federal funding to be allocated properly to schools in need. Randolph and Wilson-Younger alludes to the appearance or the rise of Obamas Race to the Top program that will take place of the NCLB Act. 2) Randolph and Wilson-Youngers argument was purely unbiased and factual. Their main

purpose of this article was to give the positive effects and negative effects that were caused by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) along with the perspective of the parents. They began their article with background information of the NCLB Act, and how it was praised and criticized by both parents and educators. From then on, Randolph and Wilson-Younger strategically structured their article by breaking down the requirements and implications that arose from the NCLB Act. Each requirement and implication was spoken briefly on whether it caused a negative, or positive impact on the education system. Unfortunately Randolph and Wilson-Younger failed to provide statistical support, to prove or disprove what they were stating. As a reader, I am left with doubting whether I can believe what they were saying.

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

3)

My entire paper is dedicated to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The purpose of

my paper will be to show the flaws and strengths of the NCLB. This article exemplifies my goals for my inquiry project. In other articles, I hope to gain the necessary statistics needed in order to show how the NCLB has actually helped or hindered the education system, and has impacted the way children are learning. Many parents have praised the NCLB Act, because it allowed them to get their children out of failing schools nd move them to better ones. (Randolph and Wilson-Younger, 3) Many States are not meeting the goals set forth by the act, and argue the goals are unattainable. In an effort to improve test scores many states have cut out their arts programs and in some cases have cut nonessential subjects such as social studies, foreign language, health, and science. (Randolph and Wilson-Younger,4) Many teachers and parents believe the No Child Left Behind Act is biased against diverse and disabled students. Many of the schools losing their federal funding, due to their failure to show AYP, are schools that are racially diverse or have poverty stricken students. (Randolph and Wilson-Younger,4)

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

Jennings, J., & Rentner, D. S. (2006). Ten big effects of the No Child Left Behind Act on public schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(2), 110. 1) In J. Jennings, and D.S. Rentners Ten big effects on the No Child Left Behind Act

(NCLB) on public schools, the authors focused on an analysis of what the Act has done, and how it has impacted public schools. Jennings and Rentner structured their article listing and expanding upon the top ten effects that the NCLB Act has had. These effects include: Higher test scores, more time allocated to reading and math, alignment of curriculum as well as close monitoring of test data, reconstruction of schools, highly qualified teachers more tests, closing the achievement gap, steady percentage of schools not meeting the Adequate yearly Progress (AYP), federal government plays a larger role in education, and finally state government and school districts play a larger role in education as well. 2) This article is more factually based; however, one can suggest that Jennings and Rentner

is arguing that the No Child Left Behind Act has had positive effects on the public school system. Jennings and Rentner are arguing this because they only list the positive impacts that relate to the sole purpose of the Act which is being biased. By only providing the positive effects of the No Child Left Behind Act, it leaves the reader considering that the authors did not fully research the act and therefore that article is becomes questionable and untrustworthy. Their information is based off of the research conducted by the Center of Education Policy (CEP). This allows them to back up what they are saying with statistics, collected from surveys and test scores. 3) Because this article solely speaks of the positive impact on the education system, I can

use this information for my paper. I can take the positive impacts denoted in this article and pair it in contrast to the negative effects mentioned in other articles. By comparing and contrasting

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

each positive and negative effect the reader will have a better understand of the NCLB Act. The final section is allocated to the future of the NCLB, however, it is really veige. The author briefly states what will happen with the NCLB, but never gives its longevity and the impact that will arise with it in the future. Therefore, it leaves me wondering the true importance of the NCLB Act and whether it has made a profound impact or not. State governments are also taking a much more active role in public education, because they must carry out NCLB provisions that affect all their public schools. These state responsibilities include creating or expanding testing programs for grades 3-8 and one year of high school With regard to teacher quality, 88% of school districts reported that by the end of the 2005-2006 school year all their teachers of core academic subjects would have met the NCLB definition of highly qualified. State and local officials have identified the testing and accountability requirements for students with disabilities and for students learning English as troublesome, and other requirements

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

Smyth, T. (2008). Who Is No Child Left Behind Leaving Behind?. Clearing House: A Journal Of Educational Strategies, Issues And Ideas, 81(3), 133-137. 1) In Smyths Who Is No Child Left Behind Leaving Behind? the main focus of this article is to show the flaws of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and how it has negatively affected students of low social economic status, minorities, and student with English as a second language. Smyth begins his article with a quick synopsis of the history of standardize testing, and using it to gauge intellect and progress of students. Using this as a foundation, Smyth begins showing the negative effect is has had on the subgroups he is studying. For children of a low social economic status, they tend to attend schools that lack the funding to have the materials to participate in the high risk testing aspect of NCLB. States and schools that are highly populated with minorities and Limited English Proficient students (LEP), cannot report they Adequate Yearly Progress report, and therefore they receive low marks and reduced funding. 2) Smyths argument that the No Child Left Behind Act is flawed is well supported in this article. Smyth provides adequate background of the NCLB Act, which allows for dissection and an analysis of what the Act has truly done, and who it is negatively affecting. By sectioning the article into subgroups and providing sufficient evidence of how the NCLB has negatively affected Smyth can be perceived by readers as accredited and trustworthy. Smyth also goes on to provide solutions and recommendations in the conclusion. This allows the reader to see Smyths stance on the NCLB Act, and how he wants to improve it. 3) Smyths article Who Is No Child Left Behind Leaving Behind, can be considered a good attribute to my paper. I will now be able to analysis the policies, regulations, and

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

effects of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). I can relate Smyths ideals with that of Randolph and Wilson-Younger to show the different perceptions of the NCLB Act. This will be helpful with providing the positive and negative effects of the NCLB Act. I can also compare the solutions with that of Jennings and Rentners. Lower-performing schools typically cannot afford to offer high-priced materials for these high-stakes test. NCLB is leaving minority and economically disadvantaged students behind Because of the linguistic complexity of these exams, many schools cannot report AYP and therefore receive low state marks and lose state and federal funding; in the end, LEP students are left behind. Teachers have observed that test emphasis affects students negatively, and it manifests in physical, psychological, or emotional symptoms.

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

Bush, G. W. (2001). No child left behind : communication from the President of the United States transmitting a report for nationwide education reform entitled, No child left behind. Washington : U.S. G.P.O., 2001.

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This article is the actual report given by President Bush in 2001 on the education reform

policy, known as the No Child Left Behind Act. Contained in his report, Bush announces the key goals of the NCLB Act: Improving academic performance of disadvantage students, improving teacher quality, helping limited English proficient students to English Fluency, proving impact aid, and encouraging accountability. Within each goal that Bush states, he goes on to explain how he would achieve these goals, such as implementing more testing, teacher qualifications, rewards for meeting the AYP, and consequences for not meeting the AYP. 2) One could argue that this is a persuasive argument by Bush, because he is presenting it to

Congress in order to get support. If one was to assume this, and Bush was arguing in favor of his Act; then he did a good job. However, if one was to not conclude that this is a persuasive argument and purely an informative article, then the credibility would drastically change. This report would be biased and leave the reader not trusting the information. Bush began his report with the concerns he has with the education system. By expressing his concerns, he could then go on to how he wants to change these concerns by establishing goals. After establishing the goals Bush states how he is going to achieve these goals. It is imperative when giving a speech for people to support what one is doing, to have ways to achieve your goals. This report was like a blue print for the policy and gave clear concise points and information. 3) The way this report is structure allows me to agree with Bush, and does not create holes

for the readers. This report can be a crucial part to my paper, in regards to having the important aspects of the No Child Left Behind Act. In my paper I wanted to be able to take the key features

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

of the NCLB Act and dissect each part and give either the positive or negative effect of that feature. I also wanted to state which subgroup, if any, this policy affected. The Achievement in Education Fund will reward high-performing states that have made the greatest progress in closing achievement gaps and improving English proficiency. Performance will be evaluated using state assessment results. Today, nearly 70 percent of inner city fourth graders are unable to read at the basic level on national reading tests. Our high school seniors trail students in other industrialized nations on international math tests (closing the achievement gap) Schools that fail to make adequate yearly progress for disadvantage students will first receive assistance, and then come under corrective action if they still fail to make progress.

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

Popham, W. J. (2004). America's "failing" schools: How parents and teachers can cope with No Child Left Behind. New York: RoutledgeFalmer. The book Americas failing Schools was written to allow readers to evaluate the

1)

legitimacy of the term failing or low preforming schools under the standards of the No Child Left Behind Act. Popham states that because of the pressures exerted by the NCLB Act for students to make higher test scores, and for teachers to be highly qualified the quality of education has gone down. By this he means important curricular content has been tossed out of the classrooms have been transformed into test preparation factories (Popham 6). Popham goes on to critize the use of standard testing, and the AYP, he notes that yes the NCLB is helping children who are at a disadvantage, however, he is lowering the education standards as well as hindering the children who are excelling. This was noted in the conclusion of the book when comparing the ESEA. Pophams main goal is to allow readers to compare the standards that the NCLB has for schools, and the standards they have for a school, which in term will cause one to re-evaluate whether they agree or disagree with the NCLB. 2) Pophams does not agree with the way the No Child Left Behind Act is evaluating

schools. The purpose of the Act is to improve education and to improve schools systems across the nation. However, Popham believes that the NCLB is doing more harm than good, with pressuring schools to have a high performance strictly based on test scores. Popham begins his argument with giving examples of three different schools. The first and the third school many deemed a high performing, because they had the highest graduation rate as well as the top test scores in the state. Whereas the second school had a high number of minority, and was in the 25th percentile. However according the NCLB all three of the schools were labeled failing. Popham is

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

showing that the labels the NCLB is giving to schools is not accurate. He supports his argument with showing the standards as well as examples of what the NCLB is making all schools conform to. He also notes that valuable subjects and material is being lost because of the NCLB, and that the quality of education is being lost. 3) While reading this book, I began to look back on my own education. I did noticed that

once the NCLB was fully enacted more standardized test were created and teachers were more concerned about the test scores than how they were teaching, or what they were teaching. I agree with Popham in regards to parents and educators evaluating themselves rather than allowing the NCLB labeling them as low performance or high preforming, because like Popham stated, numerous schools are labeled as failing in accordance to the NCLB. The experience that I drew from this book, could be used in my inquiry to provide my own personal standpoint, and how the NCLB has influenced the way my education is. one of the most striking features of this federal law is its requirement for greatly expanded student testing. NCLB is a lengthy act, about thousand pages long. But only a few parts of it really bear on the determination of a schools quality, and almost all of those parts are linked to the laws new testing requirements (Pophma 14) Children attending a failing school must be instantly transferred to a non-failing school just arent thinking of the practical realities involved. My conversations with those parents indicated from them a genuine lack of confidence in the way that the negative appraisals of their childrens schools had been reached. (Popham 146)

Tiffany Shine English 1102-Keaton March 26, 2013 Annotated Bibliography

A states NCLB-based accountability system is likely to produce accurate evaluations of state schools if it 1) is organized around a modest number of truly significant reading and math curricular outcomes. (Popham 147)