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Rajiv Gandhi University

Antenna Design for


Frequency Band


Kesava Reddy Jangam
Under
Lecturer in the
Rajiv Gandhi University of knowledge
Technologies
Design for Micro Wave
Frequency Band Applications
By
Kesava Reddy Jangam (ID: N61101005)

Under the Guidance of
Mr. Riyaz hussain
Lecturer in the Department of ECE
RGU-IIIT, Nuzvid
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knowledge
Micro Wave
Applications
(ID: N61101005)

ECE
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Table of Content
Abstract .................................................................................................................................................. 3
I. Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 4
II. Micro Wave Frequency Bands and Applications ............................................................................... 5
II.a Electro Magnetic wave ............................................................................................................. 5
II.b Electro Magnetic Wave Spectrum ........................................................................................ 6
II.c Applications for the Micro Wave Spectrum ......................................................................... 7
II.d Ultra Wide Band .................................................................................................................... 7
II.e UWB History .......................................................................................................................... 8
II.f Advantages of UWB .............................................................................................................. 9
II.g UWB Standards ................................................................................................................... 10
II.h UWB Applications ................................................................................................................ 10
III. Antenna Theory ......................................................................................................................... 12
III.a. Definition of Antenna ............................................................................................................. 12
III.b. Important Parameters of Antenna ......................................................................................... 13
III.c. Antenna Classification ............................................................................................................ 15
III.d. Requirements for UWB Antenna ........................................................................................ 21
IV. Numerical Methods ................................................................................................................... 23
V. Antenna Design and Results ........................................................................................................... 24
V.a. Antenna Design ...................................................................................................................... 24
V.b. Simulated Results Analysis ..................................................................................................... 25
V.c. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 29
VI. Future Work and Conclusion ...................................................................................................... 30
V.a. Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 30
V.b. Future Work ........................................................................................................................... 30
References ............................................................................................................................................ 31




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Abstract

This survey paper focuses on microwave frequency band antennas design and analysis.
Studies have been undertaken covering the areas of microwave frequency band fundamentals
and antenna theory. In microwave frequency bands Ultra wide band (UWB) is one of the most
important bands.

Ultra wide band is rapidly advancing as a high data rate wireless communication technology. As
is the case in conventional wireless communication systems, an antenna also plays a very
crucial role in UWB systems. However, there are more challenges in designing a UWB antenna
than a narrow band one. A suitable UWB antenna should be capable of operating over an ultra
wide bandwidth as allocated by the FCC. At the same time, satisfactory radiation properties
over the entire frequency range are also necessary. Another primary requirement of the UWB
antenna is a good time domain performance, i.e. a good impulse response with minimal
distortion.

For this we are design an antenna and the simulation results of this antenna are analyzed by
using Method of Moment (MOM) based IE3D software. And also analyze the antenna
parameters like return loss, radiation pattern, gain, directivity, efficiency and VSWR etc.
























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I. Introduction
Wireless communication technology has changed our lives during the past two
decades. In countless homes and offices, the cordless phones free us from the short
leash of handset cords. Cell phones give us even more freedom such that we can
communicate with each other at any time and in any place. Wireless local area network
(WLAN) technology provides us access to the internet without suffering from managing
yards of unsightly and expensive cable.

The technical improvements have also enabled a large number of new services to
emerge. The first-generation (1G) mobile communication technology only allowed
analogue voice communication while the second-generation (2G) technology realized
digital voice communication. Currently, the third-generation (3G) technology can provide
video telephony, internet access, video/music download services as well as digital voice
services. In the near future, the fourth-generation (4G) technology will be able to provide
on-demand high quality audio and video services, and other advanced services.

In recent years, more interests have been put into wireless personal area network
(WPAN) technology worldwide. The future WPAN aims to provide reliable wireless
connections between computers, portable devices and consumer electronics within a
short range. Furthermore, fast data storage and exchange between these devices will
also be accomplished. This requires a data rate which is much higher than what can be
achieved through currently existing wireless technologies.

The maximum achievable data rate or capacity for the ideal band-limited additive white
Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel is related to the bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR) by Shannon-Nyquist criterion, as shown in Equation.

C = B log2 (1 + SNR)

Where C denotes the maximum transmit data rate, B stands for the channel bandwidth.

Equation indicates that the transmit data rate can be increased by increasing the
bandwidth occupation or transmission power. However, the transmission power cannot
be readily increased because many portable devices are battery powered and the
potential interference should also be avoided. Thus, a large frequency bandwidth will be
the solution to achieve high data rate.

On February 14, 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the United
States adopted the First Report and Order that permitted the commercial operation of
ultra wideband (UWB) technology [3]. Since then, UWB technology has been regarded
as one of the most promising wireless technologies that promises to revolutionize high
data rate transmission and enables the personal area networking industry leading to
new innovations and greater quality of services to the end users.

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II. Micro Wave Frequency Bands and
Applications
II.a Electro Magnetic wave
Electromagnetic waves are disturbances to the electrical and magnetic fields. A
changing electric disturbance produces a changing magnetic field at right angle to the
electric field.
Electromagnetic Wave originates from a point in free space, spreads out uniformly in all
directions and it forms a spherical wave. At a large distance from the source the wave
has similar properties to the plane waves in the strip line and so by analogy of strip lines
the properties of EM waves in free space as follows:







Figure: Propagation of Electromagnetic wave
1. At every point in space, the electric vector field E and the magnetic vector field H are
perpendicular to each other and to the direction of propagation as shown in the above
figure.
2. Velocity of EM wave in free space is given by c= 3 10^8 m/s
3. E and H oscillate in phase and ratio of their amplitude is constant being equal to
120pi or 377Ohm
4. Whatever may be the frequency, the EM waves travels in space with the velocity of
light.
5. EM wave propagates in free space as Transverse Electro Magnetic waves (TEM
mode).
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Equation of EM waves in free space is given by:











II.b Electro Magnetic Wave Spectrum
As antennas dimensions are dependent on wavelength of the signal being transmitted,
one should to know about the electromagnetic spectrum to know frequencies and
wavelength of EM wave in different regions.





II.c Applications for the Micro Wave Spectrum

Communication
Terrestrial
Satellite
Radar
Surveillance
Tracking
Guidance
Range instrumentation
Weather, scientific
Navigation
Enrooted position systems
Landing systems
Electronic Warfare
Intelligence gathering
Countermeasures
Other
MW ovens and industrial heating
Particle accelerators
Radio astronomy
Telemetry
Antenna test ranges
II.d Ultra Wide Band
UWB technology has been used in the areas of radar, sensing and military
communications during the past 20 years. A Substantial surge of research interest has
occurred since February 2002, when the FCC issued a ruling that UWB could be used
for data communications as well as for radar and safety applications. Since then,
wireless communication technology for various amplifications.
This section presents a brief overview of UWB technology and explores its
fundamentals, including UWB definition, advantages,
standard activities.
Applications for the Micro Wave Spectrum

instrumentation
position systems
Intelligence gathering
MW ovens and industrial heating
Particle accelerators
test ranges
UWB technology has been used in the areas of radar, sensing and military
communications during the past 20 years. A Substantial surge of research interest has
since February 2002, when the FCC issued a ruling that UWB could be used
ications as well as for radar and safety applications. Since then,
wireless communication technology for various amplifications.
This section presents a brief overview of UWB technology and explores its
fundamentals, including UWB definition, advantages, current regulation state and
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UWB technology has been used in the areas of radar, sensing and military
communications during the past 20 years. A Substantial surge of research interest has
since February 2002, when the FCC issued a ruling that UWB could be used
ications as well as for radar and safety applications. Since then,
This section presents a brief overview of UWB technology and explores its
current regulation state and
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UWB systems have been historically based on impulse radio because it transmitted
data at very high data rates by sending pulses of energy rather than using a narrow-
band frequency carrier. Normally, the pulses have very short durations, typically a few
nanoseconds (billionths of a second) that results in an ultra wideband frequency
spectrum.

II.e UWB History
The concept of impulse radio initially originated with Marconi, in the 1900s, when spark
gap transmitters induced pulsed signals having very wide bandwidths. At that time,
there was no way to effectively recover the wideband energy emitted by a spark gap
transmitter or discriminate among many such wideband signals in a receiver. As a
result, wideband signals caused too much interference with one another. So the
communications world abandoned wideband communication in favor of narrowband
radio transmitter that was easy to regulate and coordinate.

In 1942-1945, several patents were filed on impulse radio systems to reduce
interference and enhance reliability. However, many of them were frozen for a long time
because of the concerns about its potential military usage by the U.S. government. It is
in the 1960s that impulse radio technologies started being developed for radar and
military applications.

In the mid 1980s, the FCC allocated the Industrial Scientific and Medicine (ISM) bands
for unlicensed wideband communication use. Owing to this revolutionary spectrum
allocation, WLAN and Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) have gone through a tremendous
growth. It also leads the communication industry to study the merits and implications of
wider bandwidth communication.

Shannon-Nyquist criterion indicates that channel capacity increases linearly with
bandwidth and decreases logarithmically as the SNR decreases. This relationship
suggests that channel capacity can be enhanced more rapidly by increasing the
occupied bandwidth than the SNR. Thus, for WPAN that only transmit over short
distances, where signal propagation loss is small and less variable, greater capacity can
be achieved through broader bandwidth occupancy. In February, 2002, the FCC
amended the Part 15 rules which govern unlicensed radio devices to include the
operation of UWB devices. The FCC also allocated a bandwidth of 7.5GHz, i.e. from
3.1GHz to 10.6GHz to UWB applications, by far the largest spectrum allocation for
unlicensed use the FCC has ever granted.

According to the FCC's ruling, any signal that occupies at least 500MHz spectrum can
be used in UWB systems. That means UWB is not restricted to impulse radio any more,
it also applies to any technology that uses 500MHz spectrum and complies with all other
requirements for UWB.



II.f Advantages of UWB
UWB has a number of encouraging advantages that are the reasons why it presents a
more eloquent solution to wireless broadband than other technologies.

Firstly, according to Shannon
bandwidth. Since UWB has an ultra wide frequency bandwidth, it can achieve huge
capacity as high as hundreds of Mbps or even several Gbps with distances of 1 to 10
meters.

Secondly, UWB systems operate at extremely low power transmission levels. By
dividing the power of the signal across a huge frequency spectrum, the effect upon any
frequency is below the acceptable noise floor, as illustrated in below Figure.

Figure: Ultra wideband communications spread transmitting energy across
a wide spectrum of frequency.

For example, 1 watt of power spread across 1GHz of spectrum results in only 1 nano
watt of power into each hertz band of frequency. Thus, UWB signals do not cause
significant interference to other wireless systems.

Thirdly, UWB provides high secure and high
the low energy density, the UWB signal is noise
quite difficult. Furthermore, the noise
real noise has no shape. For this re
obliterate the pulse because interference would have to spread uniformly across the
entire spectrum to obscure the pulse. Interference in only part of the spectrum reduces
the amount of received signal, but t
Hence UWB is perhaps the most secure means of wireless transmission ever previously
available.
Lastly, UWB system based on impulse radio features low cost and low complexity which
arise from the essentially baseband nature of the signal transmission. UWB does not
modulate and demodulate a complex carrier waveform, so it does not require
components such as mixers, filters, amplifiers and local oscillators.


UWB has a number of encouraging advantages that are the reasons why it presents a
more eloquent solution to wireless broadband than other technologies.
Firstly, according to Shannon-Hartley theorem, channel capacity is in proportion to
ince UWB has an ultra wide frequency bandwidth, it can achieve huge
capacity as high as hundreds of Mbps or even several Gbps with distances of 1 to 10
Secondly, UWB systems operate at extremely low power transmission levels. By
of the signal across a huge frequency spectrum, the effect upon any
frequency is below the acceptable noise floor, as illustrated in below Figure.
Ultra wideband communications spread transmitting energy across
a wide spectrum of frequency.
r example, 1 watt of power spread across 1GHz of spectrum results in only 1 nano
watt of power into each hertz band of frequency. Thus, UWB signals do not cause
significant interference to other wireless systems.
Thirdly, UWB provides high secure and high reliable communication solutions. Due to
the low energy density, the UWB signal is noise-like, which makes unintended detection
quite difficult. Furthermore, the noise-like" signal has a particular shape; in contrast,
real noise has no shape. For this reason, it is almost impossible for real noise to
obliterate the pulse because interference would have to spread uniformly across the
entire spectrum to obscure the pulse. Interference in only part of the spectrum reduces
the amount of received signal, but the pulse still can be recovered to restore the signal.
Hence UWB is perhaps the most secure means of wireless transmission ever previously
Lastly, UWB system based on impulse radio features low cost and low complexity which
ially baseband nature of the signal transmission. UWB does not
modulate and demodulate a complex carrier waveform, so it does not require
components such as mixers, filters, amplifiers and local oscillators.
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UWB has a number of encouraging advantages that are the reasons why it presents a
more eloquent solution to wireless broadband than other technologies.
Hartley theorem, channel capacity is in proportion to
ince UWB has an ultra wide frequency bandwidth, it can achieve huge
capacity as high as hundreds of Mbps or even several Gbps with distances of 1 to 10
Secondly, UWB systems operate at extremely low power transmission levels. By
of the signal across a huge frequency spectrum, the effect upon any
frequency is below the acceptable noise floor, as illustrated in below Figure.

Ultra wideband communications spread transmitting energy across
r example, 1 watt of power spread across 1GHz of spectrum results in only 1 nano
watt of power into each hertz band of frequency. Thus, UWB signals do not cause
reliable communication solutions. Due to
like, which makes unintended detection
like" signal has a particular shape; in contrast,
ason, it is almost impossible for real noise to
obliterate the pulse because interference would have to spread uniformly across the
entire spectrum to obscure the pulse. Interference in only part of the spectrum reduces
he pulse still can be recovered to restore the signal.
Hence UWB is perhaps the most secure means of wireless transmission ever previously
Lastly, UWB system based on impulse radio features low cost and low complexity which
ially baseband nature of the signal transmission. UWB does not
modulate and demodulate a complex carrier waveform, so it does not require


II.g UWB Standards
A standard is the precondition f
makes possible the wide acceptance and dissemination of products from multiple
manufacturers with an economy of scales that reduces costs to consumers.
Conformance to standards makes it possible for differen
products that are compatible or interchangeable with each other.

In UWB matters, the IEEE is active in making standards.

The IEEE 802.15.4a task group is focused on low rate alternative physical layer for
WPANs. The technical re
(>250kbps), low complexity and low power consumption.

The IEEE 802.15.3a task group is aimed at developing high rate alternative physical
layer for WPANs [14]. 802.15.3a is proposed to support a dat
distance of 10 meters. When the distance is further reduced to 4 meters and 2 meters,
the data rate will be increased to 200Mbps and 480Mbps, respectively. There are two
competitive proposals for 802.15.3a, i.e. the Direct Sequence
Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB

DS-UWB proposal is the conventional impulse radio approach to UWB communication,
i.e. it exploits short pulses which occupy a single band of several GHz for transmission
This proposal is mainly backed by free scale and Japanese NICT and its proponents
have established their own umbrella group, namely, the UWB Forum.

II.h UWB Applications
As mentioned earlier in this chapter, UWB offers some unique distinctive properties t
make it attractive for various applications.
A standard is the precondition for any technology to grow and develop because it
makes possible the wide acceptance and dissemination of products from multiple
manufacturers with an economy of scales that reduces costs to consumers.
Conformance to standards makes it possible for different manufacturers to create
products that are compatible or interchangeable with each other.
In UWB matters, the IEEE is active in making standards.
The IEEE 802.15.4a task group is focused on low rate alternative physical layer for
WPANs. The technical requirements for 802.15.4a include low cost, low data rate
250kbps), low complexity and low power consumption.
The IEEE 802.15.3a task group is aimed at developing high rate alternative physical
layer for WPANs [14]. 802.15.3a is proposed to support a data rate of 110Mbps with a
distance of 10 meters. When the distance is further reduced to 4 meters and 2 meters,
the data rate will be increased to 200Mbps and 480Mbps, respectively. There are two
competitive proposals for 802.15.3a, i.e. the Direct Sequence UWB (DS
Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MB-OFDM).
UWB proposal is the conventional impulse radio approach to UWB communication,
i.e. it exploits short pulses which occupy a single band of several GHz for transmission
This proposal is mainly backed by free scale and Japanese NICT and its proponents
have established their own umbrella group, namely, the UWB Forum.

As mentioned earlier in this chapter, UWB offers some unique distinctive properties t
make it attractive for various applications.
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or any technology to grow and develop because it
makes possible the wide acceptance and dissemination of products from multiple
manufacturers with an economy of scales that reduces costs to consumers.
t manufacturers to create
The IEEE 802.15.4a task group is focused on low rate alternative physical layer for
quirements for 802.15.4a include low cost, low data rate
The IEEE 802.15.3a task group is aimed at developing high rate alternative physical
a rate of 110Mbps with a
distance of 10 meters. When the distance is further reduced to 4 meters and 2 meters,
the data rate will be increased to 200Mbps and 480Mbps, respectively. There are two
UWB (DS-UWB) and the
OFDM).
UWB proposal is the conventional impulse radio approach to UWB communication,
i.e. it exploits short pulses which occupy a single band of several GHz for transmission.
This proposal is mainly backed by free scale and Japanese NICT and its proponents
have established their own umbrella group, namely, the UWB Forum.
As mentioned earlier in this chapter, UWB offers some unique distinctive properties that
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Firstly, UWB has the potential for very high data rates using very low power at very
limited range, which will lead to the applications well suited for WPAN. The peripheral
connectivity through cable less connections to applications like storage, I/O devices and
wireless USB will improve the ease and value of using Personal Computers (PCs) and
laptops. High data rate transmissions between computers and consumer electronics like
digital cameras, video cameras, MP3 players, televisions, personal video recorders,
automobiles and DVD players will provide new experience in home and personal
entertainment.

Secondly, sensors of all types also offer an opportunity for UWB to flourish. A sensor
network is comprised of a large number of nodes within a geographical area. These
nodes may be static, when applied for securing home, tracking and monitoring, or
mobile, if equipped on soldiers, firemen, automobiles, or robots in military and
emergency response situations. The key requirements for sensor networks include low
cost, low power and multi functionality which can be well met by using UWB technology.
High data rate UWB systems are capable of gathering and disseminating or exchanging
a vast quantity of sensory data in a timely manner. The cost of installation and
maintenance can drop significantly by using UWB sensor networks due to being devoid
of wires. This merit is especially attractive in medical applications because a UWB
sensor network frees the patient from being shackled by wires and cables when
extensive medical monitoring is required. In addition, with a wireless solution, the
coverage can be expanded more easily and made more reliable.

Thirdly, positioning and tracking is another unique property of UWB. Because of the
high data rate characteristic in short range, UWB provides an excellent solution for
indoor location with a much higher degree of accuracy than a GPS. Furthermore, with
advanced tracking mechanism, the precise determination of the tracking of moving
objects within an indoor environment can be achieved with an accuracy of several
centimeters [2]. UWB systems can operate in complex situations to yield faster and
more effective communication between people. They can also be used to find people or
objects in a variety of situations, such as casualties in a collapsed building after an
earthquake, children lost in the mall, injured tourists in a remote area, fire fighters in a
burning building and so on.

Lastly, UWB can also be applied to radar and imaging applications. It has been used in
military applications to locate enemy objects behind walls and around corners in the
battlefield. It has also found value in commercial use, such as rescue work where UWB
radar could detect a person's breath beneath rubble, or medical diagnostics where X-
ray systems may be less desirable.

UWB short pulses allow for very accurate delay estimates, enabling high definition
radar. Based on the high ranging accuracy, intelligent collision-avoidance and cruise-
control systems can be envisioned. These systems can also improve airbag deployment
and adapt suspension/braking systems depending on road conditions. Besides, UWB
vehicular radar is also used to detect the location and movement of objects near a
vehicle.

III.
The main objective of this thesis is to design antennas that are suitable for the future
UWB communication systems. Before the design work, it is necessary to get familiar
with the fundamental antenna theory in this chapter. Some important parameters
always have to be considered in antenna design are described. At the same time, the
primary requirements for a suitable UWB antenna are discussed. Some general
approaches to achieve wide operating bandwidth of antenna are presented. Also, some
classic UWB antenna configurations are introduced.
III.a. Definition of Antenna
The antennas are an essential part of any wireless system. According to
Standard Definitions of terms for Antennas
radiating or receiving radio waves
takes the signals from a transmission line, converts them into electromagnetic waves
and then broadcasts them into fr
receive mode, the antenna
them back into signals.

Figure:
In an advanced wireless system, an antenna is usually required to optimize or
accentuate the radiation energy in some directions and
frequencies. Thus the antenna must also serve as a directional in addition to a transition
device. In order to meet the particular requirement, it must take various forms. As a
result, an antenna may be a piece of conducti
a lens, an assembly of elements (arrays) and so on. A good design of the antenna can
relax system requirements and improve overall system performance.
III. Antenna Theory
The main objective of this thesis is to design antennas that are suitable for the future
UWB communication systems. Before the design work, it is necessary to get familiar
with the fundamental antenna theory in this chapter. Some important parameters
always have to be considered in antenna design are described. At the same time, the
primary requirements for a suitable UWB antenna are discussed. Some general
approaches to achieve wide operating bandwidth of antenna are presented. Also, some
c UWB antenna configurations are introduced.
Definition of Antenna
The antennas are an essential part of any wireless system. According to
Standard Definitions of terms for Antennas, an antenna is defined as
dio waves". In other words, a transmit antenna is a device that
the signals from a transmission line, converts them into electromagnetic waves
broadcasts them into free space, as shown in Figure
mode, the antenna collects the incident electromagnetic waves and converts
Figure: Antenna as a transition device

In an advanced wireless system, an antenna is usually required to optimize or
accentuate the radiation energy in some directions and suppress it in others at certain
frequencies. Thus the antenna must also serve as a directional in addition to a transition
device. In order to meet the particular requirement, it must take various forms. As a
result, an antenna may be a piece of conducting wire, an aperture, a patch, a refl
a lens, an assembly of elements (arrays) and so on. A good design of the antenna can
relax system requirements and improve overall system performance.
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The main objective of this thesis is to design antennas that are suitable for the future
UWB communication systems. Before the design work, it is necessary to get familiar
with the fundamental antenna theory in this chapter. Some important parameters that
always have to be considered in antenna design are described. At the same time, the
primary requirements for a suitable UWB antenna are discussed. Some general
approaches to achieve wide operating bandwidth of antenna are presented. Also, some
The antennas are an essential part of any wireless system. According to The IEEE
, an antenna is defined as a means for
". In other words, a transmit antenna is a device that
the signals from a transmission line, converts them into electromagnetic waves
ee space, as shown in Figure; while operating in
collects the incident electromagnetic waves and converts

In an advanced wireless system, an antenna is usually required to optimize or
suppress it in others at certain
frequencies. Thus the antenna must also serve as a directional in addition to a transition
device. In order to meet the particular requirement, it must take various forms. As a
ire, an aperture, a patch, a reflector,
a lens, an assembly of elements (arrays) and so on. A good design of the antenna can
relax system requirements and improve overall system performance.
Page | 13

III.b. Important Parameters of Antenna
To describe the performance of an antenna, definitions of various parameters are
necessary. In practice, there are several commonly used antenna parameters, including
frequency bandwidth, radiation pattern, directivity, gain, input impedance, and so on.

III.b.i Frequency Bandwidth
Frequency bandwidth (BW) is the range of frequencies within which the performance of
the antenna, with respect to some characteristic, conforms to a specified standard. The
bandwidth can be considered to be the range of frequencies, on either side of the center
frequency, where the antenna characteristics are within an acceptable value of those at
the center frequency. Generally, in wireless communications, the antenna is required to
provide a return loss less than -10dB over its frequency bandwidth.

The frequency bandwidth of an antenna can be expressed as either absolute band
width (ABW) or fractional bandwidth (FBW). If f
H
and f
L
denote the upper edge and the
lower edge of the antenna bandwidth, respectively. The ABW is defined as the
difference of the two edges and the FBW is designated as the percentage of the
frequency difference over the center frequency, as given in Equations respectively.

ABw = E I

FBw = 2(E I)(E + I)

For broadband antennas, the bandwidth can also be expressed as the ratio of the upper
to the lower frequencies, where the antenna performance is acceptable, as shown in
Equitation.
BW= E I

III.b.ii Radiation Pattern
The radiation pattern (or antenna pattern) is the representation of the radiation
properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates. In most cases, it is
determined in the far field region where the spatial (angular) distribution of the radiated
power does not depend on the distance. Usually, the pattern describes the normalized
field (power) values with respect to the maximum values.

The radiation property of most concern is the two- or three-dimensional (2D or 3D)
spatial distribution of radiated energy as a function of the observer's position along a
path or surface of constant radius. In practice, the three-dimensional pattern is
sometimes required and can be constructed in a series of two-dimensional patterns. For
most practical applications, a few plots of the pattern as a function of ' for some
particular values of frequency, plus a few plots as a function of frequency for some
particular values of will provide most of the useful information needed, where ' and
are the two axes in a spherical coordinate.

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For a linearly polarized antenna, its performance is often described in terms of its
principle E plane and H-plane patterns. The E-plane is defined as the plane containing
the electric field vector and the direction of maximum radiation whilst the H-plane is
defined as the plane containing the magnetic-field vector and the direction of maximum
radiation.

There are three common radiation patterns that are used to describe an antenna's
radiation property:

Isotropic
Directional
Omni directional


III.b.iii Directivity and Gain
To describe the directional properties of antenna radiation pattern, directivity D is
introduced and it is defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity U in a given direction
from the antenna over that of an isotropic source. For an isotropic source, the radiation
intensity U0 is equal to the total radiated power Prad divided by 4. So the directivity
can be calculated by:

x =
0
Uu
=
40
ProJ

If not specified, antenna directivity implies its maximum value, i.e. D0.


u =
u|mox
0o
=
umox
0o
=
40
ProJ


Antenna gain G is closely related to the directivity, but it takes into account the radiation
efficiency erad of the antenna as well as its directional properties, as given by:

G= e
rad
D

Figure: Equivalent circuit of antenna

Figure 3.2 shows the equivalent circuit of the antenna, where
the radiation resistance, loss resistance, inductor and capacitor, respectively.
radiation efficiency erad is defined as the ratio of the power delivered to the radiation
Similarly, the maximum gain
III.c. Antenna Classification

Antenna can be classified on the basis of
1. Frequency- VLF, LF, HF, VHF, UHF, Microwave, Millimeter wave antenna
2. Aperture Wire, Parabolic Dish, Micro strip Patch antenna
3. Polarization Linear (Vertical/horizontal), Circular polarization antenna
4. Radiation Isotropic, Omni directional, Directional, H




Figure: Equivalent circuit of antenna
Figure 3.2 shows the equivalent circuit of the antenna, where Rr, RL
the radiation resistance, loss resistance, inductor and capacitor, respectively.
is defined as the ratio of the power delivered to the radiation

Similarly, the maximum gain G0 is related the maximum directivity D




Antenna Classification
Antenna can be classified on the basis of
VLF, LF, HF, VHF, UHF, Microwave, Millimeter wave antenna
Wire, Parabolic Dish, Micro strip Patch antenna
Linear (Vertical/horizontal), Circular polarization antenna
Isotropic, Omni directional, Directional, Hemispherical antenna
Page | 15

RL, L and C represent
the radiation resistance, loss resistance, inductor and capacitor, respectively. The
is defined as the ratio of the power delivered to the radiation
D0 by:
VLF, LF, HF, VHF, UHF, Microwave, Millimeter wave antenna
Linear (Vertical/horizontal), Circular polarization antenna
emispherical antenna


III.c.i Frequency Basic


1. Very Low Frequency (VLF) & Low frequency (LF)
loaded Monopoles, T and Inverted
span antenna.
2. Medium Frequency (MF)
antennas.
3. High Frequency (HF) antennas: Log periodic antenna, conical monopole and Inverted
Cone antennas, Vertical whip antenna, rhombic antenna,
4. Very High Frequency (VHF)
antennas, log periodic antennas, helical antennas,
antennas, parabolic antennas, discone antennas,
5. Super High Frequency (SHF) & Extremely High Frequency (EHF) antennas:
Parabolic antenna, pyramidal horn antennas, discone
antennas, Micro strip patch antennas, fractal antennas.





1. Very Low Frequency (VLF) & Low frequency (LF) antenna: Vertical Radiators, Top
loaded Monopoles, T and Inverted L antennas, Triatic antenna, Trideco antenna,
2. Medium Frequency (MF) antennas: Radiators (monopoles and dipoles), direc
3. High Frequency (HF) antennas: Log periodic antenna, conical monopole and Inverted
Cone antennas, Vertical whip antenna, rhombic antenna, Fan dipole antenna.
4. Very High Frequency (VHF) & Ultra High Frequency (UHF) antennas:
antennas, log periodic antennas, helical antennas, Panel antennas, Corner reflector
antennas, discone antennas,
5. Super High Frequency (SHF) & Extremely High Frequency (EHF) antennas:
abolic antenna, pyramidal horn antennas, discone antennas, monopoles and dipoles
patch antennas, fractal antennas.
Page | 16

Vertical Radiators, Top-
iatic antenna, Trideco antenna, Valley
Radiators (monopoles and dipoles), directional
3. High Frequency (HF) antennas: Log periodic antenna, conical monopole and Inverted
Fan dipole antenna.
(UHF) antennas: Yagi-Uda
Panel antennas, Corner reflector
5. Super High Frequency (SHF) & Extremely High Frequency (EHF) antennas:
antennas, monopoles and dipoles

III.c.ii Aperture Antennas
Aperture antennas transmit and receive energy from its aperture.
Wire antennas
Horn Antenna
Parabolic reflective antenna
Cassegrain antenna
Wire antennas
A wire antenna is simply a straight wire of length /2 (dipole antenna) and /4
(monopole antenna), where is the transmitted signal wavelength. A wire antenna can
be a loop antenna such as circular loop, rectangular loop, etc. Basically all vertical
radiators are come in to wire antenna categories. A whip antenna is the best example of
wire antenna.

Horn Antenna
A horn antenna maybe regarded as a flared out or opened out waveguide. A w
is capable of radiating radiation into open space provided the same is excited at one
end and open at the other end. If flaring is done in one direction, then sectorial horn is
produced. Flaring in the direction of Electric vector and Magnetic vec
plane horn and sectorial H-
both walls (E and H) of the rectangular waveguide, then pyramidal horn is obtained. By
flaring the walls of a circular waveguide, a conical horn

Figure: Corrugated conical horn antenna
Parabolic reflective antenna
A parabola is a two dimensional plane curve. A practical reflector is a three dimensional
curved surface. Therefore a practical reflector is formed by rotating a parabola about its
axis. The surface so generated is known as paraboloid which is often call
microwave dish or parabolic reflector. The paraboloid reflector antenna consists of a
primary antenna such as a dipole or horn situated at the focal point of a paraboloid
reflector. The important practical implication of this property is that ref
Aperture Antennas
Aperture antennas transmit and receive energy from its aperture.
Parabolic reflective antenna
Cassegrain antenna
A wire antenna is simply a straight wire of length /2 (dipole antenna) and /4
(monopole antenna), where is the transmitted signal wavelength. A wire antenna can
as circular loop, rectangular loop, etc. Basically all vertical
radiators are come in to wire antenna categories. A whip antenna is the best example of
A horn antenna maybe regarded as a flared out or opened out waveguide. A w
is capable of radiating radiation into open space provided the same is excited at one
end and open at the other end. If flaring is done in one direction, then sectorial horn is
produced. Flaring in the direction of Electric vector and Magnetic vec
-plane Horn are obtained respectively. If flaring is done along
both walls (E and H) of the rectangular waveguide, then pyramidal horn is obtained. By
flaring the walls of a circular waveguide, a conical horn is formed.

Figure: Corrugated conical horn antenna

Parabolic reflective antenna
A parabola is a two dimensional plane curve. A practical reflector is a three dimensional
curved surface. Therefore a practical reflector is formed by rotating a parabola about its
axis. The surface so generated is known as paraboloid which is often call
microwave dish or parabolic reflector. The paraboloid reflector antenna consists of a
primary antenna such as a dipole or horn situated at the focal point of a paraboloid
reflector. The important practical implication of this property is that ref
Page | 17
A wire antenna is simply a straight wire of length /2 (dipole antenna) and /4
(monopole antenna), where is the transmitted signal wavelength. A wire antenna can
as circular loop, rectangular loop, etc. Basically all vertical
radiators are come in to wire antenna categories. A whip antenna is the best example of
A horn antenna maybe regarded as a flared out or opened out waveguide. A waveguide
is capable of radiating radiation into open space provided the same is excited at one
end and open at the other end. If flaring is done in one direction, then sectorial horn is
produced. Flaring in the direction of Electric vector and Magnetic vector, the sectorial E-
plane Horn are obtained respectively. If flaring is done along
both walls (E and H) of the rectangular waveguide, then pyramidal horn is obtained. By
A parabola is a two dimensional plane curve. A practical reflector is a three dimensional
curved surface. Therefore a practical reflector is formed by rotating a parabola about its
axis. The surface so generated is known as paraboloid which is often called as
microwave dish or parabolic reflector. The paraboloid reflector antenna consists of a
primary antenna such as a dipole or horn situated at the focal point of a paraboloid
reflector. The important practical implication of this property is that reflector can focus

parallel rays on to the focal point or conversely it can produce a parallel beam from
radiations originating from the focal point.

Cassegrain antenna
In cassegrain antenna primary feed radiator is positioned
vertex of the paraboloid instead
hyperboloid secondary reflector whose one of the foci coincides with the focus of
paraboloid. The feed radiator is aimed at the
reflector. As such, the radiations emitted from feed radiator are reflected from
cassegrain secondary reflector which illuminates the main
had originated from the focus. Then the paraboloid reflector colliminates the rays
usual.
In spacecraft or aircraft applications, where size, weight, cost, performance, ease of
installation, and aerodynamic profile are constraints, low profile antennas are required.
In order to meet these specifications Micro strip Patch antennas are used. These
antennas can be flush mounted to metal or other existing surfaces and they only require
space for the feed line which is normally placed behind the ground plane. The major
disadvantages of patch or micro strip antennas are their inefficiency and very narrow
bandwidth which is typically only a fraction of a percent or at the most a few percent.

III.c.iii Polarization Basis
Antenna polarization is governed by the polarization of Electromagnetic waves. Based
on that:
1. Linearly (Vertically/Horizontally) Polarized
2. Circularly Polarized antenna.
1. Linearly (Vertically/Horizontally) Polarized antenna
If antenna is transmitting/receiving Vertical E field vector, then antenna is said to be
vertically polarized antenna.
then antenna is said to be horizontally polarized antenna.
Figure: Examples of linearly polarized antennas
parallel rays on to the focal point or conversely it can produce a parallel beam from
radiations originating from the focal point.
In cassegrain antenna primary feed radiator is positioned around an opening near the
ertex of the paraboloid instead of at focus. Cassegrain feed system employs a
secondary reflector whose one of the foci coincides with the focus of
paraboloid. The feed radiator is aimed at the secondary hyperboloid reflector or sub
the radiations emitted from feed radiator are reflected from
cassegrain secondary reflector which illuminates the main paraboloid reflector as if they
focus. Then the paraboloid reflector colliminates the rays
spacecraft or aircraft applications, where size, weight, cost, performance, ease of
installation, and aerodynamic profile are constraints, low profile antennas are required.
In order to meet these specifications Micro strip Patch antennas are used. These
ntennas can be flush mounted to metal or other existing surfaces and they only require
space for the feed line which is normally placed behind the ground plane. The major
disadvantages of patch or micro strip antennas are their inefficiency and very narrow
bandwidth which is typically only a fraction of a percent or at the most a few percent.
Polarization Basis
Antenna polarization is governed by the polarization of Electromagnetic waves. Based
1. Linearly (Vertically/Horizontally) Polarized antenna.
2. Circularly Polarized antenna.
1. Linearly (Vertically/Horizontally) Polarized antenna
If antenna is transmitting/receiving Vertical E field vector, then antenna is said to be
vertically polarized antenna. If antenna is transmitting/receiving horizontal E field vector,
then antenna is said to be horizontally polarized antenna.
Figure: Examples of linearly polarized antennas
Page | 18
parallel rays on to the focal point or conversely it can produce a parallel beam from
around an opening near the
of at focus. Cassegrain feed system employs a
secondary reflector whose one of the foci coincides with the focus of
secondary hyperboloid reflector or sub-
the radiations emitted from feed radiator are reflected from
paraboloid reflector as if they
focus. Then the paraboloid reflector colliminates the rays as
spacecraft or aircraft applications, where size, weight, cost, performance, ease of
installation, and aerodynamic profile are constraints, low profile antennas are required.
In order to meet these specifications Micro strip Patch antennas are used. These
ntennas can be flush mounted to metal or other existing surfaces and they only require
space for the feed line which is normally placed behind the ground plane. The major
disadvantages of patch or micro strip antennas are their inefficiency and very narrow
bandwidth which is typically only a fraction of a percent or at the most a few percent.
Antenna polarization is governed by the polarization of Electromagnetic waves. Based
If antenna is transmitting/receiving Vertical E field vector, then antenna is said to be
horizontal E field vector,

Figure: Examples of linearly polarized antennas

2. Circularly Polarized antenna
If the antenna is able to transmit or receive E field vectors of any orientation, then
antenna is said to be circularly polarized antenna.
Figure: Examples of circular polarized antennas
III.c.iv Radiation Pattern Basis
On the basis of radiation pattern antenna can be classified as:
1. Isotropic antenna.
2. Omni directional
3. Directional antenna.
4. Hemispherical antenna.
1. Isotropic antenna
An isotropic antenna is a fictitious antenna and is defined as a
uniformly in all directions. It is also called as isotropic s
or simply unipole. An isotropic antenna is a hypothetical lossless antenna, with which
the practical antennas are compared. Thus an isotropic antenna is used as reference
antenna. Although sometimes, a half
antenna but these days use of isotropic antenna as reference antenna is preferred. Let
us assume that practical antenna is having a gain of 3dBi means that gain of practical
antenna is three times more than that of isotropic a
connected with same source.



2. Circularly Polarized antenna
If the antenna is able to transmit or receive E field vectors of any orientation, then
antenna is said to be circularly polarized antenna.
Figure: Examples of circular polarized antennas
Radiation Pattern Basis
On the basis of radiation pattern antenna can be classified as:
1. Isotropic antenna.
2. Omni directional antenna.
3. Directional antenna.
4. Hemispherical antenna.
An isotropic antenna is a fictitious antenna and is defined as an antenna which radiates
uniformly in all directions. It is also called as isotropic source or omnidirectional antenna
or simply unipole. An isotropic antenna is a hypothetical lossless antenna, with which
the practical antennas are compared. Thus an isotropic antenna is used as reference
antenna. Although sometimes, a half-wave dipole antenna is also used as reference
antenna but these days use of isotropic antenna as reference antenna is preferred. Let
us assume that practical antenna is having a gain of 3dBi means that gain of practical
antenna is three times more than that of isotropic antenna when both the antenna are
connected with same source.
Page | 19
If the antenna is able to transmit or receive E field vectors of any orientation, then

Figure: Examples of circular polarized antennas
antenna which radiates
ource or omnidirectional antenna
or simply unipole. An isotropic antenna is a hypothetical lossless antenna, with which
the practical antennas are compared. Thus an isotropic antenna is used as reference
nna is also used as reference
antenna but these days use of isotropic antenna as reference antenna is preferred. Let
us assume that practical antenna is having a gain of 3dBi means that gain of practical
ntenna when both the antenna are

2. Omni directional antenna
Omni directional antennas are those antennas which will cover equally well in azimuth
direction and having some angle in elevation direction. Basically most of the
antennas are having Omni
Dipoles antennas, etc. The
below.
Figure: Omni Directional antenna

3. Directional antenna

Antennas which directs its energy in one particular direction is said to be directional
antennas. These antennas
wireless distance. Examples are paraboloid reflector antenna,
periodic antenna, etc. Radiation pattern of these antennas are shown below.
Figure: Directional radiation pattern





2. Omni directional antenna
directional antennas are those antennas which will cover equally well in azimuth
direction and having some angle in elevation direction. Basically most of the
mni directional radiation pattern. Examples are Whip antenna,
Dipoles antennas, etc. The radiation patterns of Omni directional antennas are shown

Figure: Omni Directional antenna
directs its energy in one particular direction is said to be directional
antennas. These antennas are having very high gain and directivity to cover large
wireless distance. Examples are paraboloid reflector antenna, Yagi
etc. Radiation pattern of these antennas are shown below.

Figure: Directional radiation pattern
Page | 20
directional antennas are those antennas which will cover equally well in azimuth
direction and having some angle in elevation direction. Basically most of the wire
directional radiation pattern. Examples are Whip antenna,
directional antennas are shown
directs its energy in one particular direction is said to be directional
are having very high gain and directivity to cover large
Yagi-Uda antenna, Log
etc. Radiation pattern of these antennas are shown below.

4. Hemispherical antenna

Antenna whose radiation pattern will cover the one half of the hemisphere either upper
hemisphere or lower hemisphere is
pattern. Such types are antennas are implemented on aircraft body to cover the lower
hemisphere for data link purpose. Examples are all Monopoles antennas with large
ground plane. The radiation pattern of the
Figure: Hemispherical antenna radiation
III.d. Requirements for UWB Antenna
As is the case in conventional wireless communication systems, an antenna also plays
a crucial role in UWB systems. However, there are more challenges in
UWB antenna than a narrow band one.

First of all, what distinguishes a UWB antenna from other antennas is its ultra wide
frequency bandwidth. According to the FCC's definition, a suitable UWB antenna should
be able to yield an absolute bandwid
at least 0.2.

Secondly, the performance of a UWB antenna is required to be consistent over the
entire operational band. Ideally, antenna radiation patterns, gains and impedance
matching should be stable
the
UWB antenna provides the band
band devices and services occupying the same operational band.

Thirdly, directional or Omni
the practical application. Omni
hand-held systems. For radar systems and other directional systems where high gain is
desired, directional radiation charact
4. Hemispherical antenna
Antenna whose radiation pattern will cover the one half of the hemisphere either upper
hemisphere or lower hemisphere is said to be antenna with Hemispherical Radiation
pattern. Such types are antennas are implemented on aircraft body to cover the lower
hemisphere for data link purpose. Examples are all Monopoles antennas with large
ground plane. The radiation pattern of these antennas is shown below.
Figure: Hemispherical antenna radiation

Requirements for UWB Antenna
As is the case in conventional wireless communication systems, an antenna also plays
a crucial role in UWB systems. However, there are more challenges in
UWB antenna than a narrow band one.
First of all, what distinguishes a UWB antenna from other antennas is its ultra wide
frequency bandwidth. According to the FCC's definition, a suitable UWB antenna should
be able to yield an absolute bandwidth no less than 500MHz or a fractional bandwidth of
Secondly, the performance of a UWB antenna is required to be consistent over the
entire operational band. Ideally, antenna radiation patterns, gains and impedance
matching should be stable across the entire band. Sometimes, it is also demanded that
UWB antenna provides the band-rejected characteristic to coexist with other narrow
band devices and services occupying the same operational band.
Thirdly, directional or Omni-directional radiation properties are needed depending on
the practical application. Omni-directional patterns are normally desirable in mobile and
held systems. For radar systems and other directional systems where high gain is
desired, directional radiation characteristics are preferred.
Page | 21
Antenna whose radiation pattern will cover the one half of the hemisphere either upper
said to be antenna with Hemispherical Radiation
pattern. Such types are antennas are implemented on aircraft body to cover the lower
hemisphere for data link purpose. Examples are all Monopoles antennas with large
se antennas is shown below.

As is the case in conventional wireless communication systems, an antenna also plays
a crucial role in UWB systems. However, there are more challenges in designing a
First of all, what distinguishes a UWB antenna from other antennas is its ultra wide
frequency bandwidth. According to the FCC's definition, a suitable UWB antenna should
th no less than 500MHz or a fractional bandwidth of
Secondly, the performance of a UWB antenna is required to be consistent over the
entire operational band. Ideally, antenna radiation patterns, gains and impedance
across the entire band. Sometimes, it is also demanded that
rejected characteristic to coexist with other narrow-
iation properties are needed depending on
directional patterns are normally desirable in mobile and
held systems. For radar systems and other directional systems where high gain is
Page | 22

Fourthly, a suitable antenna needs to be small enough to be compatible to the UWB unit
especially in mobile and portable devices. It is also highly desirable that the antenna
feature low profile and compatibility for integration with printed circuit board (PCB).

Fifthly, a good design of UWB antenna should be optimal for the performance of overall
system. For example, the antenna should be designed such that the overall device
(antenna and RF front end) complies with the mandatory power emission mask given by
the FCC or other regulatory bodies.

Lastly, but not the least important, a UWB antenna is required to achieve good time
domain characteristics. For the narrow band case, it is approximated that an antenna
has same performance over the entire bandwidth and the basic parameters, such as
gain and return loss, have little variation across the operational band. In contrast, UWB
systems often employ extremely short pulses for data transmission. In other words,
enormous bandwidth has been occupied. Thus the antenna can't be treated as a spot
filter" any more but a band-pass filter". In this case, the antenna imposes more
significant impacts on the input signal. As a result, a good time domain performance, i.e.
minimum pulse distortion in the received waveform, is a primary concern of a suitable
UWB antenna because the signal is the carrier of useful information. Therefore, it is
indispensable and important to study the antenna's characteristics in time domain.


























Page | 23

IV. Numerical Methods
Typical numerical methods for modeling CPW structures are given below
Finite Difference Method (FDM)
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Transmission Line Matrix Method (TLM)
Integral Equation Method
Method of Moment (MOM)
Mode Matching Method
Transverse Resonance Method (TRM)
Method of Lines (MOL)
Generalized S Matrix Method
Spectral Domain Method

IV.a. Method of Moments
The below steps describes the MOM approach

Divide a Circuit in to small subsections.
One sub section is taken at a time and calculate the electric field generated
everywhere by the current on at one section. Then for each subsection.
Place current on all subsections simultaneously and adjust those currents so that
total tangential Electric field goes to Zero.
Once the Current distribution is obtained, the S parameters follow immediately.

IV.b. Software Tools
Generally used software tools for modeling the CPW structures which are developed by
using some of the above mentioned numerical methods are given below.

IE3D (MOM)
HFSS (FEM)
ADS (FEM)
Fidelity (FDTD)

In this paper we are using MOM based IE3D software tool for simulating the antenna.
Page | 24

V. Antenna Design and Results
Design and analysis of a compact coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed Ultra Wideband
(UWB) slot antenna is presented in this paper. The antenna consists of a rectangular
slot with cross like structure at the anterior portion of the feed which acts as tuning stub.
The CPW feed is designed for 50- impedance. The physical dimension of the proposed
antenna is 18mm (length) 17mm (width) 1.6mm (thickness). The characteristics of
the designed structure are investigated by using MOM based electromagnetic solver,
IE3D. An extensive analysis of the proposed antenna in the frequency and time
domains is presented. The antenna was fabricated with FR4 substrate and
characterized by measuring return loss, radiation pattern and gain. The measured
results are appreciably in good agreement with the simulated ones. A better impedance
bandwidth is obtained from 4.8 GHz to 12.8 GHz that constitutes a fractional bandwidth
of 90% with return loss less than or equal to -10 dB (VSWR 2). Time domain analysis
of the antenna is also performed, which witnessed the linear phase and less distortion.
The simple configuration and low profile nature of the proposed antenna leads to easy
fabrication that may be built for any wireless UWB device applications.
V.a. Antenna Design
The structure of the antenna is shown in Fig. The parameters `W1' and `L1' are the
width and length of the rectangular slot, `W2', `W3'. `L2' and `L3' are the widths and
lengths of the cross stub. `H' is the distance between the patch and feed line. `W' and
`L' are the width and length of the whole antenna respectively. In this study, a dielectric
substance (FR4) with thickness of 1.6mm and a relative permittivity of 4.4 is chosen as
substrate. The CPW feed is designed for a 50 characteristic impedance with fixed
1.8mm feed line width and 0.3mm ground gap. The proposed antenna produces wide
bandwidth with Omni-directional radiation pattern. The wide bandwidth and impedance
matching with reduced size of the antenna is achieved due to resultant of different
surface magnetic currents.



Figure: Geometry of the proposed CPW

V.b. Simulated Results Analysis
In this section, various parametric analyses of the antenna which are inevitable for any
UWB antennas are carried out and presented. The analysis and optimization were
performed for the best impedance bandwidth. The
antenna are listed in Table. The simulated return loss of the proposed antenna is shown
in Fig, which clearly indicates that the impedan
(11.8 GHz {13.8 GHz) for a return loss (
due to the coupling between the rectangular slot and the tuning stub. The resonant
frequency and bandwidth are controlled by the size of the rectangular slot, antenna and
tuning stub. Proper geometrical selection of the an
variation of field distribution, which in turn affects the characteristics of the proposed
antenna.


Figure: Geometry of the proposed CPW-fed rectangular slot a
Simulated Results Analysis
In this section, various parametric analyses of the antenna which are inevitable for any
UWB antennas are carried out and presented. The analysis and optimization were
performed for the best impedance bandwidth. The optimal parameter values of the
antenna are listed in Table. The simulated return loss of the proposed antenna is shown
in Fig, which clearly indicates that the impedance bandwidth of the antenna is 2 GHz
.8 GHz) for a return loss (S11) less than -10 dB. The ultra wideband is
due to the coupling between the rectangular slot and the tuning stub. The resonant
frequency and bandwidth are controlled by the size of the rectangular slot, antenna and
tuning stub. Proper geometrical selection of the antenna parameters results in the
variation of field distribution, which in turn affects the characteristics of the proposed
Page | 25

fed rectangular slot antenna.
In this section, various parametric analyses of the antenna which are inevitable for any
UWB antennas are carried out and presented. The analysis and optimization were
optimal parameter values of the
antenna are listed in Table. The simulated return loss of the proposed antenna is shown
ce bandwidth of the antenna is 2 GHz
10 dB. The ultra wideband is
due to the coupling between the rectangular slot and the tuning stub. The resonant
frequency and bandwidth are controlled by the size of the rectangular slot, antenna and
tenna parameters results in the
variation of field distribution, which in turn affects the characteristics of the proposed

Figure: Simulated return loss of the proposed antenna. Figure: Simulated return loss of the proposed antenna.
Figure: 2D Pattern
Page | 26

Figure: Simulated return loss of the proposed antenna.


Figure: Total Field Gain of proposed
Figure: Total Field Directivity of proposed antenna
Figure: Total Field Gain of proposed antenna
Figure: Total Field Directivity of proposed antenna


Page | 27

antenna

Figure: Total Field Directivity of proposed antenna

Figure: Antenna efficiency of proposed antenna
Figure: VSWR of proposed antenna
Figure: Antenna efficiency of proposed antenna
Figure: VSWR of proposed antenna

Page | 28

Figure: Antenna efficiency of proposed antenna


Figure: Smith chart for proposed antenna

V.c. Conclusion
This design describes the detailed
The antenna has a unique cross like tuning stub at the anterior portion of the feed to
enhance the coupling between the slot and feed. With the above structural features the
overall dimension of the propos
(width) 1.6mm (thickness). The time domain analysis of the antenna is also performed
to ensure the suitability of the proposed antenna for the UWB environment. Thus, the
proposed antenna is simple, easy to fab
systems.






Figure: Smith chart for proposed antenna
This design describes the detailed analysis and implementation of a CPW fed antenna.
The antenna has a unique cross like tuning stub at the anterior portion of the feed to
enhance the coupling between the slot and feed. With the above structural features the
proposed antenna comes around 18mm (length)
1.6mm (thickness). The time domain analysis of the antenna is also performed
to ensure the suitability of the proposed antenna for the UWB environment. Thus, the
proposed antenna is simple, easy to fabricate and can be integrated into any

Page | 29


a CPW fed antenna.
The antenna has a unique cross like tuning stub at the anterior portion of the feed to
enhance the coupling between the slot and feed. With the above structural features the
mm (length) 17mm
1.6mm (thickness). The time domain analysis of the antenna is also performed
to ensure the suitability of the proposed antenna for the UWB environment. Thus, the
ricate and can be integrated into any satellite
Page | 30

VI. Future Work and Conclusion

V.a. Conclusion
The K
u
band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of
frequencies. This symbol refers to (originally German: Kurz-unten)in other words, the
band directly below the K-band. In radar applications, it ranges from 12-
18 GHz according to the formal definition of radar frequency band nomenclature in IEEE
Standard 521-2002. This is due to its ability to achieve very high data rate which results
from the large frequency spectrum occupied. Besides, extremely low power emission
level will prevent K
u
band systems from causing severe interference with other wireless
systems. As the only non- digital part of a K
u band
system, antenna remains as a
particular challenging topic because there are more stringent requirements for a suitable
K
u
band antenna compared with a narrowband antenna. Therefore, the antenna design
and analysis for K
u
band systems were carried out in this survey paper.

V.b. Future Work
In this survey paper we concentrate on antenna theory and its design using simulation
tool like IE3D which is based on Moment of Methods (MOM). Here we proposed a new
design for Ku band applications like broadcasting satellite services and get the accurate
results. In future we are going to fabricate the designed antenna and proposed new
designs for micro wave frequency band applications using HFSS software tool which is
based on Finite Element Method (FEM).
















Page | 31

References
[1] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications", New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989.
[2] FCC, First Report and Order 02-48. February 2002.
[3] Federal Communications Commission Revision of Part 15 of the Commissions
Rules Regarding Ultra-Wideband Transmission System from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz, in
Federal Communications Commission. Washington, DC: ET-Docket, 2002, pp. 98
153, FCC.
[4] I. Oppermann, M.Hamalainen and J.Linatti UWB Theory and Applications, 2004,
john Willy & Sons, Ltd.
[5] Raha Eshtiaghi & RezaZaker antenna and its applications, DRDO science
Spectrum, march 2009, PP 66-78 2009
[6] J. William and R. Nakkeeran A Compact CPW-fed UWB slot antenna with cross
tuning stub, Progress in Electromagnetic Research, V0l.13, 159-170,210.
[7] UWB Semi-elliptical printed monopole antenna with sub band rejection filter,
Science Direct, Int. J.Electron.Commun. (AEU) 64 (2010) 133-141.
[8] Warren L. Stutzman & Gary A. ThIele, Antenna Theory and Design, 1998, John
Willy & Sons, Ltd.
[9] Saber Soltani, Two novel very small monopole antennas having frequency band
notch function using DGS for UWB application, Science Direct, Int.
J.Electron.Commun. (AEU) 65 (2011) 87-94.
[10] V.A. Shameena & S. Mridula, A compact CPW fed slot antenna for ultra wide band
applications. Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AE) 66 (2012) 189194
[11] http://ahfr.dit.ie/
[12] http://parc.wustl.edu/research
[13] http://www.ara-inc.com/index.xml
[14] http://www.elec.qmul.ac.uk/antennas/index.html
[15] http://arrow.dit.ie/ahfrccon/