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FORM 5Physics: Electricity

ANALYSING ELECTRIC FIELDS AND CHARGE FLOW 1.Where does charge come from?

2. Unit of electric charge? 3. Electric current?

Activity 1 Aim Apparatus

Procedure

Observation

1.Start the motor of a _______________________ generator for a few minutes to produce positive charges on the metal dome of the generator. 2.Bring your finger close to the dome of the generator. Observe what happens 3.Touch the dome of the generator with the free end of the wire that is connected to the microammeter. Observe the microammeter needle closely. 1._________________________________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________ 3._________________________________________________________________________ 4._________________________________________________________________________

Conclusion Describe an electric field.

4.To map the electric field around metal electrodes.

Draw the patterns of the electric field.

Describe the effect of an electric field on a charge Method.

A charged ball in an electric field.

Describe the effect of an electric field on a charge Method.

The effect of an Electric field on a Candle Flame.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRIC CURRENT AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE Describe Potential Difference?

Definition of Potential difference. Potential difference equation. What is1 Volt?

How to measure potential difference?

How to measure current?

Solve problems involving W = QV

1. In a closed circuit, a 6 V battery is used to drive 40 C of electric charge through a light bulb. How much work is done to drive the electric charge through the bulb?

2. If 72 J of work has to be done to carry 6 C of charge across two parallel metal plates, what is the potential difference across the metal plates?

Describe the relationship between current and potential difference. State Ohms Law

Sketch a Graph of V against I What isohmic conductor and nonohmic conductor?

Define Resistance? Resistance formula Good & poor resistance? Advantage of resistance Disadvantage of resistance Ohms Law equation? Aim of experiment? To Hypothesis: Apparatus:

The resistance (R) of a conductor is defined as the ratio of the ________________________ across the conductor to the ___________________ flowing through the conductor.

A good conductor has a ____________ resistance and a poor conductor has a ___________ resistance. In a light bulb, the current flowing through a resistance filament causes it to become ______ and then _____________. Resistance causes some of the electrical energy to turn into__________________ , so some electrical energy is _______________ along.

To determine the relationship between the potential difference and the electric current flowing through an ______________ and ____________________________ conductor. The I flowing through an ohmic conductor is directly proportional to V. It is not proportional when flowing through an non-ohmic conductor.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Tabulation by drawing Graph V-I Ohmic Conductor Non- Ohmic Conductor

Obey Ohms Law Factors that affect resistance?

Not obey Ohms Law

1. 2. 3. 4.
For conductors of the same material and cross-sectional area, the resistance R is _________________ proportional to its length, l :.where, R l For conductors of the same material and length, the resistance R is __________________ proportional to its cross-sectional area, A. :. Where R l A The resistance of a wire depends on the _________________________ it is made from.

a)Length factor

b)Cross-sectional factor

c)Type of material factor

d)Temperature factor

For conductors of the same material, length and cross-sectional area, the resistance R generally __________________________ with temperature.

Solve problems involving potential difference

A current of 0.5 A flows through a length of resistance wire when a potential difference of 12 V is applied between the ends of the wire. (a) what is the resistance of the wire? (b) What is the I flowing through the wire if the V is increased to 15 V?

Resistance of metal and semiconductor?

-The resistance of a ____________ increases with temperature -The resistance of a ____________ decreases with temperature.

What is s.w.g number of wire? A superconductor is a material whose Super-conductor?


Resistance becomes _____________ when its temperature ____________ to a certain value called the ______________________

Advantage of superconductor?

To maintain a current with no applied voltage at that temperature. Able to sustain large currents Smaller power loss during transmission Less heat energy is wasted Small-sized motors and generators can be used. Element Critical temperature (K) 1. Zinc (Zn) 2. Aluminium (Al) 3. Tin (Sn) 4. Mercury (Hg) 5. Lead (Pb) 6. Niobium (Nb) a)MAGLEV trains (Magnetic-levitation). Train can float on superconducting magnets. b)MRI scanner (Magnetic resonance imaging) is used as diagnostic tool in medicine. c)Electrical power line (superconductor cable) will increase the efficiency of electrical power d)To produce computer chips which is small and faster

Example of material

Example of equipment that using superconductor.

SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Identify series circuits In a series circuit, two or more resistors are connected one end after another to

form a _______________________ path for current flow. The bulbs share the __________________ from the battery, so each glows dimly. The brightness of each bulb is _______________ the same since the same current flows through each bulb. If one bulb is removed, the other ______________ because the circuit is broken.
Identify parallel circuits

All the components are connected with their corresponding ends joined together to form _____________________________ paths for current flow. Each bulb gets the full _______________________ from the battery because each is connected directly to it. So each bulb glows brightly. The brightness of each bulb in a parallel circuit is ______________ than those in a series circuit with the same number of bulbs. If one bulb is removed, the other keeps ________________ because it is still part of an unbroken circuit.

Determine the effective resistance of resistors connected in series and parallel.


Series Circuit Diagram Parallel Circuit

Using Ammeter

Using Ammeter

Using Voltmeter Current Potential Difference Resistance Brightness of light bulb

Using Voltmeter

Solve the problems