You are on page 1of 20

Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

A Seismic Facies Classification


Case Study

292
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

PROBLEM
Can we predict and characterize
reservoirs in North Sea deep-water clastic
systems using seismic data?

1 km1 km

SEISMIC AMPLITUDE MAP OF A NORTH SEA SUB-MARINE FAN

293
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

SEISMIC LITHOFACIES
IN DEEP- WATER CLASTIC SYSTEMS

A seismic lithofacies is a seismically resolvable sedimentary


unit characterized by its:

• lithology
(clay content)

• bedding configuration
(massive, interbedded, chaotic)

• petrography
(grain size, clay location and cementation)

• seismic properties
(seismic velocities and density)

294
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

FACIES I: I
Gravels and conglomerates

FACIES II:
Thick-bedded sandstone II

FACIES III:
Interbedded sandstone-shale
III
FACIES IV:
Silty shale and
silt-laminated shale IV
FACIES V:
Pure shale V
FACIES VI:
Chaotic deposits VI

295
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Identification of Seismic Lithofacies


From Well Logs (Field A, Well A-1)

V V V
2100 2100
Depth (m)

Depth (m)

2150 IV 2150 IV IV
II b II b
II c II c

III III
2200 2200

40 60 80 100 120 140 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4


Gamma Ray (API) Vp (km/s)

296
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

2-D Geological Model

Overburden
Depth = 2.0 km
Tuff
V IV

III
IIb
200 m IIc
IIa

1.0 km
Chalk

297
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Rock Physics Analysis

3.4
P-wave velocity (km/s)

3 III
IIc

IIb
2.6 IV
V

2.2

40 60 80 100 120 140


Gamma Ray (API)

0.4 IIb
IIc
III
Porosity

0.3

IV V
0.2

40 60 80 100 120 140


Gamma Ray (API)

298
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Seismic Properties
7.5
Acoustic Impedance

6.5 III
IIc
IIb IV
5.5

V
4.5
40 60 80 100 120 140
Gamma Ray (API)

V
2.5
Vp/Vs

IV
2 III

IIb IIc

1.5
40 60 80 100 120 140
Gamma Ray (API)

299
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Seismic Reflectivity Modeling


(AVO)

2
R(θ) = R0 + G * sin (θ)

Cap-rock = IV

0.1 IIa
Reflectivity

III

0 V IIc
II b
- 0.1

0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Angle of incidence (θ )

300
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Facies-Guided
Reflectivity Modeling

V
IV
III

IIb IIc

Schematic facies map of sub-marine fan

301
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Facies-Guided
Reflectivity Modeling

0.04

0.02

-0.02

Zero offset reflectivity

-0.04

-0.08

-0.12

-0.16
Zero offset reflectivity
+ AVO gradient

302
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Seismic Response of Unconsolidated


and Cemented High-Porosity Sands

303
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Zero-offset Reflectivity, R(0)

Relatively high R(0)


(blue)

Relatively low R(0)


(yellow)

304
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

AVO Gradient, G

Relatively large negative


gradient G (yellow)

Relatively small
gradient (blue)

305
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Variability of AVO Response

Monti-Carlo, drawn from pdf, and assuming silty


shale cap rock.

306
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Bivariate pdfs: R(0) vs. G

307
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Facies classification using


linear discriminant analysis

R(0)
Facies 1
Sample to be classified

= Facies 2

Facies 2 Facies 3

Mahalanobis
2
M = (X − µ i )
T
∑ (X − µ )
−1
i distance

308
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

3D seismic lithofacies prediction

Interbedded
sand-shales
Oil sands

Brine sands

Shale

309
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Seismic Lithofacies Prediction


Line 1 Through Well #1
Well #1 (CDP 1464)

Oil ?
Top Heimdal

310
Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

A North Sea Example

Conclusions

• Seismic lithofacies link sedimentology to rock


physics.

• Paleocene deep-water clastic systems in the North


Sea show:

- Sand-shale ambiguity in acoustic


impedance.

- Sand-shale discrimination in Vp/Vs


ratio.

• AVO analysis should be applied to predict seismic


lithofacies from seismic data in our case.

• Seismic lithofacies can improve our understanding of


seismic signatures in any depositional system.

311