Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Aspects of Spatial Scaling

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

• We need to relate measurements at different scales Lab—Logs—Crosswell—VSP—Surface Seismic

• How does laboratory rock physics apply to the field ? — frequency differences — sample size differences — wavelength differences

• Seismic velocity depends not just on the rock and fluid properties, but also on the measurement scale relative to the geologic scale

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

0.15

Scale effects on measured velocity EMT RT

0.1

0.05

0

-0.05

-0.1

0

10

20

30

40

50
J.1

Waves were propagated through periodic media created by stacking plastic and steel disks. At the top, the effective layer thickness is large compared with the wavelength; at the bottom it is small compared with the wavelength. The waveforms show that both the travel time and amplitude/frequency depend on the ratio wavelength to layer thickness. The velocities in the two limits are described wellby ray theory and effective medium theory, respectively.

Time (µs)

Marion et al. (1994)
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

J.2

Apparent velocity picked from the layered medium experiment (top) and numerical simulations of the experiment (bottom).
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

One dimensional scale effects in layered media
Normal incidence propagation

Effective medium limit (λ >> d):

1 M EMT

1 Si = = Mi ρi

2

(Backus average)

S

2 EMT

ρave = MEMT

2 SEMT = Si2

Ray theory limit (λ << d):

SRT = Si SRT < SEMT
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Random arrangement of high and low impedance layers: a laboratory “VSP”

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Scale effects in a laboratory simulated VSP
experimental 5% pick (propagator matrix)
20

10% pick (propagator matrix) 20% pick (propagator matrix) approximate recipe

40

Kennet-Frazer

number of disks

60

effective medium
80

α=27
100

α=20

120

ray theory
140 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28
J.3

32

propagation times (microseconds)

In a second experiment the plastic and steel disks were stacked randomly, to create a medium with random plastic and steel interval thicknesses. Waves were propagated through the growing stack, to roughly simulate a VSP.
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

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Scale Effects on Seismic Velocities
Interval velocities in thinly layered media

J.4

This slide shows the apparent interval velocity in each plastic interval in the laboratory VSP. The difference of arrival times picked from the waveforms at the top and bottom of each plastic interval were divided into the interval thickness to get the velocity. The bulk plastic velocity is ~2500 m/s. We see that this ray theory approach gives nonsense values when the interval thickness becomes small relative to the wavelength.
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling λ

λ

Short wavelength and long wavelength synthetic seismograms for plane wave propagation through a 2-D random heterogeneous medium with Gaussian spatial autocorrelation function
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Velocity Dispersion in 2-D Random Heterogeneous Media

3720 ray theory 3-D 3700 3680 3660 ray theory 1-D effective medium 3640 3620 3600 0.1 1 10 100
J.5

Velocity

ray theory 2-D

λ/a

Comparison of numerical wave propagation in 2-D heterogeneous medium with a Gaussian spatial autocorrelation function and ray theory predictions of Boyse (1986)
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Short Wavelength Behavior
The variance of the traveltime fluctuations around the mean traveltime can be related to the variance of the slowness fluctuations (Müller et al., 1992)

For plane waves in a heterogeneous medium with a Gaussian spatial autocorrelation function:

σ = π Laσ

2 T

2 S

L : pathlength a : spatial correlation length σ 2 : traveltime variance T σ 2 : slowness variance S

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Short Wavelength Behavior
Ray theory in random media

S = S0 + S ′
difference between ray theory slowness and mean slowness:

ΔS = SRT

 L − S0 = −σ   D a
2 S

RSS ′ D = ∫α dζ ζ 0
R ss : spatial autocorrelation function a : correlation length σ 2 : slowness variance S L : pathlength

(Boyse, 1986)
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Sandstone 1.1

1.0
Vrb/Vus

Pressure Extension

0.9

0.8

Shear

0.7

0.6

0

20

40

60 80 1/Q
Limestone

100

120

140

1.1

1.0

Vrb/Vus

0.9

Pressure

0.8 Shear Extension 0.7

0.6

0

20

40

60 80 1/Q

100

120

140
J.6

Velocity dispersion versus attenuation for sandstone and limestone samples (Lucet, 1989)

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Upscaling

Velocity Dispersion in Heterogeneous Limestone
x-ray image

5300 5250 5200 5150 5100 5050 ray theory 2-D 5000 4950 4900 0 0.1 1 10 100
J.7

ray theory 3-D

velocity

effective medium

Comparison of velocities computed from average traveltimes in numerical simulations with theoretical predictions
266

λ/a

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