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Strategic Leadership

Name: Chiragkumar Mistry Data no: Markers name: Date of submission:

Table of contents Page no. Part A: Leadership theory and practices-a case study on Tesco plc Introduction Company background Strategy leadership The theories and practices of strategic leadership Summary Part B: Implementing and leading change- a case study on Tesco plc 3 3 3 3 5

Introduction Theoretical concept Diversity in the workplace The effectiveness of leadership Leading and implementing change in Tesco

6 6 9 9 10

Implementing and leading to change Summary Part C Games and Stimulation

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The game Theory The rules of game theory Application of game theory Simulation Conclusion References

13 13 14 16 17 18

Part A Leadership theory and practices-a case study on Tesco plc Introduction Leadership can be defined as the process by which it is possible the leaders to provide significant influence towards the attitude, the values of the employees and their behaviours (Vecchio 1995). Moreover Wheelen & Hunger (1998) added that the ability of the leaders to anticipate, maintain flexibility, import the somebody needs to create strategy change for the organisation as please don't strategy leadership capabilities. Therefore the strategy changes in the occurred due to the stimulus caused by triggering events in the existing strategy.. At present competitive business world to motivate employees towards their designated job responsibilities strategic leadership plays a significant role (Kotter , 2001). In the studied the researcher will focus upon the strategic leadership and its impact towards the organisational change in context of Tesco plc. Company background: Tesco is the leading brand name in UK retail sector. The company has established its leading position in the competitive business was through its strategic leadership and effectiveness towards the organisational change. At present the company is operating more than 24,000 stores will be more than 24,000 employees in local and global context (Tesco, 2012). The company has established its leading position in the world of retail through its strong leadership capability. The company has established significant strategic policies to influence the organisational change on the basis of his effective leadership strategy. Strategic leadership: According to Huey (1994) the strategy leadership is a set of multifunctional activities that involves managing through others and enhancing the organisation to cope with the change. The strategic leadership plays a significant role to manage the organisation towards the exponential change based on the globalised environment. Moreover it is also important to consider the internal and external conditions in order to manage and engage in complex business environment (Hughes,et al.,

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2002).Through effective leadership strategy it is possible for Tesco plc to conduct strategic management process towards the attainment of its organisational goal.

Figure: Strategic Leadership The effective development and usage of strategic policies by the leaders will enhance Tesco plc to gain competitive advantage over their competitors in the current retail sector. Additionally strategic policies established by the company with an above the sharing of skills and resources within the company and provides that entertain your spirit that is essential for innovation and competitiveness. Moreover the strategy policies established by the company failed to regulate and control the behaviour of the employees. Indeed strategy controls can be also used to promote the sharing of both tangible and intangible resources among independent business within a corporate portfolio of Tesco plc. Moreover the autonomic provided by the strategy control enhance the flexibility and innovation necessary to initiate advantage of specific market opportunities. Finally the strategy leadership will promote the symbol is usage of strategy control and autonomy within the organisational context.

The theories and practices of strategic leadership:


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The effective leadership quality focuses upon three essential values such as intellectual stimulation, individual consideration and finally the Charisma and inspiration. In context of competitive business world there are four prime leadership theories. The leader theories includes Transformational leadership, Path-goal theory of leadership, Fielders contingency theory, the Trait theory and finally Hersey & Blanchard Situational theory. The leadership theories and concepts has developed the idea of strategic leadership and its impact towards the organisational change. In accordance with the nature and characteristics of the chosen organisation the researcher focus upon the theories and its application in Tesco plc

Trait Theory The trait theory was developed in mid-1900s. The previous researchers and

theorist has stated that are various treats that leaders from non-leaders in various organisational circumstances. The leadership trait theory states that an individual with leadership traits in one organisational environment can then be the leader in the separate organisational situation. It is also dissolved by the researchers that the leadership quality enhances the individual to reconceptualise a relationship between people in social situation. The trait theory has significant strengths (Stogdill, 1948). Over the years researches have sub divided personal traits based on similar charact eristics into personal, intelligence and ability, personality, social and work related. Traits such as optimism, self confidence, honesty, integrity, and drive are considered important by Daft (2008). Over the last few years the researchers has focused upon the first month traits based on self similar characteristics such as individual individuals and ability, personality, social and work-related activities. According to Daft (2008) the significant characteristics of particularly such as optimism, selfconfidence, honesty, integrity and drive plays a significant role to establish strategic leadership. Inspite of some draw backs the trait theory acts as consistent determinants of leadership success over the past years.

Transactional leadership theory


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The transactional leadership focuses upon the relationship between the leaders and followers. According to Robinson (2003) the transactional leaders exchange their value with the subordinates. In context of retail sector the transactional leadership plays an important role. It focuses up of the best interest of followers took to do what the leader wants (Renn et al, 2003). Contingency Theory The contingency theory of leadership comprises of several approaches according to this theory the leaders effectiveness depends upon the fit between style and context. In this stage it is also reassured that the position of power, a type of organisational structure and quality of leader follower relationship are considered to be the most significant determinants in contingency theory additionally the contingency three combines the mentioned factors to predictive leaders effectiveness in a given context. The theory can be compared with the transformational and transactional leadership theory as the contingency theory doesn't provide a clear different set of presumption about the leaders activity of the particular situation. Finally the contingency theory is predictive and therefore it offers useful information regarding the type of leadership that will most likely be effectively in a particular context to become successful (Martin and Jackson,2008). Transformational leadership theory According to ( Northouse, 2004) the transformational leadership is considered to be one of the new leadership paradigm. The core idea of transformational leadership involves Respect for individuals. It mainly covers motivating the individuals, satisfying the needs and requirements and finally treating them as full human beings. It is the late towards visionary and charismatic leadership policy. Therefore the transformational leadership involves the process through which the leaders involved himself with the followers and to get the create a conviction that give whereas each of them to a level of motivation and morality in context of the given job responsibilities. The fourth determinants of transformational leadership such as idealised influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and finally individualised considerations. In order to create changing the organisational context it is also that the transformational leaders became strong role models for their subordinates. The leaders needs to develop a set of moral values and several
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determined sense of identity. In this stage the leaders are configured, competent and articulate. They express their strong possibility and leadership skills in the workplace. The leaders listen to their subordinates and are not intolerant to opposing viewpoints of their followers. The spirit of cooperation often develops significant relationship between the leaders and their subordinates. In this stage the subordinates strongly believe in the ideas of their leaders as they learn and trust them. Therefore it is also observed that strategic leadership plays a significant role towards the effective change in organisation. The researchers have also stated that the contrast of transactional and transformational leadership strategy has several positive features that evince the leaders to motivate their subordinates and to develop trust on them. The strategic leadership capabilities focuses upon morals and values of the individual employees to make them more goal oriented (Bennis, 2001). In context of Tesco plc it is observed that the above-mentioned leadership theories in concept with play a significant role towards the implementation of organisational change through strategic leadership policy. The author in this study strongly believes that the practical application of leadership theories and practices and enhance the awareness and importance of companies objectives and policies towards the employees additionally strong leadership skills are also motivate the employees towards the improvement of their skills and expertise. In this stage Tesco plc has initiated significant motivation policies to influence the behaviour of the employees through effective leadership strategy. Summary The above mentioned study the author has strongly focuses upon the leadership theories and their practical application in context of Tesco plc. The study reflects that the core idea of strategic leadership is to get the maximum possible output from the subordinates in the best possible way. As a result it enhances the organisation to gain competitive advantage over the competitors in current retail sector .

Part B: Implementing and leading change- a case study on Tesco plc

Introduction:
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The corporate culture refers to the core values shared by the employees. It covers complex set of shared ideas and beliefs, symbols and vendors that influences the way the organisation conduct is business towards implantation and leading the change. In Tesco plc it is observed that the leadership theories and concept plays a significant role towards the implementation of organisational change through strategic leadership policy. The author in this study strongly believes that the practical application of leadership theories and practices and enhance the to create awareness and importance of companies objectives and policies towards the employees additionally strong leadership skills are also motivate the employees towards the improvement of their skills and expertise. The contingency theory of leadership comprises of several approaches according to this theory the leaders effectiveness depends upon the fit between style and context. In this stage it is also reassured that the position of power, a type of organisational structure and quality of leader follower relationship are considered to be the most significant determinants in contingency theory. The theory can be compared with the transformational and transactional leadership theory as the contingency theory doesn't provide a clear different set of presumption about the leaders activity of the particular situation. Finally the contingency theory is predictive and therefore it offers useful information regarding the type of leadership that will most likely be effectively in a particular context to become successful. Additionally the contingency theory combines the mentioned factors to predictive leaders effectiveness in a given context. Theoretical concept Over the last few years the researchers has focused upon the traits based on self similar characteristics such as individual individuals and ability, personality, social and work-related activities. The previous researchers and theorist has stated that are various treats that leaders from non-leaders in various organisational circumstances. the significant characteristics of particularly such as optimism, self-confidence, honesty, integrity and drive plays a significant role to establish strategic leadership. Over the years researches have sub divided personal traits based on similar charact eristics into personal, intelligence and ability, personality, social and work related. Traits such as optimism, self confidence, honesty, integrity, and drive are considered important. In spite of some draw backs the trait theory acts as consistent
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determinants of leadership success over the past years. The leadership trait theory states that an individual with leadership traits in one organisational environment can then be the leader in the separate organisational situation. It is also dissolved by the researchers that the leadership quality enhances the individual to reconceptualise a relationship between people in social situation. The trait theory has significant strengths. The transactional leaders exchange their value with the subordinates. The transactional leadership focuses upon the relationship between the leaders and followers. On the other hand the transformational leadership is considered to be one of the new leadership paradigms. The core idea of transformational leadership involves Respect for individuals. It mainly covers motivating the individuals, satisfying the needs and requirements and finally treating them as full human beings. It is the late towards visionary and charismatic leadership policy. Therefore the transformational leadership involves the process through which the leaders involved himself with the followers and to get the create a conviction that give whereas each of them to a level of motivation and morality in context of the given job responsibilities. The fourth determinants of transformational leadership such as idealised influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and finally individualised considerations. In order to create changing the organisational context it is also that the transformational leaders became strong role models for their subordinates. The leaders needs to develop a set of moral values and several determined sense of identity. In this stage the leaders are configured, competent and articulate. They express their strong possibility and leadership skills in the workplace. The leaders listen to their subordinates and are not intolerant to opposing viewpoints of their followers. The sprit of cooperation often develops significant relationship between the leaders and their subordinates. In this stage the subordinates strongly believe in the ideas of their leaders as they learn and trust them. Therefore it is also that strategic leadership plays a significant role towards the effective change in organisation. The researchers has also that the contrast of transactional and transformational leadership strategy has several positive features that evinces the leaders to motivate their subordinates and to develop trust on them. The strategic leadership capabilities focuses upon morals and values of the individual employees to make them more goal oriented.
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The strategic leaders must focus upon the development of appropriate culture in an organisational context. The organisational cultures is a significant element that promotes focused learning and human resource development. It also enhances sharing is of skills and resources among the different departments of the organisation. At present competitive business world to improve the innovation and competitiveness it is essential to develop organisational spirit(Lei, Hitt & Bettis 1990).. In this stage the effectiveness and efficiency of corporate culture can encourage the organisational spirit, foster and facilitate a long-term vision and create emphasis on strategic actions. As a result it will enhance the employees to cope with the change of organisational culture. Additionally the change in culture is more difficult than sustaining. On the other hand effective strategic leadership includes recognising needs to change the culture and implementation of the changes. It is also observed by the previous researchers and theorist that restructuring may provide an appropriate time to effect a change in the organisation. Furthermore effective strategic leaders focuses on the ethical practices within the organisations and seek to infuse them through organisational culture . Moreover that it takes that guide the individual actions are based on the principles formed by longterm influences that extend beyond the organisation(Sinclair 1993). At present in most of the organisations employees are becoming increasingly heterogeneous. Therefore the diversity is going to be an important issue for the management and due to workforce mobility, increase of young workers in the workforce and finally the necessity of international expert is in the workforce. In this stage it is important for strategic leadership to focus upon a diverse workforce as well as the development of best practices for effective diversity management. Diversity in the workplace: Diversity includes race, gender, ethnic group, age, personality, cognitive style, tenure, organisational functions, education, background and more. Workplace diversity refers to the severity of differences between people in an organisation increased adaptability, broader service range, variety of viewpoint and more effective execution.
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The strategy considers she refuses significant challenges dealing with leading to change . It may include: communication barrier and resistance to change. In order to overcome the period and implementing and leading the change it is important for the management to assess the diversity in the workplace, develop meant of diversity, promote diversity in leading positions and finally implementation of diversity in the workplace plan.

Additionally it is also important to develop its own organisational change plan which may act as a response to the need to recognize and respect for the differing backgrounds. It may have a substantial effect on the way of doing the business. It is also observed by the researchers initialized that the diverse management style can achieve significant success. It can also enhance company's competitive position in the marketplace.

The effectiveness of leadership In order to implement in leading the change it is important for the leaders to develop effective communication process with employees. Additionally understanding and knowing each individual employee and their designated responsibilities is an important factor for the strategic leadership (Martin and Jackson, 2005). To implement change in the organisation it is important for the leaders to understand and motivate the employees in accordance with their needs and requirements. As it is as it enters the employees to become self-motivated. Furthermore the theoretical concept of strategic leadership we also have significant impact upon the leaders to bring change in the organisational context. Moreover it also involves the leaders to make each individual employee feel that they can be successful and rewarded for their better performance. Leading and implementing change in Tesco In this study the author focuses upon the Tesco plc which is a giant retailer in UK. It provides strong strategic leadership towards its employees. The management authority in Tesco plc is highly concerned about the individual workforce. They
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provide significant motivational policies for their team members. In addition to Tesco plc is an equal opportunity provider. The company believes in managing the team the way that it would be managed. The management authority in Tesco plc follows an open-door policy with its entire individual workforce and emphasises the part of making decisions for the betterment of the team. The leaders in Tesco plc strongly believe that and effectively there is one who still loves it to a sporty, respectful and friendly relationship with their subordinates. On the other hand some managers do not encourage their team members in the decision-making process. In this stage it is important for the leaders to practice participative leadership by letting their subordinates make decisions which gives them a sense of just satisfaction and the feeling of empowerment. On the other hand the leaders need to consider their employees needs and requirements so that the individual scanned balance between their work and family life. In context of retail industries at present the competition is extremely intense. Most of the key market players out in a competitive position to satisfy the customer's needs with their branded products and services. Therefore it is important for the leaders to focus upon the employee job satisfaction which will enhance the organisation towards the attainment of the overall objective. It is only possible when the leaders drive their subordinates to space special attention to their jobs (Levinthal, and Posen, 2007). Therefore it is important for the leaders to be people oriented and tax oriented to bring significant change and to implement the change in the organisational context. Finally the manager's of Tesco plc should use the leadership group to assess their current positions as a people oriented or task oriented leader in order to implement the strategic leadership.

Implementing and leading to change It is important for the leaders to follow significant activities to implement the change and to lead the change in the organisational context such as: Dream collectively It is important for the leaders to allow the employees to work independently but it has to be fitted in the company's general framework and identify the work and coordinate major course of actions.
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Balance the short time with the long-term The strategic leader should develop a vision for the future through the engagement of the employees and let them understand for their future role Value for employees

The

strategic leader should treat the individuals with respect. They should allow

them to put forward their ideas and concepts and obtained trust and make sure that their ideas will be handled and they can make a difference.

Understanding the reality of the organisation

The strategic leaders should develop a model of the organisation with high level of trust, inspiration and commitment. It enters them to develop an understanding of process of fairness and justice and recognise the employees perception of consistency, integrity and pride.

Generate and sustain trust

The strategic leader should generate and sustain trust of the individual employees. Additionally trust is powerful and ingredients of competencies, fairness and caring consistency and authenticity. These are the significant determinants which will enhance the strategic leader to bring significant changes and to overcome the barrier for resistance to change in Tesco plc

Appreciation

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The strategic leader needs to appreciate their subordinates for their good work. It is a important factor of employee motivation and job satisfaction in the workplace.

Summary

To bring significant changes in the organisational context and to make it more acceptable towards the workforce it is important to establish significant motivating factors along the team spirit. As a result it will end as the management opportunity to influence the workforce towards the newly established working environment.

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Part C Games and Stimulation

The game Theory The game theory has gained its significant influence in the modern economic and business sector. In order to understand the strategic phenomena the game theory provides the ability to simplify matters and provide scientific backing for the situation. In addition to the entry ancestor management understand competitive business situations. In this stage it is also mentioned that the scenery with her son predicting what the computers really do and therefore the most appropriate alternative is chosen by the organisation. In this stage the researcher is responsible for the efficiency and effectiveness of the theoretical application (Miller, 2003) .The game theory enhances the management makes editing decisions when the uncertainty occurs in a competitive business environment. In this stage it is important for the management to apply the game theory to remain competitive. The game theory offers the management a structured process to make strategic decision during uncertainty in a competitive business environment (Osborne, 2004). The rules of game theory According to the rules of game theory one computer gets inside the head of other competitor to analyse and investigate the intention and economic circumstances along with the behaviours(Millar,2003). In order to conduct this there are five key elements of game theory: Strategic issue

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In context of UK retail sector the manager should decide on which strategy they should end up in order to conflict with the current marketplace. It depends upon the market demand whether the pricing strategy, capacity or the market entry strategy should be utilised. In this stage it is important to consider the strategic issue in order to compete with the other key market players.

Determination of the relevant market players Tesco plc needs to consider the key market players. It is essential for the retailer to identify the key market player to establish itself in a leading position. It really enters the company to appoint the game theory in a successful manner towards the achievement of organisational objective. Identifying the potential actions of the key market players In order to remain competitive in the current marketplace it is the prime objective of each market players to focus upon the competitors potential actions and activities and act accordingly(Gul,2008). In this stage Tesco plc needs to focus upon the key marketplace and their actions towards the market strategy initiated by Tesco plc.

Identify the key actions of the market players: it is important for each computers to identify the activities of the competitors in the current marketplace. As a result it will enters the company to determine the pricing policy, product development, cost of orientation policy and the training and development needs of employees. Determine the likely structure of the game: In this stage it is also the most of the strategies are repeated by the company in a sequence manner. It may include determining the pricing policy, product design and necessary actions to be competitive in the current marketplace

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Application of game theory Some of the game theory has become critical and difficult to define and solve. In addition to some researchers and theorist argued that sometimes the game theory and its application become more complex for the organisation. Therefore it is not possible for the management to make a decision on the basis of the game theory. The game theory enhances the company to play the current game in a better way. In addition to the game theory predicts about the market condition, pricing policy and the competitors position. It also creates price wars in the market. The significantly influence of game theory is observed when the customers switch between one product to another. Moreover the application of this theory enhances Tesco plc to determine the market position and to act accordingly. In the application of game theory it is also bserved that the competitors are involved within a certain scenario which is rational. In this stage it is also assumed that the computers have always defined goals that have been ranked from most important to least important. On the other hand the game clearly is based on the fact that all decisions are being made by selecting individuals. It carries practical value and that competitors are listing to choose the most appropriate over the last appropriate outcome. On the other hand the resolutions creates complications in the real-life application. The reasons can be identified as there may be no unconditionally best or dominant strategy for particular computers since there are a number of dynamics that have to be factored in at any one time (Don, 2008). In this study the research it has focused upon the UK retail sector as the easier for game and simulation test in contexts of Tesco plc. It is also the home of concise about survival and quality of the products and services. In this stage the game theory plays a significant role for the management authority of Tesco plc to analyse and investigate the marketplace and to dominate the customers with the lowest priced products and services with better value. As a result to some context that the application of game theory provides significant outcome for the company. On the other hand it is also observed that to utilise the resources in an efficient manner and to conflict with the competitors in the marketplace the company needs to upgrade themselves. However the behaviour of the market may also have significant
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influence in this context. Additionally the application of game theory is not suitable for the company in every respect. Therefore it can be asserted that the theory is not satisfactory in understanding the issues of the marketplace and the behaviour of the competitors in each stage.

Simulation Simulation is the process through which it is possible to demonstrate the management about the effectiveness of the decision-making process. It can be demonstrated through the computer of played on the board. A successful simulation can be tailor-made for the organisation. In order to get the best output from simulation it is essential for the management to conduct interview with the top-level and mid-level authority. In this stage it is important to consider that benchmarking, cost curves and differentiated economic model can be used as for the rest practise of simulation. A properly designed simulation process reflects the overall activity of the business process. Additionally doing the recruitment and selection process the stimulation also plays an important role by recruiting the new employees with proper skills and expertise in a related field. The stimulation was established a direct link between the action and the performance to conduct the work in an efficient manner. The advantage of stimulation based on the board games. In this stage effective demolition enhances the employees to work in as a team and to share the success among them. In recent years stimulation has played a significant role in context of UK retail sector. It has helped the organisation to overcome the barriers of learning and development. It also enhances the manager to learn from their mistakes and to create a risk free working environment for the employees in the workplace. The efficient simulation in his system management understand the overall skills and expertise by the management and employees the attainment of the objective. The simulation also plays a significant role towards the advancement of information technology in context of UK retail sector. It plays a significant role in context of market research. It is observed them during the planning and designing the tools of
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marketing the researchers are various focus upon the technological ability to deliver dynamic marketing and merchandising concept. Through the efficient application of simulation it is possible to inspire both internal and external related parties. In some countries there is also an application of virtual simulation of the research work to develop in-store, negation and departmental adjacencies.

Conclusion The game theory and the simulation test has their own strong positions . In context of the application of game theory and the simulation test it is observed that there is a gap between the theoretical and practical application. In this analysis and investigation process there is a lack of reliability and validity of the outcome of the result. In this stage the test ignore the fact that the employees an organisation have emotions that may be hinder them from making rational decision-making process.

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