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Thomas Aquinas on the Commendation and Division of Sacred Scripture Compiled from Various Sources
By Bart A. Mazzetti §
COMMENDATION OF AND DIVISION OF SACRED SCRIPTURE The Commendation of Sacred Scripture
This is the book of the commandments of God, and the law that is for ever. All that keep it shall come to life: but they that have forsaken it, to death. Baruch 4:1
According to Augustine in On Christian Doctrine 4.12, one skilled in speech should so speak as to teach, to delight and to change; that is, to teach the ignorant, to delight the bored and to change the lazy. The speech of Sacred Scripture does these three things in the fullest manner. For it firmly teaches with its eternal truth. Psalm 118.89: ‘Thy word, O Lord, stands firm for ever as heaven.’ And it sweetly delights with its pleasantness. Psalm 118.103: ‘How sweet are thy words to my mouth!’ And it efficaciously changes with its authority. Jeremiah 23.29: ‘Are not my words as fire, saith the Lord?’ Therefore in the text above Sacred Scripture is commended for three things. First, for the authority with which it changes: ‘This is the book of the commandments of God.’ Second, for the eternal truth with which it instructs, when it says, ‘and the law that is for ever’. Third, for the usefulness with which it entices, when it says, ‘All that keep it shall come to life.’ The authority of this Scripture is shown in three things. First, its origin, because God is its origin. Hence it says, ‘the commandments of God’. Baruch 3.37. ‘He found out all the way of knowledge.’ Hebrews 2.3: ‘For it was first announced by the Lord and was confirmed unto us.’ Such an author is infallibly to be believed, both on account of the condition of his nature, because he is truth; John 14-4: “I am the way and the truth and the life.’ And on account of his fullness of knowledge: Romans 11:33: ‘Oh, the depth of the riches of the wisdom and of the knowledge of God!” And also on account of the power of the words; Hebrews 4.12: ‘For the word of God is living and efficient and keener than any two-edged sword.’ Second, it is shown to be efficacious by the necessity with which it is imposed. Mark 16.16: ‘He who does not believe shall be condemned.’ The truth of Sacred Scripture is proposed in the manner of a precept, hence the text says, ‘the commandments of God’. These commandments direct the intellect through faith: ‘You believe in God, believe also in men.’ John 14.1; inform the affections with love: ‘This is my commandment, that you love one another’, John 15.12; and induce to action: ‘Do this and you shall live’, Luke 10.28. Third, it is shown to be efficacious by the uniformity of its sayings, because all who teach the sacred doctrine teach the same thing. 1 Corinthians 15.11: ‘Whether then it is I or they, so we preach, and so you have believed.’ And this is necessary because they all had one teacher. Matthew 23.8: ‘Your teacher is one.’ And they had one spirit, ‘Have we not walked in the same spirit?’ and one love from above, ‘Now the multitude of believers were of one heart and one soul’ (Acts 4.32). Therefore, as a sign of the uniformity of doctrine, it says significantly, ‘This is the book.’ The truth of this teaching of Scripture is immutable and eternal, hence the words, ‘and the law that is for ever’. Luke 21.33: ‘Heaven and earth will pass away but my words shall not pass away.’ This law will endure for ever because of three things: First, because of the power of the lawgiver. Isaiah 14.27: ‘For the Lord of hosts hath decreed, and who can disannul it.’ Second, on account of his immutability. Malachi 3.6: ‘For I am the Lord 2
and I change not’; Numbers 23.19: God is not a man, that he should lie: nor like the son of man, that he should be changed.’ Third, because of the truth of the law. Psalm 118.86: ‘All thy commandments are faithful.’ Proverbs 12.19: ‘The lip of truth shall be steadfast for ever.’ 3 Ezra 4.38: ‘Truth remains and gathers strength eternally.’ The usefulness of this scripture is greatest: ‘I am the Lord they God that teach thee profitable things.’ Hence our text continues: ‘All that keep it shall come to life.’ Which indeed is threefold: First it is the life of grace, to which Sacred Scripture disposes. John 6.64: ‘Thy words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life.’ For through this life the spirit lives in God. Galatians 2.20: ‘It is now no longer I that live, but Christ lives in me.’ Second is the life of justice consisting in works, to which Sacred Scripture directs. Psalm 118.93: ‘Thy decrees I will never forge, for by them thou hast given me life.’ Third is the life of glory which Sacred Scripture promises and to which it leads. John 6.69: ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast words of everlasting life.’ John 20.31: ‘But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.’ The Division of Sacred Scripture Sacred Scripture leads to this life in two ways, by commanding and by helping. Commanding through the mandates which it proposes, which belong to the Old Testament. Ecclesiasticus 24:33: ‘Moses commanded a law in the precepts of justice.’ Helping, through the gift of grace which the lawgiver dispenses, which pertains to the New Testament. Both of these are touched on in John 1:17: ‘For the Law was given unto Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.’ Hence the whole of Sacred Scripture is divided into two principal parts, the Old and New Testaments, which are mentioned in Matthew 13:52: ‘So then every Scribe instructed in the kingdom of heaven is like a householder who brings forth from his storeroom things new and old.’ And Song of Songs 7.13: ‘In our gates are all fruits, the new and the old, my beloved, I have kept for thee.’ The Old Testament is divided according to the teaching of the commandments, for the commandment is of two kinds, the binding and the warning. The binding is the command of a king who can punish transgressors. Proverbs 20.2: ‘As the roaring of a lion, so also is the dread of a king.’ But a warning is the precept of a father who must teach. Ecclesiasticus 7.25: ‘Hast thou children? Instruct them.’ The precept of a king is of two kinds, one which establishes the laws, another which induces to observance of the law, which is customarily done through his heralds and ambassadors. Thus it is that three kinds of command are distinguished, that of the king, that of the herald and that of the father. On this basis the Old Testament is subdivided into three parts, according to Jerome in his prologue to the Book of Kings. The first part is contained in the Law which is proposed by the king himself. Isaiah 33.22: ‘For the Lord is our judge, the Lord is our lawgiver, the Lord is our King.’ The second is contained in the Prophets who were, as it were, ambassadors and heralds of God, speaking to the people in the person of God, and urging them to observance of the law. Aggeus 1.13: ‘And Aggeus, the messenger of the Lord, as one of the messangers of the Lord, spoke.’ The third is contained in the works of the hagiographers, writers who were inspired by the Holy Spirit and spoke as for themselves and not for God. Hence they are called saintly writers because they were writers of the sacred, agios meaning ‘sacred’, and 3
graphia meaning ‘scripture’. Thus the precepts found in them are paternal. As is evident in Proverbs 6.20: ‘My son, keep the commandments of they father.’ Jerome mentions a fourth kind of book, namely, the apocryphal, so called from apo, that is, ‘especially’, and cryphon, that is, ‘obscure’, because there is doubt about their contents and authors. The Catholic Church includes among the books of Sacred Scripture some whose teachings are not doubted, but whose authors are. Not that the authors are unknown, but because these men were not of known authority. Hence they do not have force from the authority of the authors but rather from their reception by the Church. Because there is the same manner of speaking in them and in the hagiographical works, they are for now counted among them. The first part, which contains the law, is divided into two parts, insofar as there are two kinds of law, public and private. A private law is imposed for the observance of one person or one family. Such law is contained in Genesis, as is evident from the first precept given to man, ‘But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat’ (2.17), and to Noah, ‘Saving that flesh with blood you shall not eat’ (9.4), and to Abraham, ‘And again God said to Abraham: ‘And thou therefore shalt keep my covenant, and thy seed after thee in their generations’ (17.9). The public law is that which is given to the people. For the divine law was given to the Jewish people through a mediator, because it was not fitting that the people should receive it immediately form God. Deuteronomy 5.5: ‘I was the mediator and stood between the Lord and you at that time to show you his words.’ Galatians 3.19: ‘What then was the Law? It was enacted on account of transgressors, being delivered by angels through a mediator.’ Thus a twofold level is found in legislation, First, when the law comes from the Lord to the mediator, and this pertains to three books, Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. Hence we frequently read in them, ‘God spoke to Moses.’ Second, when the law is given to the people by the mediator, and this pertains to Deuteronomy, as is evident from its very beginning, ‘These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel.’ These three books are distinguished by the three things in which people should be ordered. First, precepts bearing on equity of judgement, and this is found in Exodus. Second, in sacraments with respect to the establishment of worship, and this in Leviticus. And third, in offices, with respect to they administration of the community, and this in Numbers. The second part, which is the prophets, is subdivided insofar as a herald ought to do two things. He should manifest the beneficence of the king, so that men will be inclined to obey, and he should declare the edict of the law. There is a threefold divine beneficence that the prophets expose to the people. First, the effect of heredity, and this in Joshua, or which Ecclesiasticus 46.1 says, ‘Valiant in war was Joshua.’ Second, the destruction of armies, and this in the book of Judges, of whose destruction Psalm 82.10 says, ‘Do to them as to Madian, as to Sisara.’ Third, the exaltation of one person, and this in Ruth, and a public which is of the whole people, and this in Kings, which benefice God grants to them, Ezekiel 16.13: ‘And thou wast adorned with gold and silver.’ For these books, according to Jerome, are placed in the rank of prophets. In other books which are commonly said to be of the prophets, the prophets posed divine edicts for the observance of the law. And this is said, first, in general, in the major prophets who were sent to the whole people and called for the observance of the whole law; second, in particular, and this in the minor prophets, different ones of whom were sent for different reasons to special tribes, as Osee to the ten tribes of Joel, Jonah to the Ninevites, and so with the rest. 4
The hagiographical and apocryphal books which instruct by word. and Ezekiel the mystery of the Resurrection. Daniel. however.’ This is how the psalter instructs. and the spirit of wisdom came upon me. in one way. this is not his office. For although one is a prophet because of the gift of prophecy. and this in Joshua. and an example of this is found in Tobit 2.7: ‘Wherefore I have wished. instructing about the future by warning. by which dangers are avoided. insofar as Isaiah chiefly foretells the mystery of the Incarnation. Thus the four prophets answer to the four evangelists. Job 13.4: ‘He weakened the hands of the men of war that remain in this city. an example of which is given in Judith. some by word alone. which contains the hagiographic and the apocryphal books. and Jeremiah the mystery of the Passion. which has two attributes. are divided insofar as words work in a twofold way to instruct. which is why he is read during the time of Advent by the Church. where it is shown how Mardocheus and Esther handled the deceptions of the most powerful Aman.’ They can be distinguished in another way. By deed. and also to the call to judgement.’ In another way speaking of past events as examples of virtue. ‘Take Judith as an example of the chaste widow. by asking for the gift of wisdom. is subdivided according to the ways fathers instruct their sons in virtue. It also pertains to prudence wisely to repel the violent. and I called upon God. and to endure. although he did not speak to the people in the person of the Lord. arguing by condemnation of sins.’ Judith 15. Wisdom 7. and an example of this is found in the Book of Maccabees. Some teach by deed alone. having first shown that your are forgers of lies and maintainers of perverse opinions. he dealt with the divinity of Christ. in which the condition of a whole people who were governed with justice is described. namely. hence Jeremiah 38. speaking to God in prayer. since in morals examples are no less important than words. which is why Jerome says.3: ‘Thy father was an Amorrhite and thy mother a Cethite. In another way.27: ‘With a great spirit he saw the things that are come to pass at last.12: ‘Now this trial the Lord therefore permitted to happen to him. by word and deed. some by word and deed. For in that book we are shown how Ezra and Nehemiah and other princes prudently guarded against the plots of enemies wishing to impede the building of the temple and the city. hence his book finishes with the raising of the bones and the repair of the temple. One.’ But Ezekiel argues and scolds. an example of which is given in Parapelomenon. cajoling by the promise of benefits. because thou hast loved chastity. There are four principal virtues.’ The fourth is prudence. and an example of this is given in Ezra. justice. frightening with the threat of punishment. The second is temperance. however. To attack. and comforted the mourners in Sion.11: ‘For thou hast done manfully.The major prophets differ according to the different ways the prophets sought to lead the people to observance of the law. Although each of these is found in every prophet. one of which is to expose the liar. as is said in Ecclesiasticus 48.3-4: But yet I will speak to the Almighty and I desire to reason with God. which serves the common good. that an example might be given to posterity of his patience. namely.’ Third is fortitude. Ezekiel 16. namely. The third part. and understanding was given me.8 can be applied to the prophet: ‘She knoweth signs and wonders before they are done. hence he is read in Passiontide.’ Jeremiah chiefly warns. is included among the prophets insofar as he predicted future events in a prophetic spirit. in two ways. Hence what is said in Wisdom 8. and Job who drove out errors by way of disputation exhibits this. by teaching wisdom. whom Jerome places among the hagiographers. and thy heart has been strengthened. because he was not sent by God to prophesy to the people. and an example is given in Esther.’ The other work is not to lie about what it 5 . and this in two ways according to a twofold work of wisdom. Isaiah chiefly cajoles.
‘For I am not ashamed of the Gospel.’ And a human. is divided into three parts. with which the whole content of Scripture concludes in the Apocalypse. concerning which precepts of wisdom are not given but are rather derived from them. distinguishes. First. The New Testament. and this is found in the Song of Songs. and the other Gospels treat chiefly of this. Ralph McInerney) § 6 . Mark speaks. according to him. In the first grade. with the spouse in the abode of Jesus Christ sharing the life of glory. to which Jesus Christ himself conducts. in which there are three things to consider. wholly cleansed of worldly cares. In the first the origin of grace is treated. In the fourth grade are the exemplar virtues existing in God. in his preface to the Pentateuch. because either wisdom is commended to us. and he begins with the temple and the priesthood and ends his Gospel in the temple. which indeed differ according to the three grades of virtue that Plotinus. In the second grade are the purgative virtues. which is ordered to eternal life not only through precepts but also through the gifts of grace. Matthew speaks. the end of the Church.’ Second. in which there are three things to consider. John 1. delights in the contemplation of wisdom alone.16-17: ‘And of his fullness we have all received. Third. Luke speaks. in Romans 1. as is clear from Jerome’s prologue. Christ is the origin of grace. First. for it is the power of God unto salvation to everyone who believes.46: ‘And they found him sitting in the temple in the midst of the teachers. the execution of the aforesaid virtues is treated. and this in the rest of the books of the New Testament. as the Gloss says about Luke 2. and may he be blessed for ever an ever . the progress of the Church. and this in the book of Wisdom. and this in the epistles of Paul. In the third grade are the virtues of the purged soul. Hence the precepts of wisdom in praise of fathers close his book. and this is treated in the Acts of the Apostles.] The execution of the power of grace is shown in the progress of the Church. hence Jerome says.2.’ [The part dealing with the power of grace as exemplified in the epistles of Paul is missing from the text. since the precepts of wisdom ought to concern only the acts of virtue. and they are distinguished according to a threefold dignity that belongs to the man Christ. (tr. whereby a man. in Enneads I.knows. With respect to his royal honour. the power of grace. For the Law was given through Moses: grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. a divine. and this in the three books of Solomon. hence he begins.16 saying. With respect to his prophetic honour. which aims at contempt of the world. that ‘The Acts of the Apostles seem to give the bare history of the birth and to clothe the infant Church. In word and in deed Ecclesiasticus instructs. and frequently returns to the temple. the beginning of the Church. in the Gospels. In the second. and this in the Proverbs.2-7. and thus we are instructed in a twofold way. Amen. hence he begins with the preaching of the Gospel. ‘In the beginning was the Word and the Word was with God. are political virtues.’ In the third. Hence in the beginning of his Gospel he shows that Christ descended from kings and was adored by the Magi kings. grace for grace.1. and the Word was God. With respect to his priestly dignity. and the Gospel of John is chiefly concerned with this. and this in Ecclesiastes. or the precepts of wisdom are proposed. hence he begins in the power of the Gospel. as is clear in Chapter 44 and after. whereby a man regards the world with contempt. whereby a man moderately uses the things of this world and lives among men. and to this is ordered the apostolic instruction of the canonical epistles.’ In Christ a twofold nature is to be considered. the beginning of the Church.
: qui autem non crediderit condemnabitur. Auctoritas autem huius Scripturae ex tribus ostenditur efficax. Tertio. Haec tria completissime sacrae Scripturae eloquium. II: quae cum initium accepisset enarrari per dominum.. Docet enim firmiter aeterna sua veritate. Ier. Delectat suaviter sua utilitate. quia veritas est. Psalm. Et ideo in signum uniformitatis doctrinae dicitur singulariter: hic est liber. unum habuerunt spiritum. idem docuerunt. ab utilitate qua allicit. Psalm. ostenditur efficax ex necessitate quam scilicet imponit. in IV de doctrina Christiana. Baruch III: hic adinvenit omnem viam disciplinae. ut flectat: ut doceat ignaros. Unde sequitur: et lex quae est in aeternum. Secundo. Act. Matth. I Cor. Isa. veritas et vita. Hebr. XI: o altitudo divitiarum sapientiae et scientiae Dei. unde dicit: mandatorum Dei.PARS 1 Commendatio sacrae Scripturae  Hic est liber.: quam dulcia faucibus meis eloquia tua. in nos confirmata est . et vives. Marc. et penetrabilior omni gladio ancipiti . Unde per modum praecepti veritas sacrae Scripturae proponitur. pars 1 Secundum Augustinum. permanet verbum tuum. Veritas Scripturae huius doctrinae est immutabilis et aeterna. XXIII: nunquid non verba mea sunt quasi ignis. XV: hoc est praeceptum meum ut diligatis invicem. et sic credidistis . etc. Ioan. tum propter verborum virtutem. Quae quidem mandata intellectum per fidem dirigunt. ut delectet. ut delectet tediosos. XIV: ego sum via. et cetera. Permanet autem in aeternum haec lex propter tria: primo. II Cor. quia omnes qui sacram doctrinam tradiderunt. XIV: Deus 7 . Luc. IV: multitudinis credentium una erat anima et cor unum in Deo .: in aeternum. Cui quidem auctori infallibiliter credendum est. eruditus eloquens ita eloqui debet ut doceat. XXIII: unus est magister vester. Primo ex origine. XII: nonne eodem spiritu ambulavimus? Unum insuper affectum. sicut dilexi vos . Ioan. propter legislatoris potestatem. XXI: caelum et terra transibunt. tum propter naturae suae conditionem. Hebr. verba autem mea non transibunt. dicit dominus? Et ideo sacra Scriptura in verbo proposito commendatur a tribus: primo ab auctoritate qua flectit. per dilectionem affectum informant. quia Deus origo eius est. ab aeterna veritate qua instruit. tum propter scientiae plenitudinem. Rom. ult. cum dicit: et lex quae est in aeternum. IV: vivus est sermo Dei et efficax. quod ad actum et executionem inducunt: hoc fac. cum dicit: hic est liber mandatorum Dei. ab eis qui audierunt. Flectit efficaciter sua auctoritate. sive illi sic praedicamus. Ioan. Et hoc necesse est quia omnes habuerunt unum magistrum. XIV: creditis in Deum et in me credite . ut flectat tardos. domine. Tertio. Secundo. Unde dicit: mandatorum Dei. ostenditur efficax ex dictorum uniformitate. cum dicit: omnes qui tenent eam pervenient ad vitam. XV: sive autem ego.
aliud quod ad observantiam statutae legis inducit. ad quam sacra Scriptura disponit. Unde tota sacra Scriptura in duas partes principaliter dividitur.: in aeternum non obliviscar iustificationes tuas. Adiuvando autem per donum gratiae quod legislator largitur. Prima est vita gratiae. quo legem statuit. quod pertinet ad novum testamentum. Num. quae quidem triplex est. VI: domine. Unde sequitur: omnes qui tenent eam pervenient ad vitam. propter eius immutabilitatem. Psal. Gal. pars 2Ad hanc autem vitam sacra Scriptura perducit dupliciter: scilicet. quae est quasi praeceptum ab ipso rege 8 . Prima pars continetur in lege. Ioan. Per hanc enim vitam spiritus Deo vivit. scilicet unum. Et secundum haec tria vetus testamentum dividitur in tres partes. Praeceptum autem regis est duplex. in vetus et novum testamentum. Prov. XII: labium veritatis firmum erit in perpetuum . Vetus autem testamentum dividitur secundum doctrinam mandatorum. Tertia est vita gloriae. PARS 2 Partitio sacrae Scripturae  Hic est liber. scilicet. est enim duplex mandatum. XX: haec autem scripta sunt ut credatis. Psal. II: vivo autem. Malach. Coactorium est mandatum regis qui potest transgressores punire. I: lex per Moysen data est. propter legis veritatem. gratia et veritas per Iesum Christum facta est . Praecipiendo per mandata quae proponit. Eccli. nec ut filius hominis ut mutetur. quia in eis vivificasti me . VI: verba quae ego locutus sum vobis. servavi tibi. Eodem. Prov. Ioan. et quis poterit infirmare? Secundo.exercituum decrevit. ad quam sacra Scriptura dirigit. quod consuevit per suos praecones et nuntios promulgare. secundum Hieronymum in prologo libri regum. XX: sicut rugitus leonis.: omnia mandata tua veritas. ad quem ibimus? Verba vitae aeternae habes. Ioan. XXIII: non est dominus quasi homo ut mentiatur. Tertio. iam non ego: vivit vero in me Christus. quam sacra Scriptura promittit et ad eam perducit. Secunda est vita iustitiae in operibus consistens. scilicet regis. nova et vetera. quod pertinet ad vetus testamentum. Utilitas autem huius Scripturae est maxima. spiritus et vita sunt . dilecte mi. III: ego Deus et non mutor. Isai. praeconis et patris. XXIV: legem mandavit nobis Moyses. praecipiendo et adiuvando. IV:veritas manet et invalescit in aeternum. VII: filii tibi sunt? Erudi illos. Et Cant. scilicet coactorium et monitorium. VII: omnia poma. ita et terror regis . XLVIII: ego dominus Deus tuus docens te utilia . et ut credentes vitam habeatis in nomine ipsius. Et sic distinguuntur tria praecepta. Eccli. quae duo tanguntur Matth. III Esdr. XIII: omnis Scriba doctus in regno caelorum similis est ei qui profert de thesauro suo nova et vetera. Sed monitorium est praeceptum patris qui habet erudire.
scilicet: Exodum. Secundus gradus est quo lex per mediatorem populo exponitur. Et ideo in legislatione duplex gradus attenditur. Deut. Isai. XVII 9: custodies pactum meum et semen tuum post te in generationibus suis . et hoc fit in Levitico. VI: fili mi. Tertia continetur in Agiographis. scilicet. secundum quod nuntius duo debet facere. dominus legifer noster. quia de eorum sententiis vel auctoribus dubitatur. quantum ad rei publicae administrationem. numeros. Tres autem libri praedicti distinguuntur secundum tria in quibus oportebat populum ordinari: primo in praeceptis quantum ad iudicii aequitatem. quod est valde et cryphon. Lex enim divina populo Iudaeorum tradita est per mediatorem. Triplex autem beneficium divinum prophetae populo exposuerunt: primo haereditatis consecutionem. sed quasi ex se ipsis. et Abrahae: Gen. V. Unde ex auctoritate auctorum robur non habent. apocryphos: et dicuntur apocryphi ab apo. Lex autem publica est quae populo traditur. quae legem continet. de quorum sententiis non dubitatur. Gen. Secunda autem pars. ideo simul cum eis computentur ad praesens. Unus quo lex a domino ad mediatorem pervenit. Prima autem pars. et debet proponere legis edictum.propositum. quae 9 . ut patet de primo praecepto homini dato. et hoc fit in libro numerorum. de quorum destructione in Psalmo: fiat illis sicut Madian et Sisarae. ut patet ex hoc quod in eius principio dicitur: locutus est Moyses. Debet enim exponere regis beneficium ut inclinentur homines ad obediendum. II 17: de ligno scientiae boni et mali ne comedas. quod est obscurum. qui spiritu sancto inspirati locuti sunt non tamen ex parte domini. XXXIII: dominus rex noster. Secunda continetur in prophetis. secundo hostium destructionem. publica et privata. et hoc pertinet ad tres libros. de nuntiis domini. III: lex ordinata est per Angelos in manu mediatoris. tertio in officiis. quia non erat idoneus populus ut immediate a Deo susciperet. et hoc in Iosue. custodi praecepta patris tui.et cetera. Non quod nesciatur qui fuerint illorum librorum auctores. Quia tamen idem modus loquendi in eis et in Agiographis observatur. Unde frequenter in illis libris legitur: locutus est Deus ad Moysen. et Noe. et cetera. vel quasi sacra scribentes. in duas partes dividitur. Gen. XLVI: fortis in bello Iosue. qui fuerunt quasi nuntii et praecones Dei ex persona Dei populo loquentes et ad observantiam legis inducentes. unde: ego sequester fui et medius inter vos et dominum. sed de auctoribus. et hoc fit in Exodo. tertio populi exaltationem. Ponit tamen Hieronymus quartum librorum ordinem. Privata lex est quae uni personae vel familiae imponitur observanda. scilicet. Gal. de quo Eccli. IX 4: carnem cum sanguine non comedetis . ab agios quod est sacrum et graphia quod est Scriptura: et sic praecepta quae in eis continentur sunt quasi paterna. secundum quod duplex est lex. Ecclesia vero Catholica quosdam libros recepit in numero sanctarum Scripturarum. Ut patet Prov. sed quia homines illi non fuerunt notae auctoritatis. et hoc in libro Iudicum. dividitur in duas partes. quae est prophetarum. Et talis lex in Genesi continetur. Unde Agiographi dicuntur quasi sacri scriptores. Leviticum. secundo in sacramentis quantum ad cultus exhibitionem. et hoc pertinet ad Deuteronomium. sed magis ex Ecclesiae receptione. Aggaei I: dixit Aggaeus.
Ioel ad senes Israel. Potest tamen aliter distingui. terrendo per comminationem paenarum. VIII dicitur. XVI: pater tuus Amorrhaeus et mater tua Cethaea. ut quatuor prophetae quatuor Evangelistis respondeant. Thob. Prophetae autem maiores dividuntur secundum ea quibus ad observantiam legis prophetae populum induxerunt: scilicet blandiendo per promissiones beneficiorum. et quantum ad hoc ponitur exemplum in libro Machabaeorum. in quo totius populi status describitur qui per iustitiam gubernatur. secundum duo quibus patres instruunt filios ad virtutem. de eo intelligi potest: signa et monstra scit antequam fiant. Iudith XV: fecisti viriliter eo quod castitatem amaveris. qua est bonum commune. in duo distinguitur. scilicet. quorum diversi. Uno modo instruendo de futuro ad cautelam. Secunda est temperantia. secundum Hieronymum in ordine prophetarum ponuntur. tamen Isaias principaliter blanditur. XVI: decora facta es vehementer. Ezech. quaedam verbo et facto. non tamen ex officio. prosequitur de divinitate Christi. quia exempla in moralibus non minus valent quam verba. Tertia est fortitudo. Et hoc dicitur. Tertia autem pars. scilicet verbo et facto. ut dicatur quod Isaias praenunciat principaliter incarnationis mysterium. unde dicebat: de industria dissolvit manus virorum bellantium Ier.quidem est duplex. quamvis non ex persona domini populo loqueretur. cui duo competunt. et publica quae est totius populi. vel etiam de advocatione ad iudicium. usque ad regiam dignitatem. Daniel autem secundum quod inter prophetas computatur ex hoc quod spiritu prophetico praedixit futura. quia non fuit a domino missus ad prophetandum populo. prophetae posuerunt divina edicta ad legis observationem. Quaedam autem instruunt facto tantum. scilicet: iustitia. quae continet Agiographos et apocryphos libros. Ieremias vero comminatur. et hoc in prophetis minoribus. quaedam verbo tantum. propter diversa ad speciales gentes mittebantur. scilicet: privata unius personae. et sustinere et quantum ad hoc ponitur exemplum in Thobia. et de hoc in libro regum: quod beneficium Deus improperat eis Ezech. unde in resurrectione ossium et templi reparatione librum suum finit. cuius exemplum ponitur in Iudith. unde Hieronymus: accipite Iudith viduam castitatis exemplum. Ezechiel mysterium resurrectionis. sed Ezechiel arguit et vituperat. unde legitur tempore passionis. II: hanc autem tentationem ideo permisit dominus 10 . Ionas ad Ninivitas. et hoc est in Iosue. primo in communi. In aliis autem libris qui communiter prophetarum dicuntur. secundo in particulari. XLVIII: consolatus est lugentes in Sion. cuius exemplum ponitur in Paralipomenis. de quo dicitur Eccli. Quamvis haec tria in singulis prophetarum inveniantur. Ieremias vero mysterium passionis. Hi enim libri. Unde quod Sap. XXXVIII. quem Hieronymus inter Agiographos ponit. Virtutes autem principales sunt quattuor. arguendo per vituperationes peccatorum. sicut Osee ad decem tribus. et de hoc in Ruth. et sic de aliis. aggredi. Facto autem dupliciter. Quamvis enim propheta ex dono prophetiae esset. et hoc in prophetis maioribus qui ad totum populum mittebantur et ad totius legis observantiam inducebant. Alio modo narrando ad exemplum virtutis praeterita. unde tempore adventus in Ecclesia legitur.
In tertia agitur de virtutis praedictae executione: et hoc in reliquis libris novi testamenti. In primo gradu. et quantum ad hoc datur eius exemplum in libro Hester: ubi ostenditur quomodo Mardocheus et Hester Aman potentissimi fraudes eliserunt. de quibus praecepta sapientiae non dantur. In illo enim libro ostenditur quomodo Esdras et Neemias et alii principes prudenter caverunt insidias inimicorum volentium impedire aedificationem templi et civitatis. et quantum ad hoc ponitur exemplum eius in Esdra. et secundum hoc est Ecclesiastes qui ad contemptum mundi ordinatur. secundum eum. saeculi curis penitus calcatis. unde incipit: in principio erat verbum et verbum erat apud Deum. dividitur in tres partes. quibus homo. in sola sapientiae contemplatione delectatur. et hoc dupliciter. sed per gratiae dona. secundum duplex opus sapientis. I: de plenitudine eius omnes accepimus. Novum autem testamentum. ut patet a XLIV capitulo et deinceps. et hoc in libro sapientiae. et secundum hoc est liber proverbiorum. et hoc in tribus libris Salomonis: qui quidem distinguuntur secundum tres gradus virtutum quos Plotinus distinguit. scilicet: divinam: et de hoc est principaliter Evangelium Ioannis. quorum unum est mentientem manifestare posse: et quantum ad hoc est liber Iob. Quarta est prudentia. qui per modum disputationis errores elidit. non solum per praecepta. Iob XIII: disputare cum Deo cupio prius vos ostendens fabricatores mendacii et cultores perversorum dogmatum. quibus homo se a rebus mundi exuit per contemptum. Est etiam prudentiae sagaciter repellere violentias. In quarto autem gradu sunt virtutes exemplares in Deo existentes. gratiam pro gratia. quae Christo homini competunt. Ioan. In prima agitur de gratiae origine: et hoc in Evangeliis. quibus homo moderate rebus mundi utitur et inter homines conversatur. In secunda de gratiae virtute: et hoc in epistolis Pauli. cuius est obviare insidiis. sunt virtutes politicae. qui tantum instruunt verbo. Secundo modo sapientiam docendo. Verbo autem simul et facto instruit Ecclesiasticus. ut posteris daretur exemplum patientiae eius. distinguuntur secundum quod verbum dupliciter ad instructionem operatur: uno modo petendo sapientiae donum. Aliud opus eius est non mentiri de quibus novit. et humanam: et de hac principaliter tractant alii Evangelistae. per modum orationis Deo loquens.evenire illi. qui distinguuntur secundum tres dignitates. Unde praecepta sapientiae qui proposuit. quia praecepta sapientiae non nisi de actibus virtutum esse debent. In tertio gradu sunt virtutes purgati animi. invocavi et venit in me spiritus sapientiae . sed magis derivantur ab eis. gratia et veritas per Iesum Christum facta est. vel sapientiae praecepta proponuntur. Libri autem Agiographi et apocryphi. et Deus erat verbum . I. In secundo gradu sunt virtutes purgatoriae. Rom. ut patet per Hieronymum in prologo. In Christo autem est considerare duplicem naturam. Origo autem gratiae Christus est. in laude patrum librum suum terminavit. 11 . VII: optavi et datus est mihi sensus. unde in principio a virtute Evangelii incipit dicens: virtus Dei est in salutem omni credenti . quia lex per Moysen data est. Et ad instructionem operatur Psalterium. et sic dupliciter instruimur: quia vel commendatur nobis sapientia. Sap. et quantum ad hoc sunt cantica. quod ad vitam aeternam ordinat.
§ 12 . et ideo describitur in figura leonis. Vel aliter. unde a templo incipit et a sacerdotio. unde in principio sui Evangelii eum secundum carnem a regibus descendisse ostendit et a magis regibus adoratum. et frequenter circa templum versatur. in quo totius sacrae Scripturae continentiam Apocalypsis concludit. Marcus vero quantum ad victoriam resurrectionis. quousque sponsa in thalamum Iesu Christi ad vitam gloriosam participandam. unde a praedicatione eius Evangelium incipit. ad quam nos perducat ipse Iesus Christus.De ipso enim quantum ad dignitatem regiam determinat Matthaeus. unde dicit Hieronymus: actus apostolorum nudam videntur sonare historiam et nascentis Ecclesiae infantiam texere . et ad hunc ordinatur instructio apostolica in epistolis canonicis. Iohannes vero. Executio autem virtutis gratiae ostenditur in progressu Ecclesiae. ut dicatur quod Matthaeus determinat de Christo principaliter quantum ad mysterium incarnationis. Tertio Ecclesiae terminum. Primo Ecclesiae initium. et ideo describitur in figura bovis. Sed quantum ad dignitatem propheticam determinat de eo Marcus. et de hoc agitur in actibus apostolorum. ut dicit quaedam Glossa Luc. et in templo finit Evangelium. Quantum vero ad sacerdotalem dignitatem determinat de eo Lucas. Amen. II super illud: invenerunt eum in templo sedentem in medio doctorum. quod est animal immolatitium. qui ad alta divinitatis eius volat. benedictus in saecula saeculorum. et ideo in figura hominis describitur. Secundo Ecclesiae profectum. per aquilam designatur. Lucas quantum ad mysterium passionis. in quo est tria considerare.
stands firm in eternity. to delight.Commencement of Brother Thomas Aquinas at his inception at the University of Paris as Biblical Baccalaureate On the Praise and Division of Sacred Scripture translated by Eric J. --- These three are found most completely in the discourse of Sacred Scripture: It teaches ably with its eternal truth -. the learned man who discourses must do so in order to teach. to teach the ignorant. 23.1) According to Augustine. Similarly. and to persuade: specifically. 1199. and the law which is eternal.89-90: Your word. 101]. 118.Ps. Praise of Sacred Scripture THIS IS THE BOOK of the commandments of God. to delight the weary. Kingsepp TABLE OF CONTENTS • The Praise of Sacred Scripture o Its Authority o Its Truth o Its Profitableness • The Division of Sacred Scripture o The Old Testament The Law The Prophets The Writings and Apocrypha o The New Testament The Gospels The Catholic Epistles and Apocalypse I.103: How sweet are your promises to my lips! And it persuades effectively with its authority -. in IV De doctrina christiana [chap. when it says: This is the book of 13 . all who believe it find life. Sacred Scripture is praised for these same three things in the verse above us: First for the authority by which it persuades. (Baruch 4. 12. 118. Lord.29: Are not my words like fire? says the Lord.Ps. PL 34. It delights pleasantly with its profitableness -.Jer. and to persuade the sluggish of will.
Second is the life of justice which consists in works. Second.I Cor.and one will also -. 12.38: Truth remains and prevails for eternity.Lk 10.because of the fulness of his knowledge -. So the verse continues: and the law which is eternal.19: God is not a man. nor as the son of man. to which Holy Writ directs us -.37: He has discovered the whole way of knowledge and Heb. -. which is God.93: Your justifications I will never forget. as I have loved you . Second. 1201.Heb. And it is also a sign of this unity of teaching that it is said in the singular This is the book.20: For I live. now not I. --. First by its origin. since all who hand on sacred doctrine teach the same thing -. to which Holy Writ disposes us -.the commandments of God.The TRUTH of the teachings of Scripture is immutable and eternal. -.Gal 2. but my words shall not pass away .and [quod ad actum et executionem inducunt] -.Mk 16. 23. for the eternal truth by which it teaches.19: Truthful lips will be steadfast forever. --.86: All your commandments are truth. because of the truth of the law -. Prov.28: Do this.12: The word of God is living and effective. 1200.John 14.33: How rich are the depths of God’s wisdom and knowledge! -. 4.Jn 14:1: You believe in God.11: For whether I or they. 23. and III Esdras 4. -. Scripture is shown to be effective by the necessity which it imposes -. for the profitableness by which it delights. that he should lie. because of the power of the lawmaker -Is. 1202. and who can disannul it? Second.II Cor. 11.16: He who does not believe will be condemned. Third. and Num.Matt. And this is necessary because all have had one teacher -. 14. -. For through this life the spirit lives for God -.3: The promise was first announced by the Lord Himself. and so you have believed. for by 14 .Mal. which life is threefold: First is the life of grace.Ps. Scripture is shown to be effective by the unity of its teachings. whence the verse says: Commandments of God. that he should be changed.one spirit -.Is. truly Christ lives in me. because of his immutability -. 15. 3. 118.Lk 21. when it says: and the law which is eternal. so we have preached. -. believe also in me. who teaches you profitable things. which is truth -.Jn 6. when it says: All who believe it find life.Ps 118. and is guaranteed to us by those who heard him. Indeed this author is infallibly to be believed for three reasons: because of the nature of his being.Jn 15:12: This is my commandment: love one another. Now these commandments guide the intellect by faith -.Now the AUTHORITY of Scripture is shown to be effective in three ways.33: heaven and earth shall pass away.Rom.Acts 4. Hence the verse continues: all who believe it find life.8: For one is your teacher.17: I am the Lord your God. and live. Third.18: Have we not walked in the same spirit? -.inform the affections by love -.Now the PROFITABLENESS is the greatest -. more penetrating than any two edged sword.32: the multitude of believers had but one soul and one heart in God.and because of the power of his words -.64: The words I have spoken to you are spirit and life. --. 2.6: For I am God and I do not change.12. Third.4: I am the way. 48. whence the verse says: the Commandments of God. Now this law will remain forever on account of three things: First.Bar 3. the truth and the life .27: the God of hosts has decreed it. -. Hence it is in the manner of a precept that the truth of Holy Writ is proposed.
both of which are mentioned in Matt 13. Third is the life of glory. 33.25: Do you have children? Instruct them. 7.Prov. and assisting by the gift of grace that the lawmaker bestows.Jn 6. Thus the authors of the Holy Writings [agiographi] are said to be authors of sacred scripture 15 . 7. you will have life in his name. grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. namely the authority of compulsion and the authority of admonition. --. who were like the messengers and public announcers of God.32: The Lord is our king. by commanding and by assisting: Commanding by the commandments it puts forth.Now Sacred Scripture brings us to this life in two ways. and believing.13: And Haggai spoke as one of the messengers of God. Now kingly precepts are of two types. Division of Sacred Scripture 1203.69: Lord. which Holy Writ promises and to which it leads -. following Jerome in his Prologue to the books of Kings [PL 28.Jn 1. I have kept for thee. and Jn 20.31: This is written that you should believe. the new and the old. and Cant. Hag.52: Every scribe instructed in the kingdom of heaven is like to a man that is a householder. by one he establishes a law.2: As the roaring of a lion. contained in the Law. which belongs to the Old Testament -.Ecclus 24. who has the job of instructing -.33: Moses commanded a law.Is. my beloved. this latter he is wont to promulgate with his public announcers and messengers. --. The third section is contained in the Holy Writings which. while inspired by the Holy Spirit. for the authority to command is twofold.13: All fruits. 20. nevertheless spoke not on God’s part. namely. who has the power to punish transgressors -. the messenger and the parent.them you have given me life. The authority of admonition carried by the precept of the parent. And it is according to these three is the Old Testament divided into three sections. namely the Old and the New Testament. but as from themselves. to whom shall we go? You have the words of everlasting life. II.Now the OLD TESTAMENT is divided according to the manner of teaching of its commandments. the Lord is our lawgiver. The second section is contained in the Prophets. 1204. 598-600]: The first section.Ecclus. which belongs to the New Testament -. and by the other he fosters observation of the alreadyestablished law. Thus we distinguish three types of precepts: those of the king. so also is the dread of a king. and inducing them to observation of the law. speaking to the people in the person of God. Compulsion belongs to the authority of the king.17: The law was given through Moses. Thus all of Holy Writ is divided into two principle parts. who brings forth out of his treasure things old and new. is like the precept set forth by the king himself -. 1.
according to two types of law.5: I was a mediator between you and the Lord. 16 . which is done in Exodus. or to have written sacred things. which is done in Leviticus. as is clear from the first command given to Adam -.Now the first section.. He must expound on the king’s goodness so as to incline men to obedience. To be sure. A public law is the kind given to the whole people.Now the second section containing the PROPHETS is divided into two parts according to the two tasks a messenger must perform.’ which is exceedingly. public and private. Yet because the manner of speaking in these and in the Writings is visibly the same. 5. Leviticus and Numbers to relate. 17. but only whose authors are in doubt. And this kind of law is contained in Genesis. but rather from their acceptance by the church. 3. 1206. Yet the divine law was given to the Jewish people through a mediator. second for the administration of worship (the sacraments).Gen. 601 ss. Thus we can see two phases in the making of this Law. In the first phase the law comes to the mediator from God. --. and your seed after you in their generations. 6. PL 28. Leviticus and Numbers are distinguished according to the areas in which the people require ordering: first for the determinations of justice (precepts). so called from the Greek ‘ apo. which contains the LAW.’ which is covered. etc. and ‘graphia’ which is writing [scriptura].20: My son. and ‘cryphon. and third in civil administration (offices). 9. from ‘agios’ which is holy [sacrum]. as is clear from Prov. which is done in Numbers.19: The law was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator . and this not because the authors are unknown .Dt. since there are doubts about their sayings or their authors.Gen.] lists as a fourth sections of books the Apocrypha. Now the three books of Exodus. 2. etc. keep the commandments of thy father.and to Abraham -Gen. hence it is frequently read in these books: God spoke to Moses. and so the commands that are contained in them are like parental commands. they are now grouped together with the Writings. is divided into two parts.19: You shall keep my covenant.17: Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat -. A private law is one whose observance is imposed upon one person or family. Hence these books have force not from the authority of their authors. and Gal. which belongs to Deuteronomy.[sacra scriptura].4: Meat with blood you shall not eat -. which belongs to the three books of Exodus.and to Noah -. namely. but because they were not men of recognized authority. Now Jerome [op cit. In the second phase the mediator explains the law to the people. and he must lay out the requirements of the law. 1205. the Catholic Church has accepted into the number of Sacred Scripture not books whose sayings are in doubt. because it was not fitting that the people should receive it directly from God -. --. as is clear from what is read at the beginning -Moses spoke.
evelation of the whole people. In the other books which are more commonly called Prophetic. Now instruction by deed may be done in two ways. accusing them with reproof for their sins.1 says: Valiant in war was Joshua. Now Daniel. and this is in Joshua. 8. the destruction of the enemy.Now there are three aspects of the divine goodness that the prophets explained to the people.since in morality examples have no less force than words. First the acquisition of their inheritance. so he is read at the time of the Passion. still it is Isaiah principally who soothes. and Ezekiel announced the mystery of the Resurrection. even up to the level royal dignity. of an individual. We may speak of this. is divided according to the two ways parents instruct their children in virtue. are put in the order of prophets. according to Jerome.Ez. the prophets set forth divine commands in order to foster observance of the law. Now. as in Jer 38. --. soothing with promise of benefits.he was not sent by God to prophesy to the people. Now some of these books instruct by deed alone. as seen in Ruth. in particular. traced the divinity of Christ. frightening with the threat of punishment. The Prophetic books may also be divided another way: It is said that Isaiah announced mainly the mystery of the Incarnation. namely by word and deed -. 46. So the four prophets would correspond to the four evangelists. The other way to use deeds for instruction is to 17 . and second. 16. For these books. containing the HOLY WRITINGS and APOCRYPHAL BOOKS..27 says: He comforted the mourners in Zion. who were sent to the whole people and exhorted observance of the whole law. which is twofold. namely private. whence he ends his book with the raising of the bones and the rebuilding of the Temple. may be perceived about him. hence Ecclus. Hence what is said in Wis. Second. the elevation of the people. and so on with the others. first.e. as seen in the books of Kings.4: For on purpose he weakens the hands of the men of war . as different minor prophets were sent to different places for the sake of particular people. One way is to teach by cautioning about the future. but Ezekiel accuses and reproaches -. and some by word and deed. Third. God reproached them with this beneficence in Ez.10: Do to them as you did to Midian and Sisera. as Hosea to the ten tribes [of the Northern Kingdom]. and public i. 48. Jeremiah mainly threatens. Although these three are found in each of the prophets. in general.. which is set forth in Joshua.13: You were made exceedingly beautiful. 82. as in the major prophets. Jerome classifies Joshua among the Holy Writings because. hence Ecclus. or even from the call to judgment.g.e. 1207. i. set forth in the book of Judges. Jonah to Nineveh. so in the Church he is used in the time of Advent. Jeremiah announced mainly the mystery of the Passion. while he was a prophet from his having the gift of prophecy. some by words alone. counted among the prophets insofar as he predicted the future with a prophetic spirit (although he did not speak to the people in the person of the Lord). hence Ps.3: Your father was an Amorite and your mother a Hittite. Joel [to the elders of Israel?].8: He knows signs and wonders before they are done .Now the third part of the Old Testament. he was not by office -. the major prophets are divided according to how they led the people to observance of the law: e. 16.
Hence the precepts of wisdom that it puts forth conclude with praise of the fathers. and is divided into three parts. which refutes errors through the mode of debate -.Job 13. according to him. Now on the fourth level are the exemplar virtues which exist in God.Now the NEW TESTAMENT is ordered to eternal life not just by precepts.Wis.for the precepts of wisdom must concern nothing if not virtuous acts: On the first level. and this is exemplified in the book of Esther.7: I desired and prudence was given me. which we find in Thobias -. Iudith PL 29. by which man scorns and puts off the things of the world.. On the third level are the virtues of the purified soul. rather wisdom’s precepts are themselves derived from them. as is done in the book of Job. as an example of chastity -. An example of justice. hence Jerome [Praef. but you are glossing over falsehoods and offering vain remedies. These precepts of wisdom are laid out in the book of Proverbs. that an example might be given to posterity of his patience. by which man. delights solely in the contemplation of wisdom. moreover. as is clear from Jerome in his Prologue [Praef. is described. are the social virtues. is set down in Judith. Now the Holy Writings and apocryphal books that teach by word alone are distinguished by the fact that instruction uses words in two ways. 1061]. One way is by asking for the gift of wisdom -. speaking in the manner of prayer to God. and lives among other men. it is able to expose fallacies. which is ordered towards contempt of the world. from which comes the common good. because you have loved chastity .Tob 2. An example of temperance. 7. --. I prayed and the spirit of wisdom came to me. 1208. by which man uses the things of the world with moderation. There are no precepts of wisdom given concerning these. Second it does not mislead concerning the things it knows. which shows how Mordecai and Esther stamped out the crimes of the powerful Aman. The first part 18 . Ecclesiasticus instructs by both word and deed. which is governed by justice. which we find in the book of the Macchabees. And the Psalter works for instruction. but through the gift of grace.12: Now this trial the Lord therefore permitted to happen to him. his worldly cares stamped out.recount past deeds as examples of virtue. as in the book of Wisdom. where the state of the whole people. The second way is by teaching wisdom. is set down in Paralipomenon. Now the principal virtues are four.Judith 15. These three. and enduring [trials]. On the second level are the purgative virtues. 41]: Take note of the widow Judith. Now here we are instructed in two ways: for either wisdom is recommended to us. in lib. as is seen from chapters 44 to the end.11: You have done manfully. are distinguished according to the three levels of virtue identified by Plotinus -. An example of prudence. Now in the third division of Holy Writings. as in the three books of Solomon. These precepts of wisdom are laid out in Ecclesiastes. For in this book is shown how Esdras and Nehemias and other leaders prudently guarded against the plots of enemies who wished to hinder the building of the Temple and the community. PL 23. Now fortitude two aspects: undertaking [tasks].3-4: I wish to reason with God. which endures unexpected hardships is set down in Esdras. It also belongs to prudence to repel violence through wisdom. and this is done according to the twofold work of wisdom: First. or its precepts are laid out for us. the precepts of wisdom concerning these virtues are laid out in the Canticles.
and thus is represented in the figure of a lion.is missing from the manuscript. to which the apostolic instruction found in the catholic epistles is ordered.on the Power of grace.46: They found him in the Temple. [The second part of the New Testament -. lead us. Finally. The other Gospels treat principally of Christ’s human nature. and adored by kings (the Magi). Matthew treats of Him according to his royal dignity. First. The third part of the New Testament treats of the accomplishment of the power that has been preached. who sours to the height of His divinity. it is said that Matthew treats of Christ principally according to the mystery of the Incarnation. and ends his gospel in the Temple. which is distinguished according to the three dignities which belong to the man Christ. and the Word was God . which has three phases. is represented by an eagle. For the law was given through Moses. and for this reason is represented in the figure of an ox. and the Word was with God. which is treated in the Epistles of Paul -. which is a sacrificial animal. Mark treats of Christ according to his prophetic dignity. Now in Christ there are two natures: His divine nature is treates principally by the Gospel of John.deals with the origin of grace. sitting in the midst of the teachers.16). as a certain gloss says on Lk 2. And Luke treats of Christ according to His priestly dignity. which is covered in the Gospels. and for this reason he is represented in the figure of a man. blessed forever and ever. Luke treats principally of the mystery of the Passion. hence at the beginning Paul starts with the power of the Gospel. hence Jerome says. the beginning of the Church is treated in the Acts of the Apostles. In the beginning was the Word. Now the origin of grace is Christ -. 1. ### Online Translation Copyright © 2002 by Eric J. and frequently occupies himself with the Temple. grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. and this is covered in the Epistles of Paul. The second part deals with the power of grace. saying: It is the power of God unto salvation for everyone that believes (Rom. grace upon grace. Kingsepp URL: 19 . The Acts of the Apostles seems to combine the telling of plain history and the infancy of the nascent Church. so he begins his gospel with Christ’s public preaching.16-17: Of his fullness we have all received. Mark treats principally of the victory of the Resurrection. and this is found in the remaining books of the New Testament. John. Amen. hence at the beginning of his Gospel he shows Him to have descended from kings according to the flesh. in which the Apocalypse concludes the entire contents of Sacred Scripture. hence it begins. Or alternately.Jn 1. Third is the end [terminus] of the Church. as far/long as the Bride into the abode of Jesus Christ to participate in the life of glory. hence he begins with the Temple and priesthood.] Now the accomplishments of the power of grace are manifested in the progress of the Church. and to which may Jesus Christ Himself. Second is the growth of the Church.
html 2/22/07 § 20 .http://www.firstphilosophy.net/bible/HicEstLiber.
b/c of the power of the lawmaker 2. to delight (with profitableness) and to persuade (with authority). commands by compulsion. the life of glory II. through the King’s messengers [Prophets] 21 . b/c of the immutability of the lawmaker 3. its uniformity in saying. since “all who believe it find life”. one spirit c. which comes from: a. in two steps: i. the Law is given to the mediator • to order precepts for determinations of justice [Exodus] • to order sacraments. for administration of worship [Leviticus] • to order offices for civil administration [Numbers] ii. Truth of Scripture. Thomas’s Lecture Hic Est Liber: On the Praise and Division of Scripture I. its origin (from God) 2. Authority of Scripture: 1. in the OLD TESTAMENT 1. A. commands by compulsion. guide the intellect b. the life of grace 2. the Law is explained to the people by the mediator [Deuteronomy] 2. b/c of the truth of the law C. one will B. by commanding. the life of justice 3. Scripture leads us to this threefold life in three ways: by commanding [ OT] and by assisting [NT] A. The Commandments of God: a. Scripture has all these to the highest degree. Discourse to teach (the truth). which is threefold: 1. its necessity. from the King establishing the Law Himself [Pentateuch] a. one teacher b. Profitableness of Scripture. inform the affections c. Public Law: given to the people.Outline of St. lead to accomplishment that which is ordered to action 3. Private Law: imposed on only one person or family [Genesis] b. which is immutable 1.
commands by admonition. i.a. Messengers lay out the commands of the law. Admonitions by Deed alone • cautioning about the future [Joshua] • narrating past deeds of virtue o of justice [Paralipomenon] o of temperance [Judith] o of fortitude [Maccabees] o of prudence [Ezra and Nehemiah] ii. expound on the exaltation of the people: • private [Ruth] • public [(Samuel and) Kings] b. Books whose sayings and authors are not in doubt [Holy Writings] i. Admonitions by Word alone • asking for the gift of Wisdom [the Psalter] • teaching wisdom. from the Parent a. expound on the destruction of the enemy [Judges] iii. Messengers expound on the king’s beneficence to incline men to obedience.) i. 3. (These books are more commonly called ‘Prophetic’. expound on the acquisition of their inheritance [Joshua] ii.or -announcing the mystery of the Incarnation (used in Advent) [Isaiah] • announcing the mystery of the Passion (used in Passiontide) [Jeremiah] • announcing the mystery of the Resurrection [Ezekiel] • announcing the divinity of Christ [Daniel] in particular [the minor prophets] • to the ten tribes [Hosea] • to the elders of Israel? [Joel] • to Nineveh [Jonah] • (others not mentioned) • ii. in general [the major prophets] • soothing with promises of benefits [Isaiah] • frightening with threat of punishment [Jeremiah] • accusing with reproof for sins [Ezekiel] -. according to wisdom’s twofold work: o exposing fallacies [Job] 22 .
Admonitions by Deed and Word [Ecclesiasticus] • by word: Ch. represented by a man [Matthew] d. represented by an ox [Luke] e. His prophetic dignity [Mark] iii. the Power of grace: the Epistles of Paul 3. represented by an eagle [John] 2.firstphilosophy. His priestly dignity [Luke] b.net/bible/HicEstOutline. by Assisting. 44 to the end b. the Practice of the Virtues: the rest of the NT a. the Origins of grace: the Gospels a. His royal dignity [Matthew] ii. virtues of the purified soul [Canticle] 4. represented by a lion [Mark] f. according to His 3 dignities i. concerning the Passion. through the gift of grace. 1-43 • by deed: Ch.or -c.html 2/22/07 23 . the end of the Church [Apocalypse] URL http://www. Christ in his Human Nature. concerning the Incarnation. the growth of the Church [Catholic Epistles] c.not deceiving concerning what one knows commending wisdom to us [Wisdom] laying the precepts of wisdom out for us. according to Plotinus’ 3 levels of virtue: 1. concerning the Resurrection. purgative virtues [Ecclesiastes] 3. Books whose authors are in doubt (as to authority. Christ in his Divine Nature [John] -. the beginning of the Church [Acts] b. in the New Testament 1. not identity) [Deuterocanonical] o B. (the exemplar virtues existing in God) iii. concerning his Divinity. social virtues [Proverbs] 2.
” Deuteronomy (B) Exhortation by the king’s Envoys to follow his Law: the Prophets (I) Prophets that set forth the benefits offered by the king to incline the people to obey the Law (a) The attainment of the bequest (the land) Joshua (b) The destruction of the enemies Judges (c) The exaltation of the people (i) The private exaltation of one person Ruth (ii) The public exaltation of the whole people. pp. Moses: “And God said to Moses. to the people: “And Moses said. “On Scripture in the Summa Theologiae” The Aquinas Review. 1.. 82-86: In his inaugural lecture as Baccalarius Biblicus in Paris (De Commendatione et Partitione Sacrae Scripturae). Moses.Cf. Thomas offers the following outline of Scripture to guide his hearers through the complex labyrinth of texts. The Fourfold Sense of Scripture and Christ... culminating in kingship 1-4 Kings (II) Prophets that propose the Law as a law that must be obeyed (a) To all (in communi) (i) Loving caresses (blandiendo) in the promise of benefits: (1) Announces Incarnation Isaiah 24 . 1 1994. Vol.. III. St. No.” (i) Equity in judgment Exodus (ii) Visible mysterious signs (sacramenta) pertaining to the cult Leviticus (iii) Offices and the administration of the commonwealth Numbers (b) The law is set forth by the mediator. Michael Waldstein. Scripture Leads to Eternal Life (1) By giving commandments (praecipiendo): Old Testament (A) Commandments of the King who can punish: the Law (I) Private law given to an individual or a family Genesis (II) Public law given to the people (a) The law passes from God to his mediator.
since deeds have no less power than words in moral matters [(a) Instruction about the future bearing on caution Joshua] (b) Narrative of the past bearing on the virtues (i) Justice 1-2 Chron (ii) Temperance Judith (iii) Courage (a) In attacking 1-2 Maccabees (b) In enduring suffering Tobit (iv) Prudence (a) In repelling insidious attacks Esdras (b) In repelling violence Esther (II) By words (a) Asking for the gift of wisdom. instruction in wisdom through prayer to God Psalms (b) Teaching wisdom. according to the two tasks of the wise person (i) Exposing liars Job (ii) Saying what is true (a) Wisdom is commended Wisdom (b) The precepts of wisdom are proposed in “the three books of Solomon” 25 .(ii) Terrifying through the threat of punishment: (2) Announces Passion Jeremiah (iii) Persuasion through the castigation of sins (3) Announces Resurrection Ezekiel [(4) Christ’s Divinity Daniel] (b) To particular groups (in particulari) Minor Prophets (C) Commandments of the Father who educates: the Hagiographers and Apocrypha (I) By deeds.
* First degree of virtue: political virtue and the proper use of the world Proverbs * Second degree of virtue: purifying virtues. is to lead to eternal life. the prophets. Both Testaments have a three-step rhythm of increasing fulfillment. who exhort the people to follow the law of love (Joshua to the minor prophets). The Old Testament begins with the law of love promulgated by the King who can threaten punishment (Pentateuch). The high-point of this third part is found in the Song of 26 . And it culminates in God’s fatherly education of his people in the ways of love. summarized in the love of God and neighbor. according to this outline. leading to contempt of the world Ecclesiastes * Third degree of virtue: virtues of the purified soul: delight in wisdom alone Canticle [(III) By words and deeds together (ends in praise of the fathers of the people) Sirach] (2) By helping (adiuvando) through the gift of grace: New Testament (A) The origin of grace (I) Christ’s human nature emphasized (a) Christ’s dignity as King: (a) Mystery of the Incarnation Man Matthew (b) Christ’s dignity as Prophet: (b) Victory of the Resurrection Lion Mark (c) Christ’s dignity as Priest (c) Mystery of the passion Ox Luke (II) Christ’s divine nature emphasized (d) The heights of divinity Eagle John (B) The power of grace Paul (C) The power of grace works itself out (I) In the beginning of the Church Acts (II) In apostolic instruction ordered to the growth of the Church Canonical Letters (III) In the Church’s fulfillment: the bride joins the wedding-banquet of the bridegroom: eternal life Revelation The overall intention of Scripture. The New Testament leads to life by pointing to the gift of grace. The Old Testament leads to life by giving the law. It continues with the king’s emissaries.
The Song of Songs. making use of what the text signifies to signify something further. Scripture speaks not merely as a text (literal sense) but. This principle is clearest in the correspondence between the theological high-points of the two Testaments. the song of love par excellence. who unfolds the power of grace. Thomas. that one can understand why the multiple senses of Scripture (literal and spiritual) are so important to St. the Song of Songs and the wedding feast of the Lamb (Revelation to John 21-22). A single principle shapes both of these structural levels. the central point of biblical theology. It continues with Paul. points ahead to the consummation of all love in the wedding of the Lamb (Revelation to John 21-22). it opens up God’s speech through things themselves. The sense of the text (literal sense) remains the foundation. And it culminates in the texts that show how the power of grace is consummated. It is at this point. inasmuch as the final plans of God’s providence are revealed in it.Songs. namely. the emissary or apostle par excellence. namely. The high-point of this third part is found in the wedding feast of the Lamb (Revelation to John 21-22). but God’s revelation carries further. God’s providence leading along a path to life from promise to fulfillment. The New Testament begins with an account of the origin of grace in the life and suffering of Jesus (Gospels). § 27 .
this doctrine or teaching as a whole is about Christ This doctrine as a whole is about the grace of Christ: Grace as it is in its head. namely.g. principally in the time of Anti-Christ: Second Thessalonians The grace of Christ as it instructs the Prelates of the Church. which is the Church (the epistles sent to the Gentiles): Grace as it is in itself: The Epistle to the Romans Grace as it is in the sacraments of grace: First and Second Corinthians The first treats about the sacraments themselves: First Corinthians The second about the dignity of its ministers: Second Corinthians The superfluous sacraments are excluded against those who wished to join the old sacraments to the new in The Epistle to the Galatians The grace of Christ according to the state or passion of unity. AND DISTINCTION OF THE EPISTLES OF ST. and governing of ecclesiastical unity: First Timothy About its firmness against persecutors: Second Timothy About its defense against heretics: The Epistle to Titus St. Paul instructs temporal lords in The Epistle to Philemon 28 . PAUL (St.Supplement THE MATTER. Christ: The Epistle to the Hebrews Grace as it is in the principal members of the mystical body: the epistles to the Prelates [see below] Grace as it is in the mystical body itself. which it has made in the Church: The institution of ecclesiastical unity: The Epistle to the Ephesians Its confirmation and progress: The Epistle to Philippians Its defense against errors: The Epistle to the Colossians Against present persecutions: First Thessalonians Against future errors. e. Thomas Aquinas) The matter of these epistles is signified by the name of Christ. both spiritual and temporal: About the spiritual: The institution. instruction. ORDER.
B. In 1Corinthians. the sacraments themselves are considered. Edited by Jeremy Holmes with the support of the Aquinas Center for Theological Renewal:1 1 The Structure of the Pauline Corpus According to St. in the letter to the Colossians. III.net/files/Aquinas_on_Romans. Nine letters consider the grace of Christ as it exists in the mystical body itself: A. Third.Cf. the progress and confirmation of the Church’s unity is set forth. In 2 Corinthians. C. Translated by Fabian Larcher. Thomas Aquinas I. Four letters consider the grace of Christ as it exists in the chief members of the Church. First.pdf [4/29/13]) 29 . the unity itself is discussed: a) In Ephesians. namely the prelates: A. (2) In the future (and chiefly at the time of the Anti-Christ) in 2Thessalonians II. and this is how it is treated in the letter to the Romans. Second. and this is how it is considered in the letter to Philemon. in 1&2 Timothy and Titus. that to the Hebrews. All of the letters are about the grace of Christ. the foundation [institutio] of the Church’s unity is considered. First. in itself. in its effect. b) In Philippians. Christ himself. in the spiritual prelates. 2. Second. in the sacraments which communicate it: 1. considers the grace of Christ as it exists in the head of the body. In Galatians. This grace is considered in three ways. Lectures on the Letter to the Romans by Saint Thomas Aquinas . in temporal prelates. 3. Second. First. its defense: a) Against error. 2. § 1 (http://nvjournal. the ministers of the sacraments are discussed. namely the unity of the mystical body. One letter. B. certain sacraments (namely those of the Old Law) are excluded. b) Against persecution: (1) In the present in 1Thessalonians. the Church: 1.
XIII (1912). Acts. vii. 21:13. 6). 38. etc. At times. xxxvi. iv. 24. graphai prophetikai (Romans 16:26). Gal.Supplement The Catholic Encyclopedia. 4. I. he modifies his view. but St.. iv. iii. II Par. I Cor. again. Nehemiah 7:64) written document. i... 18. so the corresponding noun he graphe gradually came to signify what is pre-eminently the writing.. 3. or kathos gegraptai (Romans 1:11. 28. xviii. Peter extends the designation Scripture also to tas loipas graphas (2 Peter 3:16). ii. such as the canticle of Ezechias (Isaiah 38:5).. “Scripture”.. II Tim. but they occur more frequently in the Fourth Gospel and the Epistles than in the synoptic Gospels.. 10. 27. 5). Vol. and Luke. Vaughan’s statement of the case.g. viii. xv. 24. “as it is written”. xii. xxxii. I Pet.. 4. here we have the beginning of the later form of appeal to the authority of the inspired books gegraptai (Matthew 4:4. the plural form of the noun. 35. As the verb graphein was thus employed to denote passages of the sacred writings. ii. viii. Paul (1 Timothy 5:18) seems to refer by the same expression to both Deut. In other passages of the Vulgate the word denotes a private (Tob... 20. 49. 4. He believes that the usage of St. This use of the word may be seen in John. and by writing also”. Ex. ai graphai. para ten graphen.). 6. 17. e. is used in the same sense in Matt. In a similar sense are employed the expressions graphai hagiai (Romans 1:2). iv. 6. xxiv. 8. 8. the contents of Scripture are indicated more accurately as comprising the Law and the Prophets (Romans 3:21. 30. Mark. John.. Luke. xxi. 2:24.. 3. 29. The New Testament uses the expressions in this sense about fifty times. x.. In the language of Christ and the Apostles the expression “scripture” or “scriptures” denotes the sacred books of the Jews. Acts. appealing to Dr. or the Law of Moses. viii.v. 15. USE OF THE WORD The corresponding Latin word scriptura occurs in some passages of the Vulgate in the general sense of “writing”. 32. iii. a catalogue or index (Ps. ai graphai ton propheton (Matthew 26:56). xiv. 42. 17. Lightfoot (Galatians 3:22) expresses the opinion that the singular graphe in the New Testament always means a particular passage of Scripture. or the inspired writing. 39. xxv. Acts 28:23). xliv. iii. 45. 30 .. “and have you not read this scripture” (Mark 12:10). lxxxvi. 2. ix. 16. the Prophets. John may admit a doubt. personally. 24) or public (Ezra 2:62. 16: “the writing also of God was graven in the tables”. xxvi. “it is written”. xxii. refers to prescriptions of the Law by the formula “as it is written”. But in Rom. s. The writer of II Par. and the Psalms (Luke 24:44). and II Esdr. “according to Scripture”. and the sayings of the wise men (Ecclus.). or finally portions of Scripture.. 5. Rom. denoting the Pauline Epistles. 54. though he does not think so. II Pet. which is rendered by the Septuagint translators kata ten graphen. The Apostle St. Scripture Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament. James. etc.. 22: “who [Cyrus] commanded it to be proclaimed through all his kingdom. 3. The word has a somewhat modified sense in Christ’s question. v. St. 7. The same expression is found in I Esdr. x. xvii.. xxx. It is disputed whether the word graphe in the singular is ever used of the Old Testament as a whole.
58-61. 469... According to Christian Living This concept of Scripture is fully upheld by the Christian teaching. he iera biblos (2 Maccabees 8:23).). they at least show the existence of a number of written documents the authority of which was generally accepted as supreme. 112 sqq. “Hebr. 98 sqq... pp. The nature of this authority may be inferred from a number of other passages. 1885. According to I Mach. iii. that at the time of Nehemias there existed a collection of books containing historical. pp. at least in some degree. I. According to the Jews Whether the terms graphe. Zahn refers the term to writings of a religious character which could claim respect in Christian circles either on account of their authors or on account of their use in public worship (Einleitung. pp. and their synonymous expressions to biblion (Nehemiah 8:8). Dict. 25. Deissmann. xxiii. the book here mentioned contained the injunctions concerning the Feast of Tabernacles found in Lev. xxii.. Antiochus commanded the Books of the Law of the Lord to be burned and their retainers to be slain. tas loipas. 13. “Der zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas”. Pet. 2).. IV Kings. tr. we find that Flavius Josephus attributes to the twenty-two protocanonical books of the Old Testament Divine authority. 1. The Hellenist Philo too is acquainted with the three parts of the sacred Jewish books to which he ascribes an irrefragable authority. xxx.. graphai. and is therefore identical with the pre-Exilic Sacred Books. Chase in his conviction (cf. Deut.. pp. Paul he graphe is capable of being understood as approximating to the collective sense (cf. i. ta iera grammata (2 Timothy 3:15) refer to particular writings or to a collection of books. That this was also the case after the Captivity. 18-19. pp. Eng. and Reform. viii.Paul’s practice is absolute and uniform. vi-viii). ta biblia ta hagia (1 Maccabees 12:9). prophetical. Spitta contends that the term graphai is used in a general non-technical meaning. i. xxiii. Here arises the question whether the expression of St. Coming down to the time of Christ.H. 57-59.. 472 sqq. maintaining that they had been written under Divine inspiration and that they contain God’s teachings (Contra Apion. we may infer that this characteristic was ascribed to all.. Mosis”. 1-9. pp. 1899. We learn from II Mach. 9-13. Hort says (1 Peter 2:6) that in St.. and since the portions were considered as certainly of Divine authority. III. because they contain God’s oracles expressed through the instrumentality of the sacred writers (“De vit. that towards the end of the Jewish kingdom the Book of the Law of the Lord was held in the highest honour as containing the precepts of the Lord Himself. and psalmodic writings. 108). ii.”. It is clear from IV Kings. “Pres. p. xxxi. 564)... xvii. p. But Mr. “Bibelstudien”. p. “De monarchia”. Paul’s Epistles. II. Review”. kephalis bibliou (Psalm 39:8). 294). xvii.. x. 810b). 10.. xxix. and the verb streblousin in the context confirm Mr. 14. may be inferred from II Esdr. Peter (II.. 8..14. ta biblia (Dan. Chase adheres to the principle that the phrase ai graphai used absolutely points to a definite and recognized collection of writings. ii. Mr. Moses wrote the Book of the Law (of the Lord). 16) tas loipas graphas refers to a collection of St.. NATURE OF SCRIPTURE A. Jesus Christ Himself appeals to the authority of Scripture. John and St. 3. Warfield. X. I Kings. According to Deut. 34 sq. since the collection is represented as uniform. 1-3. 108 sqq. kai. 20. 18. 13 sq. July. ix. 1. 658 sq. xvi. xxxi.e. Paul’s associates (Spitta. of the Bible. F. 13.. Scriptures. 474 sqq. Westcott. and delivered it to the priests that they might keep it and read it to the people. Deut. xxvii. The accompanying words. xxviii. “Search the 31 . 26.. see also Ex. III Kings. B. denoting only writings of St.
scriptures” (John 5:39). as the word of a writer inspired by the Holy Ghost (Matthew 22:43). Since the fourth century the teaching of the Church concerning the nature of the Bible is practically summed up in the dogmatic formula that God is the author of Sacred Scripture. he considers it as proven by Christ’s dwelling in the flesh that the Law and the Prophets were written by a heavenly charisma. He declares that “all things must needs be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses. St. Finally. 4:25).. St.. or one tittle shall not pass of the law. and in the prophets. to reprove. and that the writings believed to be the words of God are not men’s work (De princ.). The same formula was repeated in the fifteenth century by Eugenius IV in his Decree for the Jacobites. and in the psalms. they appealed to Scripture as to an irresistible authority (Rom. Clement IV exacted its acceptance from Michael Palaeologus. and the emperor actually accepted it in his letter to the Second Council of Lyons (1272). According to the first chapter of the Council of Carthage (A. 2) considers the Scriptures as uttered by the Word of God and His Spirit. Hebrews 1:5.. St. as the word of God (Matthew 19:4-5. vi).. to instruct in justice” (2 Timothy 3:16). x). Clement of Alexandria receives the voice of God who has given the Scriptures. 7:3 sqq..D. Innocent III imposed this formula on the Waldensians. Hebrews 12:26-27). V. that the earliest Christian writers speak in the same strain of the Scriptures. but comprises a number of books written at different times and by different writers working under the 32 . and they derived most important conclusions even from a few words or certain grammatical forms of Scripture (Galatians 3:16. they supposed that parts of Scripture have a typical sense such as only God can employ (John 19:36. iv. He presents the word of Scripture as the word of the eternal Father (John 5:33-41). IV. we may add the official doctrine of the Church on the nature of Sacred Scripture. According to Ecclesiastical Documents Not to multiply patristic testimony for the Divine authority of Scripture. Irenaeus (Adv. Clement of Rome (I Cor. then. It is not surprising. ii). inspired of God“ as “profitable to teach. and the Canticle of Canticles. xxxviii. III. Origen testifies that it is granted by both Jews and Christians that the Bible was written under (the influence of) the Holy Ghost (Contra Cels. passim). concerning me (Luke 24:44). in the sixteenth century by the Council of Trent (Sess. Acts 1:15-16. the Book of Job. and this profession of faith is exacted of them even today. they regarded “all scripture.). again. till all be fulfilled” (Matthew 5:18). haer. C. Script. and in the nineteenth century by the Vatican Council. He regards it as a principle that “the Scripture cannot be broken” (John 10:35). decr. The fifth ecumenical council condemned Theodore of Mopsuestia for his opposition against the Divine authority of the books of Solomon. de can. COLLECTION OF SACRED BOOKS What has been said implies that Scripture does not refer to any single book. xlv) tells his readers to search the Scriptures for the truthful expressions of the Holy Ghost.. 398). II. has been set forth in the article INSPIRATION. In the thirteenth century. and how it is to be explained. What is implied in this Divine authorship of Sacred Scripture. 22:31). The Apostles knew that “prophecy came not by the will of man at any time: but the holy men of God spoke. He maintains that “one jot. bishops before being consecrated must express their belief in this formula. to correct. They considered the words of Scripture as the words of God speaking in the inspired writer or by the mouth of the inspired writer (Hebrews 4:7. as a reliable proof (Strom. inspired by the Holy Ghost” (2 Peter 1:21).
Certain writings of the Roman pontiff may be infallible. It is true that miracles and prophecy may. e. but they are not inspired. Luke. known only to God and probably to the inspired writer. no one can deny the need of such testimony in order that we may distinguish with certainty between an inspired and a noninspired book. the genealogical tables. of the “Imitation of Christ”. God is not their author. but it has become Divine. The same must be said of the psychological criterium. it must be clear that the miracles were performed. 33 . the testimony for inspiration is no longer merely human. Hence the question. e. in the third place. if this condition be verified. at times. Various methods have been suggested for ascertaining the fact of inspiration. Such emotions are subjective. confirm such human testimony as to the inspiration of a work. Hence human testimony concerning inspiration is based.. No one will doubt the sufficiency of Divine testimony to establish the fact of inspiration. while it favours the inspiration of several post-Apostolic works. not all inspired writers have been prophets or workers of miracles. in the first place. but infallibility in writing does not imply inspiration. divine to Calvin. on the testimony of one person who is. how could such a collection be made. and the summary accounts of the kings of Juda. and of the “Epistles” of St. Mark and St. in order that prophecies or miracles may serve as proof of inspiration. at best. It fails to establish that certain portions of Scripture are inspired writings. But on closer investigation they prove inadequate. in the second place.inspiration of the Holy Ghost. or the effect which the perusal of Scripture produces in the heart of the reader.. and in their writing as far as it formed part of their teaching. Besides. These internal criteria are inadequate even if they be taken collectively. Other students of this subject have endeavored to establish Apostolic authorship as a criterium of inspiration. Wrong keys are unable to open a lock whether they be used singly or collectively.g. But this answer does not give us a criterium for the inspiration of the Old Testament books. to establish the fact in question. nor does it touch the inspiration of the Gospels of St. James appeared strawlike to Luther. It has been claimed that so-called internal criteria are sufficient to lead us to the knowledge of this fact. on the other hand. an interested party in the matter concerning which he testifies. naturally speaking. The so-called ethico-aesthetic criterium is inadequate. neither of whom was an Apostle. Miracles and prophecies require a Divine intervention in order that they may happen. The history of the false prophets of former times as well as of our own day teaches us the futility of such testimony. and the prophecies were uttered. For inspiration is a supernatural fact. the Apostles were endowed with the gift of infallibility in their teaching. Question of Right The main difficulty as to the first question ( quoestio juris) arises from the fact that a book must be Divinely inspired in order to lay claim to the dignity of being regarded as Scripture. and how was it made in point of fact? A.g. hence a work relating miracles or prophecies is not necessarily inspired. The Epistle of St. But. not in order that they may be recorded. Ignatius Martyr. Nor can the criterium of inspiration be placed in the testimony of history. and vary in different readers.
4. so as to “read it all the days of his life”. But these arguments for the canonicity of the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament. xxxvi. DIVISION OF SCRIPTURE A. 9. xlix. 16.. though Tertullian himself frequently employs 34 . v. the infallible bearer of tradition. According to Is. Paul with the “other scriptures”. xxix. of the Pauline Epistles. or simply the Old or the New Testament. and Jer. ii. xxxi. the Minor Prophets had been collected into one work (Ecclus. xxv. lead us to suppose that in the days of King Ezechias there either existed or originated a collection of the Psalms of David and of Asaph. how and when the several books of the Old and the New Testament were received as sacred by the religious community. as “the books of the prophets”. according to Deut.. Again. the prophets Isaias and Jeremias collected their respective prophetic utterances. during the course of the second century B. 26) added his portion to the law-book of Israel.. Christ and the Apostles endorsed this faith of the Jews. seems to quote Luke.. Deut. 13. 42.. and to place it on a level with Deut. Such a larger collection is certainly implied in the words II Mach. at least with regard to the earlier books.. Old and New Testaments As the two dispensations of grace separated from each other by the advent of Jesus are called the Old and the New Testament (Matthew 26:28. ranks all the Epistles of St. so that we have Divine authority for their Scriptural character. so were the inspired writings belonging to either economy of grace from the earliest times called books of the Old or of the New Testament. 15-16. xxv. From Prov. In the second century B. The words of II Par.. xii..C. and the prologue of Ecclesiasticus. 9.. ix. Josue (xxiv.. vii. This name of the two great divisions of the inspired writings has been practically common among Latin Christians from the time of Tertullian. xvii. 7. and I Tim. It is generally granted that the Jews in the time of Jesus Christ acknowledged as canonical or included in their collection of sacred writings all the so-called protocanonical books of the Old Testament..C. and this may be regarded as the second step in the collection of the Old Testament writings. Only the Church. IV. 4.. which may have been added to the collection of psalms.. and I Mach. one may infer that about the same time there was made a collection of the Solomonic writings. suggest that even these smaller collections had been gathered into a larger body of sacred books. II Pet. 12) which is cited in Acts. x.. 30. See CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. Since these two passages mention the main divisions of the OldTestament canon. Question of Fact It is a rather difficult problem to state with certainty. informs us that Moses delivered the Book of the Law to the Levites and the ancients of Israel to be deposited “in the side of the ark of the covenant”. As there are solid reasons for maintaining that some of the New-Testament writers made use of the Septuagint version which contained the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament. can furnish us invincible certainty as to the number of the Divinely inspired books of both the Old and the New Testament. 18. the king had to procure for himself a copy of at least a part of the book. these latter too are in so far attested as part of Sacred Scripture. 2. 18. The expressions found in Dan. and of the Gospel of St. 1. Luke do not exclude all reasonable doubt. iii. 24 sqq. xxxiv. 2 Corinthians 3:14). this latter must have been completed.B.
iv. or instrument.. Samuel. adding the five books of the first division to the eight of the second. and the eleven of the third. xxxix) and St. and has been kept by the later Jews. Daniel. iii. Clem. and the Minor Prophets. “De praescr.”. but only a difference of time at which the books were recognized by the whole Church as Divinely inspired. IV. Esdras. Ecclesiastes. haer. and thus reduces the number of the books in the Canon to twenty-two. ix. 53-viii. Wisdom. called the Twelve. Sixtus Senensis. Irenaeus employed another metaphor. In this metaphorical sense some of the early Fathers urged the canon of truth. Mark. Cassiodorus uses the title “Sacred Pandects”. Augustine (Contra Crescent. Job). II.”. or still better into 35 . of Alex. 11. James. and counted as one book).”. O. Evangelia et Apostoli. etc. therefore.”. Jeremias. Ignatius. Isidore of Pelusium applies the name to all the inspired writings (Epist. Ecclesiasticus. xvi. 42. “Strom.Testament books and portions: Hebrews. II. Machabees. xi). II. and Lamentations with Jeremias. are those books concerning the inspiration of which some Churches doubted more or less seriously for a time. the canon of tradition. vii. in a metaphorical sense it signified the form of perfection that had to be attained in the various arts or trades. or sacred digest of law. It has been found more convenient to divide both the Old Testament and the New into four. after the question had been thoroughly investigated. haer. Baruch. xxii. Protestant writers often call the deuterocanonical Books of the Old Testament the Apocrypha. John. About the time of St. “Adv. Paralipomenon). of Alex. iii. the entire Canon of the Jewish Scriptures embraces twenty-four books. thirdly. The third division embraces three kinds of books: first poetical books (Psalms.). Lamentations. v.. VII. St.. the Prophets. Orig.xvi.. etc. C. ad Diogn. 14). St. Proverbs. and the latter Prophets (Isaias. Tripartite Division of Testaments The prologue of Ecclesiasticus shows that the Old-Testament books were divided into three parts. and the Writings (the Hagiographa). “De princip. St. distinguished between protocanonical and deuterocanonical books. among later writers it is used practically in the sense of catalogue of inspired books. 1-xiv. 43-44. II Peter. Tert. “Epist. Clem. calling the Fourth Gospel the canon of truth (Adv. Clem. and Kings). III John.P. Ezechiel. 9-20. 44. Jude. III. “Ad Philad. the five Megilloth or Rolls (Canticle of Canticles.). xiii. the Law. Luke. Evangelica et Apostolica) began in the writings of the Apostolic Fathers (St. In the sixteenth century.”.”. xxiv. The Law or the Torah comprises only the Pentateuch. the three remaining books (Daniel. Judges..). The same division is mentioned in Luke. Judith. but which were accepted by the whole Church as really inspired. As to the Old Testament. the same must be said of the following New. Jerome (Prolog. xi) and was commonly adopted about the end of the second century (St. I. 24.the name “Instrumentum” or legally authentic document. 4..”.. The second part contains two sections: the former Prophets (Josue.. 24-90. “I Cor. xxxiv. xiii. the canon of the Church against the erroneous tenets of the early heretics (St. Iren. B. employed in various trades. and alos Esther. gal... Protocanonical and Deuterocanonical The word “canon” denoted at first the material rule. Hence. but the more recent Fathers did not adhere to it. the Books of Tobias. vii. secondly. the canon of faith. Another arrangement connects Ruth with the Book of Judges. iii. the word “canon” began to denote the collection of Sacred Scriptures. The division of the New-Testament books into the Gospel and the Apostle (Evangelium et Apostolus. Apocalypse. x. Esther). Deuterocanonical. This distinction does not indicate a difference of authority. Ruth. I.. are in this sense deuterocanonical. “Strom.
Hence results the series: Romans. being arranged in the order of time at which the writers are supposed to have lived. II. Jude) which seems to be based on Gal. The Talmud speaks of more minute divisions.three parts. Acts 13:15. first the four Major and then the twelve Minor Prophets. The third place is assigned to the Prophets. while the tripartite division adds the legal books (the Pentateuch and the Gospels) to the historical. partly in a chronological order. I. I. The four parts distinguish between legal. In the Old Testament. these Sunday lessons were no longer taken in order. Titus. These historical books are arranged according to the order of time of which they treat.called western order: I. The Apocalypse occupies in the New Testament the place corresponding to that of the Prophets in the Old Testament.. Ephesians. but soon added to. i. occupy the last place because they relate personal history. Hence the Pentateuch has been divided into fifty-four “parashas” according to the number of sabbaths in the intercalary lunar year. but the sections were chosen as they fitted in with the ecclesiastical feasts and seasons. ii. Galatians. D. Thessalonians.”. Jude. which almost resemble our verses. I. we have first all the historical books. our Vulgate edition follows the oriental order (James.. Colossians. Just. Judith. “I Apol. Liturgical Division The needs of liturgy occasioned a division of the inspired books into smaller parts. Tert. Philemon. 27). and prophetic books. excepting the two books of the Machabees which were supposed to have been written last of all. Arrangement of Books The catalogue of the Council of Trent arranges the inspired books partly in a topological. I. historical. from the end of the fifth century. Besides. John. etc. according to their respective chronological order. and retains the other two classes. III. the Epistle to the Hebrews occupies the last place on account of its late reception into the canon. the Gospels and the Book of Acts. II Corinthians.”. At the time of the Apostles it was a received custom to read in the synagogue service of the sabbath-day a portion of the Pentateuch (Acts 15:21) and a part of the Prophets (Luke 4:16. III John. pesukim. lxvii.. and Esther. the Gospels follow the order of their reputed composition. “De praescr.e. To each parasha corresponds a division of the prophetic writings. the books of Tobias. didactic or doctrinal. II. The Council follows a similar method in the arrangement of the New Testament books. Divisions to facilitate reference 36 . The second place is occupied by the didactic books. James. E. the didactic and the prophetic books. i. II. 9. or replaced. I. The Church transferred to the Christian Sunday the Jewish custom of reading part of the Scriptures in the assemblies of the faithful. the Pauline Epistles preceding the Catholic.e. The body of didactic works occupies the second place in the Canon. however. this custom did not occasion any generally received division in the books of the New Testament. In its disposition of the Catholic Epistles the Council follows the so. II Peter. The former are enumerated according to the order of dignity of the addresses and according to the importance of the matter treated. II Timothy. called haphtara. F.. the Jewish lessons by parts of the New Testament (St. The first place is given to the historical books. Since the particular churches differed in the selection of the Sunday readings.). Philippians. xxxvi..
divided all the books of Scripture uniformly into chapters. so that in the fifth or sixth the Gospels were divided into 318 parts (tituli). But all these various partitions were too imperfect and too uneven for practical use. V. probably imitating R. Card. Cardinal Hugh of St. and the power to continue its promulgation. and that its deposit was entrusted to the Apostles to guard and to promulgate. ii). I. As the chapters were too long for ready reference. lit. and published his complete division into chapters and verses first in the Vulgate text (1548). In conformity woth this principle. even to the consummation of the world. coming from no known authority. Jerome (De script. It is antecedently probable that God should not cast his written Word upon men as a mere windfall. its contents are Divinely guaranteed truths. 72 capitula). he both approved of it and ordered it to be read in the churches”. Mark: “When Peter had heard it. Cher divided them into smaller sections which he indicated by the capital letters A. div. a division which found its way almost immediately into the codices of the Vulgate version and even into some codices of the original texts. or any abuse of its meaning. We may infer all this from the character of the inspired writings and the nature of the Apostolate. but that he should entrust its publication to the care of those whom he was sending to preach the Gospel to all nations.For the convenience of readers and students the text had to be divided more uniformly than we have hitherto seen. SCRIPTURE Since Scripture is the written word of God. Cassiodorus relates that the Old Testament text was divided into various parts (De inst. (2) The transmission of the inspired writings consists in the delivery of Scripture by the Apostles to their successors with the right. Eusebius. the Epistles into 254 (capitula). God must have revealed which are the books that constitute Sacred Scripture. This position of Sacred Scripture in the Church implies the following consequences: (1) The Apostles promulgated both the Old and New Testament as a document received from God. who died 1228. etc. and to the Church belongs its lawful administration. About this time. especially when in the thirteenth century concordances (see CONCORDANCES) began to be constructed. and others carried on this work of division in the following centuries. and later on also in the Greek original of the New Testament (1551). to oppose and condemn any attack upon its doctrine. divided the Gospel text into 1162 kephalaia in order to facilitate a Gospel harmony. and passed into all the printed editions after the invention of printing. and the Apocalypse into 96 (24 sermones. the duty. to explain its meaning. Stephen Langton. theologians teach that Christian Revelation was complete in the Apostles. The Fathers testify to the promulgation of Scripture by the Apostles where they treat of the transmission of the inspired writings. Scripture. and with whom he had promised to be for all days. revealed either in the strict or the wider sense of the word. since the inspiration of a writing cannot be known without Divine testimony. Moreover. is an Apostolic deposit entrusted to the Church. Such divisions are traced back to Tatian..) says of the Gospel of St. Archbishop of Canterbury. to preserve its integrity and identity. to use it in proving and illustrating Catholic teaching. but also the knowledge as to its constituent books. in the third. in the second century. eccl. Again. B. St. but it is also attested by some of the 37 . Robert Stephens. Hence the apostolic deposit of Revelation contained no merely Sacred Scripture in the abstract. Euthalius. then. Ammonius. Nathan (1437) divided the chapters into verses.
Irenaeus insists upon these points against the Gnostics. 26)... though it remains only a means or instrument in the hands of the teaching body of the Church. “This question should be first proposed. 46-47). He protests against the admission of heretics “to any discussion whatever touching the Scriptures”.weightiest writers of the early Church. 38 . fundam. the internal authenticity of which the Church has approved either by its universal and constant use. secondly.. 6). n. St. though Scripture itself is the common property of the members of the whole Church. III.. on account of the official succession in the Apostolate of their successors. XXIX. 3-4). `To whom belongs the faith itself: whose are the Scriptures’?. the preservation of its integrity and identity. nn. epist.). . That the African Church agrees with the Alexandrian. Origen (De princ.For the true Scriptures and the true expositions and all the true Christian traditions will be wherever both the true Christian rule and faith shall be shown to be”. “is to be believed to be the truth which in nothing differs from the ecclesiastical and and Apostolical tradition”. Scripture is a public document. the Divine authority of which is evident to all the members of the Church. if Scripture cannot be regarded as a private historical document on account of the official mission of the Apostles. “That alone”. 24). that “in the houses is the word of truth”. It seems plain that. enjoys the character of external or public authenticity. but to its teaching body. by combining the Apostolic succession and the supernatural guarantee of the Holy Ghost (Haer. or by a formal declaration. he rejects the contention urged by the heretics “as often as they bring forward canonical Scriptures in which every Christian agrees and believes”. is clear from the words of Tertullian (De praescript. (5) The authentic text. “for from it (the Church) alone the sound hath gone forth into all the earth.. Any form or version of the text. but must be admitted as certain on account of the infallibility of the Church. He excludes this Gnostic view. which alone has the right of authoritatively interpreting Scripture. (3) By virtue of its official and permanent promulgation. i.e. While the private handling of Scripture is opposed to the fact that it is common property. which is internally authentic. Augustine endorses the same position when he says: “I should not believe the Gospel except on the authority of the Catholic Church” (Con. its administrators are bound to communicate its contents to all the members of the Church. the promulgation of Scripture. thirdly. tr. legitimately promulgated. The same principles are advocated by the great Alexandrian doctor. who appealed to Scripture as to private historical documents.. IV. St. or substantially identical with the original. In another passage (in Matth.. by showing that the preaching of the Apostles continued by their successors contains a supernatural guarantee of infallibility through the indwelling of the Holy Ghost (Haer. (4) The Church necessarily possesses a text of Scripture. and their words unto the ends of the world”. Praef. is a source and rule of faith. first by insisting on the mission of the Apostles and upon the succession in the Apostolate. 19). which is now the only one to be discussed. and the explanation of its meaning must belong to the Apostles and their legitimate successors. on account of the assistance of the Holy Ghost promised to the Apostles and their successors. n. 15. III. he says. its conformity with the original must not merely be presumed juridically. . especially as seen in the Church of Rome (Haer. (6) The administration and custody of Scripture is not entrusted directly to the whole Church. Manichaei.
III. The pontiff feared that the reading of the Bible in the vernacular would lead to irreverence and wrong interpretation of the inspired text (St. “Epist.. In 1199 the pope replied that in general the desire to read the Scriptures was praiseworthy. (8) The rights of the teaching body of the Church include also that of issuing and enforcing decrees for promoting the right use. The Bishop of Metz had written to Innocent III that there existed in his diocese a perfect frenzy for the Bible in the vernacular. the Goths. Scheeben. IV. V. “Concilgesch”. 501 sqq.. and this last enactment was repeated in a more stringent form by the Vatican Council (sess. 1080. Hamburg. but that the practice was dangerous for the simple and unlearned (“Epist. and a decree concerning the interpretation of Scripture (see EXEGESIS. 1842. those outside her pale may use it as a means of discovering or entering the Church. Not to mention the definition of the Canon (see CANON). or preventing the abuse of Scripture. London. ne libros Veteris et Novi Testamenti laicis permittatur habere” (Hefele. with vernacular versions of the Scriptures. the Synod of Toulouse directed in 1229 its fourteenth canon against the misuse of Sacred Scripture on the part of the Cathari: “prohibemus. cxli. The faithful were rather encouraged to read the Sacred Books according to their spiritual needs (cf. 1890. The various decisions of the Biblical Commission derive their binding force from this same right of the teaching body of the Church.”. 126 sqq. the Italians. St. Princ. (Cf. Freiburg. but both these laws are intended only for 39 . the Council of Trent issued two decrees concerning the Vulgate (see VULGATE).. “Manual of Catholic Theology”. But Tertullian shows that they have no right to apply Scripture to their own purposes or to turn it against the Church. II. we may divide its history into three large periods: (1) During the course of the first millennium of her existence. After the death of Innocent III. 875). ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH TOWARDS THE READING OF THE BIBLE IN THE VERNACULAR The attitude of the Church as to the reading of the Bible in the vernacular may be inferred from the Church’s practice and legislation.(7) Though Scripture is the property of the Church alone. Wilhelm and Scannell. Gregory VII wrote to the Duke of Bohemia that he could not allow the publication of the Scriptures in the language of the country. Stapleton. as soon as possible. and the partial renderings into English.. As to the legislation of the Church on this subject. 61 sqq. X-XI. Demonstr. the versions existing among the Armenians. Hurter. xi). I. It has been the practice of the Church to provide newly-converted nations. haer. iv). In 1233 the Synod of Tarragona issued a similar prohibition in its second canon. Fid. vii.). before arguing with them on single points of Scriptural doctrine. des. hence the early Latin and oriental translations. (2) The next five hundred years show only local regulations concerning the use of the Bible in the vernacular. 1873. “Adv. Papstes Innocent III”. III.”. 1863.). I. Conc. HERMENEUTICS). Freiburg. “Gesch. “Handbuch der katholischen Dogmatik”. Irenaeus. the Church did not promulgate any law concerning the reading of Scripture in the vernacular. the French. He also teaches Catholics how to contest the right of heretics to appeal to Scripture at all (by a kind of demurrer). The second document belongs to the time of the Waldensian and Albigensian heresies. The letter was written chiefly to refuse the petition of the Bohemians for permission to conduct Divine service in the Slavic language. IV). On 2 January. Trid. the Slavonians. Gregory VII. VI. sess.
who in addition to their crimes of violence and anarchy had introduced virulent interpolations into the vernacular sacred text. according to the judgment of the bishop. 1836. CODEX ALEXANDRINUS (etc. on 3 Sept.. The history of our English Version is treated in the article VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE. nn. Benedict XIV required that the vernacular version read by laymen should be either approved by the Holy See or provided with notes taken from the writings of the Fathers or of learned and pious authors.. the Index of Prohibited Books. cit. Additional information on the foregoing questions is contained in the articles INTRODUCTION. and Clement VIII added this restriction to the fourth rule of the Index. 1564.. the interpretation of Scripture is dealt with in the articles HERMENEUTICS.. The fourth rule places in the hands of the bishop or the inquisitor the power of allowing the reading of the New Testament in the vernacular to laymen who according to the judgment of their confessor or their pastor can profit by this practice. 1794. On 24 March. by way of appendix. owing to the disorders of the Lollards. Publication information 40 . 1844. she has forbidden it only when it was almost certain to cause serious spiritual harm. “Dominici gregis”.”. But the Decree issued by the Sacred Congregation of the Index on 7 Jan.. by the Bull “Unigenitus” issued by Clement XI on 8 Sept. Denzinger.). EXEGESIS. TESTAMENT. 1713 (cf. The same regulation was repeated by Gregory XVI in his Encyclical of 8 May. or provided with notes taken from the writings of the Fathers or of learned Catholic authors. VI. ibid. CRITICISM (TEXTUAL). The Third Synod of Oxford. EDITIONS OF THE BIBLE. by the Bull “Auctorem fidei” issued on 28 Aug. addressed to the Bishop of Mohileff by Pius VII. the condemnation of the same teaching maintained in the Synod of Pistoia. COMMENTARIES ON THE BIBLE. the Church has always allowed the reading of the Bible in the vernacular. if they be either approved by the Holy See. (3) It is only in the beginning of the last five hundred years that we meet with a general law of the Church concerning the reading of the Bible in the vernacular.the countries subject to the jurisdiction of the respective synods (Hefele. THE NEW. TESTAMENT. seems to render it clear that henceforth the laity may read vernacular versions of the Scriptures. by Pius VI. if it was desirable for the spiritual needs of her children.. in 1408. VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE. the Old Testament may be read in the vernacular by pious and learned men. OTHER SCRIPTURAL QUESTIONS The history of the preservation and the propagation of the Scripture-text is told in the articles MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE. “Enchir. op. In general. THE OLD. the warning against allowing the laity indiscriminately to read the Scriptures in the vernacular. Pius IV promulgated in his Constitution. This doubt was not removed by the next three documents: the condemnation of certain errors of the Jansenist Quesnel as to the necessity of reading the Bible. 1816. 817). as a help to the better understanding of the Vulgate. 1294-1300). According to the third rule. Sixtus V reserved this power to himself or the Sacred Congregation of the Index. and CRITICISM (BIBLICAL). VII. It then became an open question whether this order of Benedict XIV was intended to supersede the former legislation or to further restrict it. issued a law in virtue of which only the versions approved by the local ordinary or the provincial council were allowed to be read by the laity (Hefele. 918).
J. D. for instance. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Offered to Almighty God for Timothy and Kris Gray. 1904). CONCORDANCES OF THE BIBLE. Most of the questions connected with Scripture are treated in special articles throughout the course of the ENCYCLOPEDIA. 194-201. Maas. TESTAMENT. Censor. February 1. 1912. INSPIRATION OF THE BIBLE. Transcribed by Robert B. All rights reserved. Each of these articles has an abundant literary guide to its own special aspect of the Scriptures. xxxi (August. Published 1912. Archbishop of New York Bibliography A list of Catholic literature on Scriptural subjects has been published in the American Ecclesiastical Review. JEROME.. etc. Imprimatur. § (c) 2013 Bart A. CANON OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. Nihil Obstat. in addition to those mentioned above. Volume XIII. Olson. this list is fairly complete up to the date of its publication. and for a holy love and understanding of Sacred Scripture for all members of Our Blessed Lord’s Church. Mazzetti. +John Cardinal Farley. The Catholic Encyclopedia. See also the works cited throughout the course of this article.D. 41 . Remy Lafort.Written by A.
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