# Powder Surface Area and Porosity, by Lowell and Shields, 3rd

edition Introduction
Introduction 1.1 Real Surfaces

S = 6 l2 S = 4πr2

Theoretical area

Surface impactions will create real SA Imperfections: voids, steps, pores Real SA > theoretical SA 1.2 Factors affecting surface area a. Particle size: whenever matter is divided into smaller particles, new surfaces must be produce b. Particle shape: for a fixed mass.
sphere

Minimum area-to-volume ratio

maximum area-to-volume ratio

Specific surface area = area per-gram of powder = function (size, shape, porosity) e.g. powder consisting of spherical particles.

St = 4π × (r1 N1 + r2 N 2 + LL + ri N i )
2 2 2

= 4π × ∑ ri N i
2 i =1

4 4 3 3 Vt = π × (r1 N1 + LL) = π ∑ ri N i 3 3 m Vt =

ρ

St 3 = Specific area = S = m ρ

∑N r ∑N r

2 3

i i i i

If the spheres are of the same radius
S= 3 ρr

For density = 3 g cm-3 r = 1 µm => S = 1 m2g-1 r = 0.1µm => S = 10 m2g-1 r = 10 nm => S = 100 m2g-1 activated carbon usually has an area of 1000 m2g-1 contribution from porosity is significant.

1.3 Surface area from particle size distribution A number of methods can be used to determine “equivalent spherical diameter”, such as coulter counter Stoke’s law (settling of particle in fluid) Light scattering Permeametric methods Sieving SEM TEM

∵adsorption is spontaneous. E) sorption isotherm Varies with the properties of vapor and solid and coverage. but they remain hidden because of being small or inner. a powerful method to generate detailed information about the morphology of surface. ∵condensed state is more ordered due to the loss of at least one degree of translation freedom. . 2. E) W: weight of gas adsorbed E: interaction potential between vapor and solid. all adsorption isotherms would be identical. ※ gas adsorption can probe the surface irregularity and pore interiors even at the atomic level.2 Chemical and physical adsorption 2. At constant temperature W = F (P. ※ W = F (P. △G: negative. Were it not for the presence of E.Surface areas calculated from particle size will establish the lower limit by the assumptions of regular geometric shape and by ignoring the imperfections on the surface.1 Introduction ※ surface imperfections and pores can be disclosed with an electron microscope. Gas adsorption 2. T.3 Physical Adsorption Force △S: negative. 2.

Monolayer (seldom observed for physisorption) b. Forces a. Quadrapole interactions: symmetric molecules. Ion-induced dipole: ionic solid + polarizable adsorbate. condensation in micropores occurs at low P/P0. e. leading to a net attracting potential between neighboring molecules. c. Type I plateau  (The external area is negligible. Ion-dipole: ionic solid + polar adsorbate.g.△H = △G + T△S < 0. Adsorption Isotherms Type I a. On the basis of Kelvin eq. Dispersion forces (Van der Waals) instantaneous dipole moment. Microporous powder Almost all the surface of the solid is contained in micropores. e. Dipole-dipole: polar solid + polar adsorbate. - O─+C+─O- Adsorption forces are similar to those for liquefaction of vapors. d.) .. b. 3. exothermic process higher amounts of adsorption at lower temperature.

Type II a. Nonporous powder knee ─ near the completion of 1st layer. . As P/P0↑ → multilayer → infinite layers b. Type III Adsorbate-adsorbed layer interaction adsorbate. Powders with meso-macropores.absorbent interaction  Type IV Similar to Type II But the powders contain pores in a range of 15-1000Å 1st knee: near monolayer completion 2nd knee: (15-1000 Å) pores are filled up P/P0↑ → infinite layers (condensation on the external) Type V Strong interaction between adsorbate and powders containing 15-1000Å pores.

of striking / cm2s N′ = N ⋅ θ0 = kPθ0 = collision on unoccupiedsurface / cm2s Nads = kPθ0A1 Ndes = Nmθ1 ν1 −E RT ×e θ1 + θ0 = 1 Nm = number of completed monolayer / cm2 At equilibrium N ads = N des ⇒ θ1 = K= kPA1 N mυ1e −E RT + kPA1 Let −E RT N mυ1e KA1 ∴θ1 = KP 1 + KP ∴ ⇒ W KP = Wm 1 + KP P P 1 = + W KWm Wm N W = N m Wm Wm NA .1 The Langmuir Isotherm Assumption: monolayer N= 1 (2πMRT) 2 N⋅P = no.4. M St = A= cross-sectional area of a molecule. . Langmuir and BET theories (kinetic isotherms) 4.

High energy sites: 1. prior to monolayer coverage multilayer adsorption will commence. At low P/P0. More energetic sites covered first does not imply no adsorption on less energetic ones. it implies that the residence time of adsorbates is longer on more energetic sites (Kinetic theory) c. Between horizontal and vertical edges. . BET theory enables an experimental determination of the number for monolayer coverage.2 The BET Theory Understanding the adsorption situation before discussing the BET a.4. there exists no pressure for monolayer coverage to occur. organic solids. In reality. b. the first sites to be covered are the more energetic ones. the sites with overlapping potential are the high energetic sites. Rather.    need more energy for separation ※ In principle. Within narrow pores 2. ※ Surface heteroatoms (eq. impure materials. or functional groups) will affect the adsorption potentials. As P/P0 is allowed to increase and the surface becomes progressively covered.

× e ( E − L) RT E: ads. ※ n → ∞ => classical BET (poor for high P/P0) ※n=1 => V cx = (not applicable for multilayer) Vm 1 + cx V n(n + 1)c = Vm 2(nc + 1) ※ P→P0 or x→1.0 For c = 100 .BET theory Limiting no. of layers = n n n +1 ⎡ ⎛P⎞ ⎛P⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 − (n + 1)⎜ ⎜P ⎟ ⎟ + n⎜ ⎜P ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎠ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ n n +1 ⎡ ⎛P⎞ ⎛P⎞ ⎤ ⎟ ⎜ ⎢1 + (c − 1)⎜ + c ⎜P ⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ 0 ⎠ 0 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ W c = Wm ⎡⎛ P ⎞ ⎤ ⎢⎜ ⎜P ⎟ ⎟ − 1⎥ 0 ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ c = const. energy L: heat of liquefaction Classical BET equation n=∞ P W P0 = Wm ⎛ P ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ P ⎞ ⎛ P ⎞⎤ ⎜ 1 − ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ + c⎜ ⎜P ⎟ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ P⎟ 0 ⎠⎣ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ P0 ⎠⎦ ⎝ c n =1 ⇒ Langmuir Modification: Using specific n values for BET to simulate the whole isotherm. lim x →1 25 n = 50 V/Vm n = 20 n = 10 P/P0 1.

II and III. ∴the adsorption energy is greater than the heat of adsorption. kaPS0 = kd1S1 kaPSi −1 = kdiSi M kaPSn −1 = kdnSn k d1 = υ exp −E RT − k di = υ exp L RT ⎛ − (L + Q) ⎞ k dn = υ exp⎜ ⎟ ⎝ RT ⎠ ( ) ( ) V cx = Vm 1 − x g = exp( 1+ ( ng ng − n) x n −1 − (ng − n + 1) x n + ( ) x n +1 2 2 cg ng n +1 n 1 + (c − 1) x + ( − 2) x − ( ) x 2 2 Q ) RT . the last adsorbed layer in a capillary is attached to both sides. III. In pores. can deal with types I. Type IV Type V Brunauer et al.The fit is good for Type I. II. but it does not explain the plateau observed IV and V. proposed a modification. BET eq. We denote the extra energy as Q.

the last layer finds it harder to desorb. c = 100. type IV n = 10.Because of extra Q introduced. St = m i M . n = 10.D. Do. c= S W ⋅N ⋅A + 1 . c = 0. Imperial College press. D. 1998 4.3 Surface Areas from BET 1 P W [( 0 ) − 1] P   slope = S = c −1 Wm c Intercept = i = W c m P P0 1   Wm = 1 S +i .05. type V Reference Book: Adsorption Analysis: Equilibria and Kinetics.

.1 layer 4. 1 2 E.1% c −1 = Nm (1 − 0.091 = 9.4. for c = 100 => (θ 0 ) m = c −1 = 0. (θi)m : the fraction of surface covered by layer i molecules deep at W=Wm. c −1 1 2 where (θ0)m = the fraction of surface not covered by any molecules at W= Wm c∝e ( E − L) RT .g.4 The meaning of monolayer coverage Hill has shown : (θ 0 ) m = c −1 .091) N m ∴average number of layers on each occupied sites =1. c↑as E↑⇒ (θ0)m↓ ∵with large c.5 The BET constant and site occupancy Lowell has shown ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ c2 −1⎟ (θ i ) m = c⎜ ⎟ ⎜ c −1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ i +1 . it is easier to achieve a single monolayer.

applicability of BET theory is in question. 0. In the region near completed monolayer (W = Wm . For n=1 gives Type I isotherms (Langmuir) b. the BET and experimental isotherms do agree well. P/P0≣[0. For n=∞ (classical BET eq.Table 4. 1000] For Type III ( c ≤ 2 ). . i.35 ). Changing the adsorbate to one with a higher c value may be the solution.05 . Types IV and V are modifications of Type II and III isotherms due to the presence of pores.) c > 2 gives Type II isotherms c < 2 gives Type III isotherms c.44)and(4. BET theory cannot exactly match an experimental isotherm over its entire range of pressures.e.45) 4.6 Applicability of the BET theory Ability of BET theory a. 0.35] for W = Wm reflects c value≣[3 .05 ≤ P / P0 ≤ 0.1 Value for (θi)m from equations (4.

2 Isotherm shapes as a function of BET C values. . 4.Fig.

b.3 Variation in adsorption and lateral interaction potential .35].05 . 0. the above two effects counteract each other in the region of P/P0 [0.2 Value of W/Wm and relative pressures for various value of C Fig. and the constant c assumption in BET is generally valid. Table 4. Surface is not energetically homogeneous. Lateral interaction between adsorbates is important at high coverage because of the increase in overlapping potential. 4. However.4.7 Some criticism of the BET theory a. High energy sites are occupied at low pressures.

(BET would fail) For microporous materials.35(P/P0). linear BET plots are found at even lower P/P0 (micropores exhibit high adsorption potentials due to the overlapping potential from the pore walls). extensive multilayer adsorption would provide complexity that cannot be resolved by a constant c.Above 0. .

2 Comparison of the single point and multipoint methods (Wm )mp ⎞ ⎡ 1 c − 1 ⎛ P ⎞⎤ ⎛ P0 =W⎜ ⎟⎢ c + c ⎜ ⎜ p − 1⎟ ⎜P ⎟ ⎟⎥ ⎠⎣ ⎝ 0 ⎝ ⎠⎦ (Wm )sp ⎛ P⎞ =W⎜ ⎟ ⎜1 − P ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ 1− = P P0 P P0 The relative error from the single point method = (Wm )mp − (Wm )sp (Wm )mp 1 + (c − 1) . W: amount of adsorpt at P/P0 M 5. i is negligible. then ⎛ ⎞ 1 = c −1 ⎜ P ⎟ W[(P0 / P) − 1] Wmc ⎝ P0 ⎠                         =⎜ ⎜W − W c ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ m ⎠⎝ P 0 ⎠ ⎝ m ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎛ P ⎞ ⇒ Wm = W (1 − P / P0 ) St = W (1 − P / P0 ) N ⋅ A . W [( P0 / P ) − 1] Wm c Wmc ⎜ P ⎝ 0⎠ S = c −1 i If c value is large.1 Derivation of the single point method BET equation: 1 1 c −1⎛ P ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = + ⎟ .5. The single point BET method (simple and speedy) 5.

Table 5.Table 5. .3 is suitable for single point BET. (P/P0)m is the relative pressure which gives monolayer coverage according to a multipoint determination. P/P0 = 0.1 shows that relative error decreases as c↑and P/P0↑ In most cases.1 Relative error using the single point method at various relative pressures.

Adsorbate cross-sectional areas A= adsorbate cross-sectional area. Complex molecules exhibit different cross-section areas. 2. 3. 6. Fig.091⎜ ⎟ × 1016 Å2 ⎝N⎠ Factors limit the applicability of the above eq. Orientation of polar molecules depends on the polarity of the 2 3 .1 Cross-sectional areas from the liquid molar volume Assume adsorbate on surface in close-packed hexagonal arrangement of spheres. Lateral motion will be highly disruptive. ⎛V ⎞ (※) ⇒ A = 1.6. in Å2 St = Wm NA × 10−20 m2 M 6.1 Sectional view of a close-packed hexagonal arrangement of spheres. 1.