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# Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 1

## Chapter 3 Analysis of Pin Jointed Frames

A pin jointed frame (PJF) consists of rod members sustaining only uniform uniaxial stress.
They are joined together by frictionless pin joints. Since the entire truss is in equilibrium, each
pin must be in equilibrium. For each pin, we can only give two force equilibrium equations as
0 =
x
F and 0 =
y
F . The moment equation 0
o
=

## M does not work in fact.

3.1 STATICALLY DETERMINATE PJF

The methods used in engineering mechanics/statics are subject to a condition of statical
determinacy. It would be helpful to examine the determinacy before solving the problem.

If J denotes the number of pin-joints:
Known 2J = number of equilibrium equations
Unknown m = number of member forces
r = number of reaction forces

If m + r = 2J , the frame is statically determinate
If m + r > 2J , the frame is statically indeterminate
If m + r < 2J , the frame is a mechanism.

Examples 3.1: To check the determinacy of the following structures.

J = 4, m = 5, r = 3
2J = 8
m + r = 8
m + r = 2J
This is a statically determinate structure. The internal forces
carried by each member can be fully determined by using
statics method

J = 4, m = 6, r = 3
2J = 8
m + r = 9
m + r > 2J
This is a statically indeterminate structure.

J = 4, m = 4, r = 3
2J = 8
m + r = 7
m + r < 2J
This is a mechanism.
A B
D
C
R
Dx
R
Dy R
Cy
A B
D
C
R
Dx
R
Dy R
Cy
A
B
D
C
R
Dx
R
Dy R
Cy
A
B
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 2
Examples 3.2: Check the determinacy of the following structures

J = 5, m = 7, r = 3
2J = m + r
10 = 7 + 3
This is a statically determinate structure.

J = 6, m = 10, r = 3
2J = m + r
12 < 10 + 3 = 13
This is a statically indeterminate structure.

J = 6, m = 8, r = 3
2J = m + r
12 > 8 + 3 = 11
This is a mechanism.

Now that we know how to determine if the pin-jointed frame is statically determinate, we need
to find out the force carried by each of the beam members. To do this we can apply one of two
analytical methods:

1) Joint Equilibrium
or
2) Method of Sections

You could also use a graphical method known as Maxwell diagram, but that would not give as
accurate an answer.

3.2 JOINT EQUILIBRIUM

At each pin joint set up the two equilibrium equations and solve them simultaneously. It is best
to start by first evaluating the global equilibrium of the structure (ie; find the required ground
reaction forces).

Notation of Internal Forces
Before we begin, however we need to define the notation for a beam experiencing a tensile and
compressive force. A tensile force in member is denoted in positive sign and a compressive
force in member is represented in negative sign, as shown in Fig. 3.1.
In pin equilibrium, however, we need to look at the reaction from the member. A pin force
pointing away from the pin-joint corresponds to a tensile internal force, which is positive.

A B
D R
Dx
R
Dy
C
R
Cy
A
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 3
m
e
m
b
e
r
Pin B
Pin A
m
e
m
b
e
r
Hole B
Hole A
Tensile Force
in Member
m
e
m
b
e
r
Compressive
Force
in Member
(+)
()
A force pointing away from pin-joint
is equivalent to a tensile internal
force in the member according to
the relationship between action and
reaction forces. (+) ()
Pin A
Pin A

Fig. 3.1 Notation of internal forces

Remark
In order to do this analysis we have to start with a pin-joint that has at least ONE known force
and no more than 2 unknown forces.

Example 3.3: Determine the internal forces carried by all the beams in the following pin-
jointed frame (all angles are 45
o
or 90
o
and the length of AB is L).

Step 0: Determinacy
J = 5, m = 7, r = 3
2J = m + r
10 = 7 + 3
This is a statically determinate structure
and can be solved through the method of
pin equilibrium.

Step 1: Global Equilibrium

0 10 0 = = = +

kN R F
DY y
kN R
DY
10 =
0 2 10 0 = = =

L L R M
A D
kN R
A
20 =
0 0 = + = =

+
DX A x
R R F kN R R
A DX
20 = =

Step 2: Pin-Joint Equilibrium
Lets start with Pin-Joint C: Because we don't know the direction of forces F
EC
and F
BC
we
assume them to be positive (i.e. in tension), hence the arrow which describes them has to point
away from the pin-joint as shown.

++
P=10kN
D E
C
A
B
45
R
A
R
DX
R
DY
45
L L
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 4
Pin-Joint Equilibrium at C
0 10 45 0 = = = +

kN sin F F
CE y
kN F
CE
2 10 =
0 45 0 = = =

+
BC CE x
F cos F F kN F
BC
10 =

Pin-Joint Equilibrium at E:
0 45 0 = + = =

+
cos F F F
CE DE x

( ) kN cos F
DE
10 45 2 10 = =
0 45 0 = = = +
BE CE y
F sin F F
( ) kN sin F
BE
10 45 2 10 = =

Pin-Joint Equilibrium at A:
0 0 = + = =

+
AB A x
F R F kN R F
A AB
20 = =
0 = = +
AD y
F F 0 =
AD
F

Pin-Joint Equilibrium at B:
Although weve known that F
BC
and F
AB
are in compression, we can
still draw them in the positive directions and then substitute their
values together with the negative signs to the equilibrium equations.
0 45 0 = = =

+
AB BD BC x
F cos F F F
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) = = 45 20 10 45 cos / cos / F F F
AB BC BD

kN F
BD
2 10 =
0 45 = + = +

sin F F F
BD BE y

kN sin F F
BD BE
10 45 = = (Checks)

Step 3: Tabulate the Results

member F
i
(kN) Behavior
CE
2 10
Tension
BC -10 Compression
BE -10 Compression
DE 10 Tension
BD
2 10
Tension
AB -20 Compression
AD 0

10kN
F
CE
F
BC
45
O
C
F
DE
F
BE
F
CE
E
R
A
F
AD
F
AB
A
F
AB
F
BE
F
BC
B
F
BD
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 5
3.3 METHOD OF SECTIONS

Cut the FBD of the pin jointed frame through 3 or less members, then use the three
equilibrium equations of statics. After you draw the unknown internal forces pointing away
(tensile positive) from the cut members, you may treat the rest of the free body as a whole
body and solve for unknowns from equilibrium equations.

Example 3.4: Using the structure of example 3.3, determine the forces carried by members
DE, DB, and AB.
P=10kN
D E
C
A B
45
I
I

Instead of solving for all the forces we just cut through those three beams and draw a new
FBD. We can draw a FBD of the left hand side or of the right hand side, it really makes no
difference which one you decide to analyse, both will give you the same answer.

For this example we will analyse the RHS.

0 10 45 0 = = = +

sin F F
DB y

kN F
DB
2 10 =
0 10 0 = = =

L L F M
DE B

kN F
DE
10 =
0 45 0 = = =

+
DE DE AB x
F cos F F F
kN F
AB
20 =

3.4 STRAIN ENERGY AND WORK (4
th
:705-709, 5
th
:705-709)

Work Done by Force
The work (W) done on an elastic body by applied external force(s) (P) is fully accumulated
inside of it in the form of strain energy (U).

What actually happens is as follows, as you apply forces onto a structure it is going to deform
elastically. This deformation, combined with the applied forces gives you a measure of the
work done on the structure. Now because the structure is made from an elastic material, this
deformation causes the structure to store the work as energy, to be specific, Strain Energy.

++
P=10kN
E
C
B
45
L
F
DE
F
BD
F
AB
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 6
To derive the strain energy term, lets look at a small element of size dxdydz, with an
applied normal stress
z
.

z
dz
x
dy
dx
d
z
P

y
P

Fig. 3.2 Strain energy in a differential element

Resultant Force of differential element
The force developed in the top and bottom surfaces due to the applied stress is:
dxdy dA dF
z z z
= = (3.1)

Deformation
The deformation due to the resultant differential force is:
dz d
z z
= (3.2)
We are only considering structures made from materials with linear elastic behavior. So
plotting a diagram of applied force vs displacement gives:
dF
z
d
z
Work done
by dF
z

Fig. 3.3 Diagram of force vs displacement for the differential element

The work done on this differential element by the applied force is defined as the area
underneath this diagram, such that:
z z
d dF dW =
2
1
(3.3)
To understand why the work done by force dF
z
must be computed through dividing the product
of force dF
z
and deformation d
z
by 2 as in Eq. (3.3), it should be noted that the force
magnitude is gradually increased from zero to dF
z
, as depicted in Fig. 3.3.
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 7
But the loading process is isentropic (reversible), meaning that the Strain Energy must be equal
to the applied external Work, so W=U.

Relationship between Work and Strain Energy
So for our small volume, the elemental work is equal to the elemental strain energy
according to the energy conservation law:
dU dW = (3.4)
Combining the above 4 equations (Eqs. (1) to (4)) together we obtain:
| | dz dxdy d dF dU
z z z z
= =
2
1
2
1

But since the volume of this element is :
dz dy dx dV =
then the above equation becomes:
dV dU
z z
=
2
1
(3.5)
An important relationship can be found from Eq. (3.5), if we compare it with a stress-strain
diagram for the small element.

z

Fig. 3.4 Stress-strain diagram for the differential element

Because the structure is made of a linear elastic material, then the stress strain diagram looks
like Fig. 3.4.

Strain Energy Density
Therefore:
z z
dV
dU
=
2
1
Strain-energy per unit volume =Strain Energy Density
The term 2 /
z z
is the area underneath the stress-strain diagram (Fig. 3.4) and is called the
Strain-Energy Density. It is a measure of the strain energy stored in the structure per unit
volume.
Mathematically can the strain energy density be written like this:
=
2
1
U (3.6)

Modulus of resilience U
r
When stress reaches the proportional limit, strain energy density is
referred to Modulus of resilience U
r
as
pl pl r
U =
2
1
(3.7)

Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 8

pl

## Total area = Modulus of toughness U

t
Modulus of resilience
pl pl r
U =
2
1

Fig. 3.5 Modulus of resilience
r
u and modulus of toughness

Modulus of toughness U
t
This property becomes important when designing member is
accidentally overloaded. The higher the modulus of toughness, the more strain energy can be
stored (absorbed) inside the material before fracturing

Total Strain Energy inside deformable body
Equation (3.5) is the elemental strain energy, by integrating it w.r.t. the total volume and
substituting Hooke's law we have that:
dV
E
dV U
V V

= =
2 2
2

(3.8)

3.5 STRAIN ENERGY UNDER AXIAL LOADING (4
th
:710-711, 5
th
:710-711)

Lets look at a general case of bar under an axial loading as illustrated in Fig. 3.6. Assume the
internal force F(x) at a cross-sectional area A(x) located at a distance x from end B. Assume
that the normal stress
x
is uniformly distributed over any transverse section.
x
y
z
A(x)
L
B C
x
F(x)

Fig. 3.6 Strain energy for a bar under axial loading

General Cases
Average normal stress
( )
( ) x A
x F
x
=
Substituting for
x
into Eq. (3.8), we have the Total Strain Energy as:
( )
( ) ( )
dV
x A x E
x F
U
V

=
2
2
2
(3.9)
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 9
But ( )dx x A dV = , therefore
( )
( ) ( )
dx
x A x E
x F
U
L

=
0
2
2
(3.10)

Uniform rod
If ( ) x F = constant, ( ) x A = constant, ( ) x E = constant (homogeneous material) as shown in
Fig. 3.7, we can rewrite Eq. (3.10) as
EA
L F
dx
EA
F
U
L
2 2
2
0
2
= =

(3.11)

F
F
L
A

Fig. 3.7 Strain energy for a uniform bar

Example 3.5: A circular shaft consists of two portions BC and CD of the same material and
same length, but of different cross sections as shown. Determine the total strain energy of the
shaft when it is subjected to a centric axial load P, expressing the result in terms of P, L, E, the
cross-sectional area A of portion CD and the ratio n of the two diameters.

L/2 L/2
B C D
P
A
Area=n
2
A

We use Eq. (3.11) to compute the strain energy of each of the two portions and add the
expressions obtained the total strain energy as
( ) ( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ = + = + =
2
2
2
2 2
1
1
4 2
2
2
2
n EA
L P
A n E
L P
EA
L P
U U U
BC CD n

or
EA
L P
n
n
U
n
2 2
1
2
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
| +
=
We check that, for n =1, we have
EA
L P
U
2
2
1
= , which is the expression given in Eq. (3.11) for a
rod of length and uniform cross-section area A. We also note that, for n>1, we have U
n
< U
1
;
for example, when n = 2, we have
1 2
8
5
U U = . Since the maximum stress occurs in portion
CD, it follows that for a given allowable stress, increase the diameter of portion BC will result
in a decrease of overall energy-absorbing capability of the rod. So unnecessary changes in
cross-sectional area should avoided in design of structure, where the energy-absorbing
capability is critical.
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 10
3.6 DEFLECTION UNDER A SINGLE CONCENTRATED LOAD
BY THE WORK-STRAIN ENERGY METHOD (4
th
:724-726, 5
th
:724-726)

External Work
If the deflection
1
of a structure or member under a single concentrated load P
1
is known, the
corresponding Work W may be obtained by writing
1 1
2
1
= P W (3.12)
The total work done by the external load P
1
will be fully stored in the structure.

Internal Strain Energy
Conversely, if the strain energy U of a structure or member subjected to a single concentrated
load P
1
can be computed as Eqs. (3.10) and (3.11).

Work-Strain Energy Method
by using energy conservation as W = U, we can determine the deflection under such a single
load
W = U (External Work = Internal Strain Energy) (3.13)
U P =
1 1
2
1

Therefore, we have:
P
U 2
1
= (3.14)

Example 3.6: A load P is supported at B by two rods of the same uniform cross-sectional area
A. Determine the vertical deflection of point B.

Step 0: Geometric parameters
5
4
1
= cos ,
5
3
2
= cos
5
4
1
= sin ,
5
4
2
= sin
L . sin L L
BC
6 0
1
= = ,
L . cos L L
BD
8 0
1
= =

Step 1. Internal Forces carried by Members

Pin-Joint Equilibrium Method
0 0
2 1
= = = +

cos F cos F F
BD BC x

0 0
2 1
= = = +

P sin F sin F F
BD BC y

we have

=
=
0
5
4
5
3
0
5
3
5
4
P F F
F F
BD BC
BD BC

Thus P . F
BD
8 0 = , P . F
BC
6 0 =
4
3
L

2

1
C
B
D
P
F
BC
F
BD
B
F.B.D. of Pin B
P
3
4
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 11

Step 2. Total Strain Energy
BD BD
BD BD
BC BC
BC BC
E A
L F
E A
L F
U
2 2
2 2
+ =
Therefore
( )
AE
L P
.
AE
. . L P
U
2 3 3 2
364 0
2
8 0 6 0
=
+
=

Step 3. Determine the deflection from the Work-Energy Method
External Work done by P:
BY
P W =
2
1

Total Strain Energy:
AE
L P
. U
2
364 0 =
From the Conservation of Energy U W = , we have
AE
L P
. P
BY
2
364 0
2
1
=
Thus:
AE
PL
.
BY
728 0 = ANS

Remarks
It should be noted that, once the internal forces in the two rods have been obtained, the
deformations
BD
and
BC
(elongation or contraction) can be computed. Determining the
vertical deflection at point B from these deformations, however, would require a careful
geometric analysis of various displacements involved. The strain energy method used here
makes such an analysis unnecessary and significantly simplifies the problem.

Example 3.7: Members of the truss shown consist of sections of aluminum pipe with the
cross-sectional areas indicated. Using E=70GPa, determine the vertical deflection of point E
caused by the load P.

Step 0: Basic Parameters
7 1 8 0 5 1
2 2 2 2
. . . L L L
CD CE DE
= + = + = ; 0 1 6 0 8 0
2 2 2 2
. . . L L L
BD AB AD
= + = + =
17
15
= cos ,
17
8
= sin ; 8 0. cos = , 6 0. sin =

0.6m 1.5m
0.8m
P=40kN
A C
E
B
D
Cross-Sectional Areas
A
AC
=A
CE
=A
AB
=A
AD
=500mm
2
A
BD
=A
CD
=A
DE
=1000mm
2

I
I

Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 12
Step 1: Internal Forces
Method of Section (I-I)
0 = = +

P sin F F
AD y

4 5 / P F
AD
=
0 5 1 8 0 0 = = =

. P . F M
AC D

8 15 / P F
AC
=
0 = = +

cos F F F F
AD BD AC x

8 21 / P F
BD
=

Pin-Joint Equilibrium at E

0 = = +

P sin F F
DE y

8 17 / P F
DE
=
0 = = +

cos F F F
DE CE x

( )( ) 8 15 17 15 8 17 / P / / P cos F F
DE CE
= = =

Pin-Joint Equilibrium at B

0 = = +
AB y
F F
0 =
AB
F

Pin-Joint Equilibrium at C

0 = = +
CD y
F F
0 =
CD
F

Step 2: Total Strain Energy

=
i i i
i i
A E
L F
U
2
2

Member F
i
(N) L
i
(m) A
i
(m
2
)
( ) ( )
i i i i i
A E L F U 2
2
=

AB 0 0.8 50010
-6
0
AC 15P/8 0.6 50010
-6
4219P
2
/2E
AD 5P/4 1.0 50010
-6
3125P
2
/2E
BD -21P/8 0.6 100010
-6
4134P
2
/2E
CD 0 0.8 100010
-6
0
CE 15P/8 1.5 50010
-6
10547P
2
/2E
DE -17/8 1.7 100010
-6
7677P
2
/2E

From the summation of the last column, we have the total strain energy as
++
P=40kN
F
AC
F
AD
F
BD
C
E
D

F
CE
F
DE

P
E
B
R
BX
F
AB
F
BD
C
F
AC
F
CD
F
CE
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 13
E
P
A E
L F
U
i i i
i i
2
29700
2
2 2
= =

Step 3: Principle of Work Strain Energy
We recall that the work done by the force P as it is gradually applied is
Ey
P
2
1
. Equating the
work done by P to the total strain energy U and recalling that E = 70GPa and P=40kN, we have
W = U
E
P
P
Ey
2
29700
2
1
2
=
( ) ( )
m .
E
P
Ey
3
9
3
10 97 16
10 70
10 40 29700 29700

=

= =
Therefore:
= mm .
Ey
97 16 (+ stands for the same direction as load P)

Remarks
WorkStrain Energy method is very efficient for determining the deflection. However, it is
effective only when
(1) there is a single load; and
(2) the unknown deflection is at the loading point and along the same direction as load P.

3.7 DEFLECTION UNDER MULTIPLE LOADS
CASTIGLIANOS SECOND THEOREM (4
th
:762-767, 5
th
:762-767)

In order to derive Castiglianos second theorem, we consider two loading sequences:

Sequence 1
P
1
P
2
P
j
P
n

n
P
1
P
2
P
j
P
n

n
dP
j
Firstly, apply a set of forces
P
1
, P
2
, P
j
, P
n
Secondly, apply a
differential force dP
j
,

Fig. 3.8 Loading Sequence 1

Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 14
First step, apply a set of force (P
1
, P
2
, P
j
, P
n
) onto the elastic body. Suppose that only
linear elastic deformation is considered. By the end of the first step, the external work done by
the force set will be
n n j j S
P P P P W
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 1 1 1
+ + + + + = L L
i.e.
( )
n j S
P , , P , , P , P f W L L
2 1 1
= (3.15)
The work done by such n forces will be fully stored inside the body in a form of strain energy,
i.e.
( ) ( )
n j n j S
P , , P , , P , P U P , , P , , P , P f W U L L L L
2 1 2 1 1
= = = (3.16)

Second step, increase one of those external forces, e.g. P
j
by a differential amount dP
j
. The
new total strain energy inside the elastic body will become
( )
n j j S
P , , dP P , , P , P U dU U U L L + = + =
2 1 1

According to integral calculus, we can express the new energy as
j
j
S
dP
P
U
U U

+ =
1
(3.17)

Sequence 2
We are going to reverse the load sequence.
dP
j
d
j
P
1
P
2
P
j
P
n

n
dP
j
Secondly, apply a set of forces
P
1
, P
2
, P
j
, P
n
Firstly, apply a
differential force dP
j
,

Fig. 3.9 Loading Sequence 2

First step Apply a differential force dP
j
onto the body, which cause the body to deform by a
differential amount d
j
. The work done by the differential force should be
( )( )
j j
d dP dW =
2
1
1
(3.18)
Second step Apply a set of forces (P
1
, P
2
, P
j
, P
n
) onto the elastic body. The work done at
this loading step should be computed as
( )( ) | |
j j n n j j
dP P P P P W + + + + + + =
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 1 1 2
L L (3.19)
It is worth noting that since force (P
1
, P
2
, P
j
, P
n
) cause the jth loading point move by
j,
the
work done by dP
j
needs to be taken into account as ( )( )
j j
dP , where the differential force dP
j

does not change.
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 15

Adding Eqs. (3.18) and (3.19) gives the total external work done by the forces in Sequence 2 as
( )( ) ( )( ) | |
j j n n j j j j S
dP P P P P d dP W + + + + + + + =
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 1 1 2
L L
Neglecting the second-order differential 2 ) )( ( / d dP
j j
, and referring to Eq. (3.16), we have
( )( ) | |
j j S S
dP U W U + = =
2 2
(3.20)

However, the strain energy should NOT depend on the loading sequences. Therefore,
2 1 S S
U U = (3.21)
Substituting Eq. (3.17) and (3.20) into Eq. (3.21) gives
( )( ) | |
j j j
j
dP U dP
P
U
U + =

+
Thus we obtain
j
j
P
U

= (3.22)

Castiglianos 2
nd
theorem, Eq. (3.22), states that displacement
j
in the direction of P
j
is
equal to the first partial derivative of the total strain energy with respect to P
j
.

Castiglianos theorem applied to truss
In a truss structure (consisting of N members), the total strain energy can be often expressed as

=
=
N
i
i i
i i
A E
L F
U
1
2
2
(3.23)

The displacement can be thus computed as
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

i i
i
i
i
i
i i i
i i
A E
L
P
F
F
A E
L F
P 2
2
(3.24)
In order to determine the partial derivative P F
i
, it will be necessary to treat external load
P as a variable, not a specific numerical quantity. In other words, each internal force F
i

must be expressed as a function of variable P.

Virtual load in Castiglianos theorem
It is worth pointing out that the unknown deflection
j
at a given point j can be obtained by
direct application of Castiglianos theorem ONLY IF a load P happens at j in the direction in
which
j
is to be determined. When no load is applied at j, or when a load is applied in a
direction other than the desired one, we may still obtain the deflection
j
by

using Castiglianos
theorem. But we need a special technique. Firstly we need to apply a virtual (fictitious) load
Q
j
at j in the direction in which the deflection
j
is to be determined. And then apply
Castigalianos theorem to obtain the deflection as
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

i i
i
i
i
i
i i i
i i
j
A E
L
Q
F
F
A E
L F
Q Q
U
2
2
(3.24)

in which the internal forces should be found in terms of both real load P and virtual load
Q
j
. In other words, internal force F
i
could be a function of both P and Q
j
. After finding out all
the partial derivatives
j i
Q F , we then make 0 =
j
Q .
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 16

Example 3.8: As in Example 3.6, a load P is supported at B by two rods of the same uniform
cross-sectional area A. Determine both the vertical and horizontal deflections at point B.

Step 0: Geometrical parameters
5
4
1
= cos ,
5
3
2
= cos ;
5
4
1
= sin ,
5
4
2
= sin
L . sin L L
BC
6 0
1
= = ; L . cos L L
BD
8 0
1
= =

4
3
L

2

1
C
B
D
P
F
BC
F
BD
B
F.B.D. of Pin B
P
Q
Q
3
4

Step 1: Apply a virtual load Q at B in order to find unknown deflection
BX

A real load has been applied at point B along vertical direction. So Castiglianos theorem can be
directly used to determine
BY
.
However, since there is no horizontal real force applied at point B, we cannot directly compute
the deflection
BX
. For this reason, a virtual load Q (horizontal direction as shown) is necessary.

Step 2 Internal forces due to BOTH real load P AND virtual load Q
Pin-Joint Equilibrium at B
0 0
2 1
= + = = +

Q cos F cos F F
BD BC x

0 0
2 1
= = = +

P sin F sin F F
BD BC y

we have (assume that Q is known)
Q . P . F
BC
8 0 6 0 + = ; Q . P . F
BD
6 0 8 0 + =

Step 3 Total Strain Energy
( ) ( )
BD BD
BD
BC BC
BC
BD BD
BD BD
BC BC
BC BC
E A
L Q . P .
E A
L Q . P .
E A
L F
E A
L F
U
2
6 0 8 0
2
8 0 6 0
2 2
2 2 2 2
+
+
+
= + =

Step 4 Castiglianos Theorem
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Q
F
E A
L F
Q
F
E A
L F
Q
U
BD
BD BD
BD BD BC
BC BC
BC BC
BX

|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
P
F
E A
L F
P
F
E A
L F
P
U
BD
BD BD
BD BD BC
BC BC
BC BC
BY

Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 17
Computing the partial derivatives
( )
8 0
8 0 6 0
.
Q
Q . P .
Q
F
BC
=

+
=

;
( )
6 0
6 0 8 0
.
Q
Q . P .
Q
F
BD
=

+
=

( )
6 0
8 0 6 0
.
P
Q . P .
P
F
BC
=

+
=

;
( )
8 0
6 0 8 0
.
P
Q . P .
P
F
BD
=

+
=

Substituting these partial derivatives into the previous equations, we have
( )
( )
( )
( ) 6 0
6 0 8 0
8 0
8 0 6 0
.
E A
L Q . P .
.
E A
L Q . P .
Q
U
BD BD
BD
BC BC
BC
BX

+
+
+
=

=
( )
( )
( )
( ) 8 0
6 0 8 0
6 0
8 0 6 0
.
E A
L Q . P .
.
E A
L Q . P .
P
U
BD BD
BD
BC BC
BC
BY

+
+
+
=

=

In fact, Q is a fictitious load and does not exist at all, so we make Q = 0, thus
( )
( )
( )
( ) 6 0
0 6 0 8 0
8 0
0 8 0 6 0
.
E A
L . P .
.
E A
L . P .
Q
U
BD BD
BD
BC BC
BC
BX

+
+
+
=

=
( )
( )
( )
( ) 8 0
0 6 0 8 0
6 0
0 8 0 6 0
.
E A
L . P .
.
E A
L . P .
P
U
BD BD
BD
BC BC
BC
BY

+
+
+
=

=
i.e.
( )
( )
( )
( )
EA
PL
. .
AE
L P .
.
AE
L P .
BD BC
BX
096 0 6 0
8 0
8 0
6 0
=

+ =
( )
( )
( )
( )
EA
PL
. .
AE
L P .
.
AE
L P .
BD BC
BY
728 0 8 0
8 0
6 0
6 0
=

+ =
Finally we have,
EA
PL
.
BX
096 0 = (- stands for the opposite direction to the assumed virtual load Q)
EA
PL
.
BY
728 0 = (+ stands for the same direction as real load P)

Example 3.9: As in Example 3.7, determine the vertical deflections at point C.

Step 1: Apply a virtual load Q at C in order to find unknown vertical deflection
CY

Since there is no external load applied at point C, we cannot directly use Castiglianos theorem
to compute the deflection
CY
. For this reason, we have to apply a virtual load Q at C along
vertical direction, as shown in the illustration (with dashed line).
0.6m 1.5m
0.8m
P=40kN
A C
E
B
D

Q
I
I
P=40kN
F
AC
F
AD
F
BD
C
E
D

Q
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 18

Step 2 Internal Forces due to both real load P and virtual load Q
Method of sections (I-I)
0 = = +

Q P sin F F
AD y

4 5 4 5 / Q / P F
AD
+ =
0 5 1 8 0 0 = = =

. P . F M
AC D

8 15 / P F
AC
=
0 = = +

cos F F F F
AD BD AC x

4 3 8 21 / Q / P F
BD
=
Pin-joint equilibrium at E
0 = = +

P sin F F
DE y

8 17 / P F
DE
=
0 = = +

cos F F F
DE CE x

( )( ) 8 15 17 15 8 17 / P / / P cos F F
DE CE
= = =

Pin-joint equilibrium at E
0 = = +

Q F F
CD y

Q F
CD
=
Similarly to Example 3.7, from Pin-Joint equilibrium B we can
have 0 =
AB
F .

Step 3: Total Strain Energy

=
i i i
i i
A E
L F
U
2
2

Step 4: Application of Castiglianos Theorem
( ) ( )
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i
i CY
Q
F
A
L
F
E Q
F
A E
L
F
Q
U 1

Summarize the computations in a table as below
Member F
i
(N) Q F
i
L
i
(m) A
i
(m
2
) ( )( ) Q F A L F
i i i i

AB 0 0 0.8 50010
-6
0
AC 15P/8 0 0.6 50010
-6
0
AD 5P/4+5Q/4 5/4 1.0 50010
-6
3125P+3125Q
BD -21P/8-3Q/4 -3/4 0.6 100010
-6
1181P+338Q
CD -Q -1 0.8 100010
-6
800Q
CE 15P/8 0 1.5 50010
-6
0
DE -17/8 0 1.7 100010
-6
0

From the summation of the last column, we have:
( ) E Q P
CY
4263 4306 + =
Since Q is not part of the original loading, we set Q = 0 and thus have
( )
( )
( )
mm . m . P
E
CY
46 2 10 46 2
10 70
10 40 4306
0 4263 4306
1
3
9
3
= =

= + =

ANS
++
P=40kN
F
AC
F
AD
F
BD
C
E
D

Q
F
DE

P
E
C
F
AC
F
CD
F
CE
Q
Lecture Notes Chapter 3, Mechanics of Solid I 19
(+ stands for the same direction as applied virtual load Q, i.e. )