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Acrylonitrile is an important raw material for the manufacture of polymers and plastics in our day to day life. Acrylonitrile is used to manufacture acrylic fibers, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and styrene Acrylonitrile(SAN).Acrylic fibers is used for making carpets and clothing, while ABS and SAN resins, used in pipes and fittings,automobiles,furniture and packaging. Ammoxidation of propylene is the main commercial route to manufacture Acrylonitrile. (a) Brief outline of the process Ammoxidation of propylene is carried out in a fluidized bed reactor .The feed streams are propylene, ammonia and air to supply oxygen required for the reaction in near stoichiometric ratios. The molar ratio of propylene /ammonia/air fed to the reactor is typically 1/1.06/8.4. The reaction is carried out at 200 Kpa and 400 500 C in the presence of catalyst. The most effective Ammoxidation catalysts are multifunctional, mixed metal molybdates or antimonates, e.g.Bi2MO2O9 and Fe2Sb2O7. the by products include Hydrogen cyanide and acetonitrile .the stream existing the reactor also contains in addition to the products and byproducts, acreolin, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and unreacted ammonia, nitrogen and unreacted propylene. CH2 =CHCH3+NH3+1.502 CH2=CHCN+3H20, H r 515 kJ/mol.

The reaction is highly exothermic and the heat removal is accomplished by the utilizing the heat for the generation of steam in the internal coils. The heat removal is essential for the control of the reaction and Acrylonitrile yield. The product stream leaving the reactor is further cooled in waste heat boiler and passes to the water quench tower where sulphuric acid is added to neutralize the excess

ammonia present in the product stream. The waste stream containing ammonium sulphate and other hydrocarbons is discharged to deep well pond for further recovery and treatment. The quenched product stream is passed to a counter current absorber which removes inert gases and vent gases are incinerated before release to the atmosphere. The stream containing Acrylonitrile, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), acetonitrile and some water is further sent to the recovery column, Acrylonitrile and HCN are separated from acetonitrile and water. Water is then removed from the acetonitrile in the acetonitrile column and recycled to the absorber. The heavy bottom from the acetonitrile column is discharged to the deep well pond for treatment and disposal. The acetonitrile by product is stored in a tank. The recovery column overhead containing crude Acrylonitrile and HCN is decanted to break the water Acrylonitrile azeotrope and stored in a tank. Then it is fed to the head column for HCN removal. Head column over head containing HCN is condensed and stored in a tank. Heads Column bottoms are HCN-free Crude Acrylonitrile, which is fed to the Drying Column, a small organic stream is taken overhead to the Recovery Column to recycle light ends. Drying Column bottoms are fed to the Product Column. Product Acrylonitrile is withdrawn from a side-draw near the top of the column. Light ends are concentrated overhead and also sent back to the Recovery Column. Heavy ends are rejected out the bottoms and recycled to the Quench for disposal with Quench bottoms. The Drying and Product Columns both operate under a vacuum to reduce temperatures and minimize polymerization. MeHQ and condensate are added to product Acrylonitrile
inhibit polymerization in storage. after it is cooled to

(b) Summary of Raw materials requirement:

Raw materials require for the manufacture of Acrylonitrile are propylene, ammonia and air for oxygen supply. The raw material requirement for the production of 100 Tons /day of Acrylonitrile 1. propylene 2. Ammonia 3. Air 95.76 ton (100 % pure) 43.58 ton (100 % pure) 537 tons (moisture free)

Material balance and energy balance are worked out for every stages of the process. (c) A summary of the Process design of the equipment: Ammoxidation of the propylene is carried out in fluidized bed reactor in presence of catalyst. The reactor is designed to produce 100 Tons/day of Acrylonitrile by calculating the following details. 1. Internal 2. Bed diameter 3. Bed properties 4. Bed height and weight 5. free board 6. Entrainment and size of dip leg. 7. Distributor and 8. Heat exchange surface.

The column for separation of Acrylonitrile -Acetonitrile and water is designed for the number stages and column height and column diameter. (d) A summary of mechanical design.

The mechanical details of the reactor system is designed for the volume of the reactor, height of the reactor, material of construction, wall thickness, design of flanges, gaskets and bolts. Vessel supports etc. (e) Summary of the safety and pollution consideration of the plant Importance of safety consideration during design, storage and operation is studied. The health effects of Acrylonitrile on human beings and first aid measures etc have been studied. The pollution control measures for the air emission and solid /water pollution has been studied. Safety Acrylonitrile is a flammable liquid, and its vapors can easily form explosive mixtures in air.Acrylonitrile must be stored in tightly closed containers in a cool, well-ventilated area, away from heat, sparks, flames, strong oxidizers (especially bromine), strong bases, copper, copper alloys, ammonia, and amines. Acrylonitrile can cause eye irritation, nausea, vomiting, headache, sneezing, weakness, and lightheadedness. At high concentrations, the effects of exposure may go on to loss of consciousness and death Acrylonitrile has been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals and has been associated with higher incidences of cancer in humans. Pollution control A. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION 1. Emissions of ACN during start-up are substantially higher than during normal operation. 2. Fugitive emissions. Fugitive emissions from piping, valves, pumps, and compressors are controlled by periodic monitoring by leak checking with a VOC detector and a directed maintenance. 3. Incinerator Stack Gas.

4. Deep Well/Pond Emissions. 5. Storage Tank Emissions. 6. Product Transport Loading. B. Solid/Liquid Waste Wastes include salts of hydrogen cyanide, metal cyanide complexes, and organic cyanides (Cyanohydrins) as solutions or solids. The wastewater from the wastewater column contains Ammonium sulfate and heavy hydrocarbons, while the wastewater from the acetonitrile column mainly contains heavy bottoms. The wastewater from both these columns is typically discharged to a deep well pond.



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Design a plant to manufacture 100 metric tons/day Acrylonitrile by the propylene ammonia air oxidation process.