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BIOCHEMISTRY STUDY GUIDE ELECTRON TRANSPORT


ELEMENTS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE
1. What is matter? 2. Matter is divided into these three classes a. . b. . c. . 3. An element is a _____________________ _______________________ which cannot be further __________ down by any ________________ reaction. 4. A compound is a _________________ ______________________ made up of ______ or more elements in a ________________ proportion by ___________________. 5. Name the four (4) most important element necessary for human life? a. . b. . c. . d. . 6. Name five trace elements. a. . b. . c. . d. . e. . 7. What is a mixture? 8. Name the first 10 elements on the Periodic Table/in order of their Periodic# 1. . 6. . 2. . 7. . 3. . 8. . 4. . 9. . 5. . 10. . 9. True/False: Daltons Atomic Theory states: ___ All elements are made up of tiny , indivisible particles called atoms ___ All atoms of a given element are identical ___ Atoms of one element differ from the atoms of every other element 10. A molecule is a ___________ ___________ __________ of __________ which acts as a _____________ 11. Joseph Proust Law states that..?

2 12. What are the three (3) components of an atom? a. . b. . c. . 13. What are the two (2) given purposes of the Atomic number? 14. True/False: ___ Matter can be divided into three classes one of which is gas ___ One of the most important identified elements necessary for human life is Iron ___ A mixture is a combination of pure and impure substances ___ A molecule is a tightly bound group of atoms which act as a unit ___ Joseph Proust Law states that any compound is always made of up of gas in the same proportion as mass ___ All atoms are made up of three parts ___ Like charges attract ___ Unlike charges repel ___ The atomic number helps to establish the identify of the element ___Protons are (+) charged while electrons are (-) charged 15. What is an Ion? 16. What is an Isotope? 17. A metal is a _____________ _________________________ whose ______________ tend to give up ____________. 18. Non metals do not ____________________ __________________ and their _______________ do not five up ______________ but rather tend to ________________ them 19. What are metalloids and give two examples? 20. What are noble inert gases and why are they called such? 21. What group of the periodic table are noble inert gases found? 22. Can you name them? a. . b. . c. .

d. . e. . f. .

CHEMICAL BONDS/CHEMICAL REACTIONS


23. A _______________ _________________ is a powerful attraction which holds atoms together

3 24. What are the two (2) types of chemical bonds? a. . b. . 25. When an atom loses an electron it becomes ______________________ charged 26. When an atom gains 1 or more electrons it becomes _______________ charged 27. Negatively charged ions are called __________________ 28. Positively charged ions are called ___________________ 29. ________________________ is sometimes given as a treatment for manic depression (my question) 30. What is an ionic bond? 31. A ___________________ bond is one in which ______ or more atoms share a pair of _____________________ 32. A ___________________ _____________________ is a reaction between _____ or more original _______________ to form one or more ________ ____________________ or ________________________

33. A _____________________ equation is a diagram or formula of the ______________________ which are __________________ and the end _______________
34. Given the following chemical interactions balance the equations by correctly entering the valid coefficient: 1. C3H8 + O2 __C02 + __H2O 2. CH3COF + H2O CH3COOH + __HF 3. COCl2 + __H2O __CO2 + 2HCl 4. __SiF4 + 4K __KF + Si 5. __Cr(OH)3 + __HCl CrCl3 + 3H2O 6. __Au2S3 + __ H2 __Au + __H2S 7. __Ca(OH)2 + __H3PO4 __CaHPO4 + __H2O

OXIDATION/REDUCTION 35. _________________ is the gain of an electron

4 36. ________________ is the loss of an electron 37. When an element gains an electron it becomes _________________ charged 38. An __________________________ reaction is one in which electrons are ________________ from one __________ to another

(based on the above diagram) 39. Movement to the right is called a (an) _________________ Movement to the left is called a (an)________________ 40. When an element gains oxygen we say its been ____________________ 41. True/False: ___ When two or more substances react it is called a chemical reaction ___ When an element gains an electron it becomes positive ___ Oxidation can occur without reduction ___ Oxidation and reduction are two reactions which must occur simultaneously ___ All organic compounds contain carbon ___ The process of oxygen gaining an electron is called Dioxyfication

STATES OF MATTER: Solid, Liquid, Gases


42. What is a solid? 43. _____________________ forces work to hold elements and compounds together and keep them stable

44. _____________________ forces work to keep elements and compound apart

45. An ________________ in temperature cause particles to move ________________ in various directions

46. What is a liquid?

47. What is a gas?

48. What is the melting point?

5 49. What is the boiling point?

50. What is the freezing point? 51. True/False: ___ Intermolecular and molecular forces are the two forces which will determine whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas ___ When temperature is increased particles react by moving in a specific direction in a specific pattern ___ In a gaseous state and at high temperature molecules possess very little kinetic energy ___ In a gaseous state and at high temperature molecules will exhibit strong molecular forces ___ When temperatures are sufficiently reduced, gas condenses to form liquids ___ When temperatures are further reduced, gas condenses to form solids ___ The attractive forces between molecules will vary as its form changes ___ Boiling point is the point at which a liquid becomes a solid ___ Melting point is the point at which a solid becomes a liquid ___ The most important property of a gas is that it completely fills the container in which it is contained ___ A manometer is use to measure atmospheric temperature ___ A Barometer is use to measure the gas pressure in a container ___ Temperature is measure in units of Celcius (C), Fahrenheit (F), and Kelvin (K) ___Liquids and gases will move from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration ___ The freezing point and melting point of a substance is the same ___ When liquids are heated, intermolecular forces will stop their random motion ___ The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure 52. The amount of heat that is necessary to vaporize 1 gram of any liquid is called its ______________ of _____________

LAWS GOVERNING THE STATES OF MATTER


53. Boyles Law states that when __________________ is constant the ________________ of any gas will ___________ as ________________ increases 54. Charles Law states that at ________________ pressure the ______________ of any gas will ___________ as its ______________ increases 55. Gas-Lussacs Law states that at a constant _______________ as ________________ increases the _______________ of a gas will ________________

6 56. Avogadros Law states that _____________ volumes of gases at the same ________________ and ______________ will contain the same amounts of __________________ 57. What is the equation which represents Avogadros Law? 58. True/False: ___ The Kinetic Molecular Theory states that gases consist of molecules that are constantly moving through space in straight lines ___ The Kinetic Molecular Theory states a gas molecules kinetic energy is inversely related to temperature ___ The Kinetic Molecular Theory states the volume of the gas is greater that the volume of the container in which it is contained ___ The Kinetic Molecular Theory states the pressure of a gas is determined by the rate at which its molecules collide with the walls of the container in which it is contained. ___ Boyles Law states that the volume of a gas will increase as its pressure decreases ___ Charles Law states that the volume of any gas will increase as temperature also increases

INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM AND ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN


59. Living organism may be either __________________ or _________________________ 60. _________________ uses organic molecules to produced by _________________ to derive their energy 61. _________________ synthesize their own food using _________ and sunlight 62. Intermediary metabolism involves the fate of compounds after they have been ________________ and _________________. 63. A metabolic pathway is a _______________ of _______________ reactions which constitute _________________. 64. The intermediates of metabolism are called ___________________

65. Metabolic pathway can fall into three (3) categories: a. . b. . c. . 66. _____________ pathway involves the synthesis of compounds constituting the structural and functional component of the cells

7 67. _____________ pathway requires the input of energy 68. _____________ pathway is an _________________ pathway where energy is released in the form of ATP. 69. What is substrate level phosphorylation?

70. What is oxidative phosphorylation?

71. What is the electron transport chain?

72. Where is the electron transport train located?

73. Name the 5 listed components of the electron transport train

a. . b. . c. . d. . e.
74. What are the inhibitors of the electron transport chain a. . b. .

75. What are uncouplers and give two examples