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CANIDATES NAME: NEFTA BAPTISTE SCHOOL: ST.

STEPHENS COLLEGE SCHOOL CODE: 160076 CANIDATES NO: SUBJECT: Caribbean Studies YEAR: 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TOPIC Introduction Problem Statement Statement of the problem Aim Objectives Purpose of study Educational value .. Literature review Data collection . Questionnaire Presentation of data . Interpretation of findings . Discussion of findings Conclusion Recommendations . Bibliography . Appendices ..

PG.NO

INTRODUCTION

The tableland village council has been a fixture in the tableland community for the past fifteen years. In keeping true to their mission statement, Positively affecting lives the village council aims to provide programs to entertain empower and uplift the lives of both youths and adults in the tableland community. The village council does this through activities such as carnival workshops, craft workshops, sports clubs and dance and vocal courses. The village council also seeks to improve the neighborhood by improving the communitys sporting facilities and beautifying the community. They achieve all this through fundraisers bazzars, sports and family days and excursions which all the members of the community are free to participate in. The research paper will investigate the level of delinquency in the community and the possible causes. This topic was chosen because there is a history of juvenile delinquency in the Tableland community. With an idea of the causes of said delinquency, programmes can be put in place to find a solution to the problem. The effectiveness of the programmes/iniatives implemented by the Tableland village council to address the issue will then be assessed by distributing questionnaires to members of the village council chosen through stratified random sampling.

PROBLEM STATEMENT This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the programmes implemented by the Tableland village council in addressing the problem of juvenile delinquency in the community. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The effectiveness of the programmes/initiatives implemented by the Tableland village council to address the problem of delinquency in the Tableland community wil be investigated. This will be achieved by questioning 60 members of the village council( 30 males and 30 females) about their thoughts on the general effectiveness of the programmes in curbing delinquency. AIM To evaluate the effectiveness of the programmes/initiatives implemented by the Tableland village council in addressing delinquency in the Tableland community. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What is the level of delinquency in the Tableland community? 2. What age groups are the most involved in delinquent behavior? 3. What are the causes of delinquency in the Tableland community? 4. What are the programmes adopted by the Tableland village council geared towards addressing delinquency and how effective are they?

PURPOSE OF STUDY The purpose of the study is to evaluate the level of juvenile delinquency in the Tableland community and assess the effectiveness of the programmes implemented by the Tableland village council in curbing the delinquency. This will serve to identify the programmes the residents think are not effective enough and gain opinions on how to improve the programmes in place and if needed implement new ones. EDUCATIONAL VALUE The value of this research is to make residents of the Tableland community and if possible surrounding communities aware of the causes of delinquency and the programmes that villag councils can implement that are proven to be most effective in combating juvenile delinquency. DEFINITIONS

LITERATURE REVIEW According to Kyriacou (2003) juvenile delinquency can be defined as committing an illegal offence between the ages of 10 and 17 years. Juvenile delinquency can also be defined as minor crime especially that committed by young people (Deosaran 2007). It is however important to note that some writers, such as Gottfredson (2001) use the term juvenile delinquency to refer to a broader range of problem behavior. Gottfredson makes the point that restricting the term simply to illegal acts is artificial since non-criminal behaviour is behaviourally analogous to criminal behaviour in its causation. Although each writer may define the term juvenile delinquency differently, they are all similar in that they all believe that in order to fully understand the term juvenile delinquency, the causes of its occurrence must be studied. Johnson & Shaw (2001) believe that there are risk factors that apply to a given individual that increases the likelihood of that individual committing a crime. However Johnson & Shaw (2001) also believe that the three most common factors among persistent offenders are emotional coldness, normalization to a criminal subculture and problems with impulse control. Similarly according to Huizinga, Esbensen & Weiher (1991), there are many pathways to delinquency and a variety of family circumstancescontribute to negative behaviour in

children (Wright & Wright, 1992). Studies of family risk factors for delinquency conclude that the probability of a child becoming a delinquent increases rapidly as the number of family problems or risk factors increases (Rutter, 1987). The developmental pathways to delinquency have been in longitudinal studies of delinquency. The pathways to delinquency begin with the authority conflict pathway which begins with stubborn behaviour, then defiant behaviour and developing later into avoidance of authority figures. It is then followed by the covert pathway which begins with minor aggression (bullying, teasing) followed by physical fighting and later violent acts. Patterson & Joeger (1993) post it that there are two groups of youth involved in delinquent behaviors- the early starters who follow the previously described developmental pathways and late starters who are influenced by peers. According to studies done by Deosaran (2007) age, school type, parental structure, gender, race and social class all show direct links to juvenile delinquency. However according to surveys done by Deosaran in the Caribbean it shows that age was one of the strongest relationships found with violence and delinquency. As the student moves from age ten to eighteen they seemed to commit more violence and delinquent acts. However research done by Beinhart, Anderson, Lee, and Utting (2002) showed that risk factors in the community such as community disorganization and neglect, availability of drugs, disadvantaged neighbourhood and a high turnover and lack of neighbourhood attachment greatly affected the level of delinquency in communities

Research done by Kyriacou (2003) identified possible solutions or action points to combat delinquency. The first stage in combating delinquency is the promotion of good behaviour in school. A system of positive expectations coupled with support and praise for good behavior can play an important role in counteracting negative influences on the pupil. The primary years are extremely influential in developing pro-social behaviour. Kyriacou also believes that parents can be helped by the school to play a key role in encouraging pupils to behave well in school. This can include giving parents advice on their role and on good parenting and the use of appropriate discipline techniques. Parents can also assist by encouraging their children to take part in outdoor pursuits which can give certain pupils a real boost because pupils at risk of delinquency often have low self-esteem and are particularly vulnerable to being coerced by peers into committing a crime. As such any activity that can strengthen a pupils self-esteem will combat this. Kyriacou also states that the community can play an influential role in curbing delinquency. This can be done by providing opportunities for youth and parent involvement in community activities. By doing this youths will feel a greater social attachment or bond with their parents and the community. Activities provided by community groups will also have the effect of keeping youths occupied doing something productive with the supervision of positive role models and with less unoccupied time they will be less likely to partake in delinquent acts. However even with these preventative measures there is evidence of a universal increase in juvenile crime taking place concurrently with economic decline.

DATA COLLECTION In this research paper quantitative data was used, which took the form of statistical information. The main reason for this choice was that it facilitated theory formation because the large amount of data which was collected displayed cause and correlation therein made the formation of theory possible. The use of this type of data was also advantageous in that it provided objectivity; therefore respondents were not in any way influenced by the researchers personal views. The instrument used to collect data was a 16 item questionnaire which consisted of 9 closed ended type and 7 open- ended questions. The questionnaires were advantageous in that they were easily administered, easily tabulated, measured and analyzed. It also guaranteed the anonymity of the residents of the Tableland community and enabled a large number of them to be reached. All residents who were asked were willing to complete the questionnaires. The questionnaires contained both open ended and closed -ended questions. However, some disadvantages of closed-ended were that close- ended questions possibility forced the respondents to choose an answer that did not capture his/her true feelings on the matter. Also some residents might have misinterpreted the questions, or treated the issue too lightly. In order to prevent respondents from treating the issue lightly an effort was made to

impress upon the respondents the importance of the research and the necessity for them to answer all questions honestly and seriously. There were also some disadvantages with open-ended questions which were given to encourage free responses, however, these questions generated large amounts of data which was time consuming to process and analyze. Some residents neglected to respond to the openended questions altogether. A sample can be defined as a group of people selected from the population. The units selected are deemed to be representative of the population from which they are drawn. Therefore my sample population will be members of the Tableland village council. The sampling method used was stratified random sampling wherein my sample frame was persons who are active members of the TVC. Thirty males and thirty females were chosen for the sample. This amount was chosen because since the TVC is small containing approximately 200 persons this was thought to be a representative sample.

APPENDIX QUESTIONNAIRE 1. Age 2. Sex Male Female

3. How long have you lived in the Tableland community? 4. Do you think that delinquency is a problem in your community? 5. If yes on a scale of 1-5 with 1 being not bad and 5 being extremely bad how would you rate the level of delinquency? 1 2 3 4 5

6. Who are the individuals mainly involved in delinquent acts? Males Females

7. What age group do they belong to? 8. What type of delinquent acts youths are usually involved in, in the community? 9. What do you think are the causes of delinquency? A = family factors B = community factors C = peer influence

10. Has the Tableland Village Council (TVC) done anything to address the problem of delinquency in the area? Yes No

11. If yes, what have they done/implemented?

12. How have the programmes you identified contributed to the development of the youth in the area? 13. Do you believe that the programmes implemented by the (TVC) is effective in addressing the problem of delinquency in your community? Yes No

14. On a scale of 1-5 with 1 being not at all effective and 5 being very effective, how would you rate the programmes organized by the (TVC)to address delinquency in the Tableland area? 1 2 3 4 5

15. Do you believe that the programmes implemented can be improved? Yes No

16. If yes in what ways can the programmes be improved to make them more effective? A = more regular meetings B = more activities during the school vacation D = wider range of

C = after school activities in conjunction with the school activities to choose from E = mentoring programmes

PRESENTATION OF DATA Figure.1

Pie Graph showing whether residents think that delinquency is a problem in the Tableland community?
Yes No

7%

93%

Figure .2

Graph showing the rate of delinquency in the Tableland community with 1 being 'not bad' and 5 being 'extremely bad'
35 30 No. respondents 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 Rate of delinquency 4 5

Figure .3

Pie Graph showing the gender of individuals usually comitting delinquents acts
10%

Male female

90%

Figure .4

Line graph showing the age groups of individuals who usually commit delinquents acts.
50 no. of respondents 40 30 20 10 0 13-15 16-18 Age groups 19-21

Figure .5

TALLY CHART SHOWING WHAT DELINQUENT ACTIVITIES YOUTHS ARE USUALLY INVOLVED IN. Drugs Underage drinking 18 20

School absenteeism 14 Bullying 8

Figure .6

Graph showing what respondents thought were the causes of delinquency

A 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

A = family factors B = peer influence C = community factors

Figure .7

PICTOGRAPH SHOWING HOW THE PROGRAMMES IMPLEMENTED BY THE TVC CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELPOMENT OF YOUTHS IN THE AREA
CONTRIBUTION Acquirement of social and practical skills NO. OF RESPONDENTS 10 PICTOGRAPHIC REPESENTATION

Boosting of self-esteem

10

Decreased involvement in delinquent activities

20

Improvement in academics

20

SCALE:

= 10 RESPONDENTS

Figure .8

Doughnut graph showing the percentage of people who believe that the programmes implemented are effective in addressing delinquency or not.

42% 58%

Yes No

Figure .9

Graph showing the rate of effectiveness of the programmes organized by the TVC to address delinquency on a scale of 1-5 with 1 being 'not at all effective' and 5 being 'very effective'
35 no. of respondents 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 Rate of effectiveness 4 5

Figure .10

Graph showing the ways in which the programmes implemented by the TVC can be improved
20 18 16 No. of respondents 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E

From graph: IMPROVEMENTS A = more regular meetings B = more activities during the school vacation C = after school activities in conjunction with the school D = more parent child activities E = mentoring programmes

INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS For the research, the 60 questionnaires which were distributed were all returned. Out of all the questionnaires returned only 4 were of the opinion that juvenile delinquency was not in problem in the Tableland community. Therefore the majority of the village council members who were interviewed thought that delinquency was a problem in the community, 93% of 60. Also the majority of the respondents rated the level of delinquency as either 4 or 5. This shows that delinquency is thought to be a widespread and serious problem in the Tableland community. Figure 4 is a line graph showing the age groups of individuals usually involved in delinquent acts. According to the graph as the age with the highest level of delinquency was the age group 13-15 and as the age increased delinquency steadily decreased. This may be because as

adolescents get older they may become more mature and thus outgrow such behavior and the peers that encourage them in these types of behaviour. Findings indicate that 90% of delinquent acts are committed by males as compared to 10% by females. A possible cause of this could be that since the findings show that the delinquent activities youths are usually underage drinking and drug use the girls will less likely be involved because they have less freedom of movement in most cases and are usually more closely monitored than their male counterparts Figure 5 shows that respondents thought the main causes of delinquency was family factors. This is a valid suggestion since the family is the first agent of socialization in a persons life and one of the most important. Figure 7 is a pictograph illustrating how the programmes implemented by the TVC contribute to the development of youths in the area. The majority of the respondents stated the most common development was; decreased involvement in delinquent activities and improvement in academics. Thus

However according to figure 9 respondents do think that the TVC programmes are effective in curbing delinquency since 58% of them said it was and generally rate the effectiveness as a 3 which shows that although the programmes may be effective there is a lot of room for improvement especially since 42% of the respondents thought that the programmes were not effective. Figure 10 shows what ways in which the respondents thought the activities could be improved and the majority thought that there should be more activities during the school vacation. This might be the most poular opinion because during the school vacation is when youths would have the most free time thus more likely to get involved in delinquent acts. However if they are occupied with various activities they will be less likely to take part in juvenile delinquency.

DICUSSION OF FINDINGS The research conducted in this study evaluates the effectiveness of the programmes/initiatives implemented by the Tableland Village council in addressing the problem of juvenile delinquency in the Tableland community. In- depth research was done to assess the level of delinquency in the community, highlight the causes, identify the programmes geared towards addressing delinquency and assess the effectiveness of the programmes. The results obtained from the research, showed some similarities to previous research carried out on this topic.

The results showed that 56 of the respondents believed that delinquency was a problem in the Tableland community however 4 did not. Most of the respondents generally rated the level of delinquency at the level of 4 and also 5 which is an indication that most respondents acknowledge that delinquency is a serious problem in the community and is at such a high level that it must be dealt with Youths between the ages of 13-15 were found to be the most common offenders with the age group 16-18 following at a close second. Those in the age group of 19-21 committed the least delinquent acts. Kyriacou (2003) defined delinquency as committing an illegal offence between the ages of 10 and 17 years. Therefore the results from the research fall into the category mentioned by Kyriacou in his research. Also the fact that juvenile delinquency is highest at age 13-14 (mid-adolescence) then declines gradually as the youth gets older proves Thornberrys (1987) interactional theory. This theory suggests that the influence of delinquent peer associations should increase during midadolescence and then decline gradually. In his research Gottfredson (2001) used the term juvenile delinquency to refer to a broader range of problem behaviour and not simply illegal acts. Similarly research showed that the youths in the Tableland community not only participated in illegal acts such a underage drinking and using drugs but they also participated in non- illegal acts such as bullying and school absenteeism which respondents also termed as delinquent behaviour. Previous studies done by (Rutter, 1987) on family risk factors showed that the probability of a child becoming a delinquent increases rapidly as the number of family problems increases. Similarly the research done shows that most respondents believed that family factors was the leading cause of delinquency in the tableland community. The two other causes were community factors and peer influence similar to studies done by Beinhart, Anderson, Lee and Utting (2002) and exposure to negative influences. Similar to studies done by Kyriacou (2003) which stated that the community can curb delinquency by providing opportunities for youth and parent involvement, research shows that the Tableland village council implemented various programs geared towards youth and parent involvement to decrease delinquency. These programmes were rated as being averagely

effective by most respondents since they observed development of the youths such as increased self- esteem, decreased involvement in delinquent activities, improvement in academics and acquirement of social and practical skills. The research also showed that the progammes could be improved to make them more effective but also that 87% of the respondents believed that parents and the school could also increase the effectiveness of the Tableland village council. Research by Kyricou also stated that parents and the school were important to the process of curbing delinquency

CONCLUSION The research showed that delinquency is a problem in the Tableland community since most people rated it as a 4 between the two extremes of 1 not bad and 5 extremely bad and similar to previous studies family factors was thought to a the leading cause of delinquency in the community.thus this research supports previous studies done on the topic of juvenile delinquency. In order to curb this delinquency the Tableland village council implemented

programmes geared towards youth involvement. The majority of the repondents were of the opinion that the progammes were very effective but there was still room for improvement. This study is limited by the small sample size and so results cannot be generalized to a wider body of village council members but it certainly presents ideas that could be built on a larger scale study. One find that researchers may want to pursue is the level of males involved in delinquent activities and why.

RECCOMMENDATIONS 1. The TVC can hold meetings inviting experts to talk to members of the community about juvenile delinquency and how each institution ; the school, parents, the community can work together to lessen delinquency. 2. The TVC can invite positive role models in the community to speak to youths regularly about peer pressure, bullying and self esteem.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Kyriacou (2003) Delinquent Friends and Delinquent Behavior:Temporal and Developmental Patterns in Delinquency and Crime: Current Theories, New York: Cambridge University Press. 2. Deosaran, R. (2007) Juvenile Delinquency in Trinidad and Tobago, St Agustine Trinidad: ANSA McAl Psychological Research Centre, University of the West Indies. 3. Johnson & Shaw (2001) Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

4. Huizinga, Esbensen & Weiher (1991) Interaction Effects in Multiple Regression,Newbury Park, CA: Sage. 5. Wright & Wright (1992) Human Development and Criminal Behavior,New York: SpringerVerlag 6. Rutter (1987) Child Delinquents: Development, Intervention,and Service Needs, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage 7. Patterson & Joege (1993) Toward an Interactional Theory of Delinquency, London: Stanley Paul and Co. 8. Beinhart, Anderson, Lee & Utting (2002) Delinquency and Opportunity,New York: Free Press 9. Gottfredson (2001) The Methodological Adequacy of Longitudinal Research in Crime and Delinquency, New York: John Wiley & Sons