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Diagnostic Package-Assisted Trunk Pipeline Inspection Technology Multi-channel Geometry Tool

Name: Diagnostic Package-Assisted Trunk Pipeline Inspection Technology Multi-channel Geometry Tool (MCGT) Number: EOOG-032-MCGT-10 Date: March 11 2010

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TABLE OF CONTEXT: 1. INTRODUCTION...........................................................4 2. ENTRY OF MULTI-CHANNEL GEOMETRY TOOL (MCGT).......6 3. LAUNCHING OF MCGT..................................................8 4. TRACKING OF MCGT ALONG THE PIPELINE.....................10 5. RECEIVING OF MCGT................................................16 6. REMOVAL OF MCGT FROM SCRAPER RECEIVER..............19 7. CLEANING OF MCGT.................................................20 8. PECULIARITIES OF RUNNING CALIPER BY AIR...................21 9. IDENTIFYING CALIPER RUNNING CONDITIONS..................25 10. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS.........................................27

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1. INTRODUCTION The present Technology has been elaborated by specialists of EOOG (Energy Overseas Oil and Gas) based on the existing requirements of standard-technical documentation (including POF Specification) During construction or rehabilitation of a trunk pipeline, it is mandatory to examine a pipe wall and seam welds for defects by in-line inspection at the stage of commissioning. In-line geometry inspection of a long distance oil transmission pipeline section is conducted by means of a Multi-channel Geometry Tool with the aim to identify controllability of a pipeline section by detecting of defects of geometry and manifestation of the pipeline features (dents, buckles, out-of-roundness and projecting of valve components into a pipeline). Operations of geometry inspection include: cleaning scraper run to clean the internal surface of a pipeline from dirt and sand as well as to remove foreign matters and construction wastes; geometry tool launch to verify a pipeline bore and to define pipeline positioning coordinates. The package configuration includes the following in-line MCGTs: - cleaning scrapers, - Multi-channel Geometry Tool with Navigation System; and surface auxiliary equipment: - GPS receiver HiPer+ or its equivalent 3 items (stationary receiver 1 item, portable receiver 2 items); portable PC 1 item, data processing station 1 item,

- tray, - acoustic locators,

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- locators, - reference marker transmitters, - route seekers. The following operations are to be accomplished to run each in-line tool: - entry into a scraper launcher, - launching, - tracking along the pipeline, - receiving in a scraper receiver, - removal from a scraper receiver. 2. ENTRY OF MULTI-CHANNEL GEOMETRY TOOL (MCGT) Initial Position: All scraper launcher pipeline valves shall be closed and a product shall be released. 2.1. Prior to shipping of the Multi-channel Geometry Tool (MCGT) to a scraper launcher, the MCGT shall be prepared for operation, in accordance with the appropriate operating documents. 2.2. MCGT run shall be scheduled beyond the explosive area with a scraper launcher closed. Using a hoist, lift the MCGT tray from a transport facility and put it near the scraper launcher. Connect ground cable between the scraper launcher and the tray, install cable clamps on coating-free areas. Caution! It is prohibited to connect or disconnect a cable with the open cap of the scraper launcher! 2.3. Open a cap of the scraper launcher and let air in at least 15 minutes. If necessary (under the Operator norms and engineering documents), purge the scraper launcher by inert gas.

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2.4. Using a hoist, lift the tray with the MCGT and position it in such a way that its forefront would be against the open scraper receiver and the tray bottom and the lower end of the scraper receiver will be at the same level. MCGT nose shall be toward the scraper launcher. 2.5. While the tray is slung, lower its feet to the ground and secure them on the tray by lock pins. Install the tray on the ground. Disconnect slings and take aside the crane jib. 2.6. Pull the MCGT slowly and gradually into the scraper launcher using entry bars till the first sleeve comes into the nominal size scraper launcher section. The back of the sensor carrier shall be positioned out of a product flow, when a product will be supplied to the scraper launcher (refer to Fig. 1).

Fig. 1: Entry of MCGT into a Scraper Launcher

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Warning! MCGT shall be pulled into the scraper launcher in such a way that the front sleeve of the drive section comes into the nominal size scraper launcher section. This position of MCGT will ensure its travel from the scraper launcher to a pipeline by a product flow. 2.7 Using a hoist, remove the tray from the scraper launcher to close the

scraper launcher cap. 2.8 Close the scraper launcher cap. 2.9 Disconnect the ground cable from the scraper launcher. 2.10 Assemble and load the tray on a vehicle and ship it at the scraper receiver site. 3. LAUNCHING OF MCGT 3.1 Scraper Launcher Initial Position (refer to Fig. 2): MCGT is positioned in the scraper launcher in such a way that its front sleeve comes into the nominal size scraper launcher section. Gate valve V 1 - open; gate valves V 2, V 3, V 4, T 1, T 2 and 3 - close

Fig. 2.

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3.2 Install a locator receiver (LR) at the scraper launcher outlet gate valve upstream. 3.3 Open the gate valves of plungers 1 and 2. 3.4 Supply a product to the scraper launcher gradually by gate valves V 3 and V4, until a product comes out of plungers 1 and 2. 3.5. Close the gate valves of plungers 1 and 2. 3.6. Close gate valves V 3 and V 4. 3.7. Operator shall set the flow (Q1) velocity at a long distance pipeline as approved by Customer and Contractor (in a range: from 0.2 to 3 m/sec. Stops and travel of MCGT at the velocity lower than 0.2 m/sec are not allowed) and wait until the flow velocity becomes steady. 3.8. Equalize pressure between a pipeline (pressure gauge 1) and the scraper launcher (pressure gauge 2) by opening and closing the valve V 3. 3.9. Open the gate valve V 2 fully. The gate valves V 3 and V4 remain closed. 3.10. Open the gate valve V3. 3.11. Start closing the gate valve V1. MCGT will commence to travel from the scraper launcher to the pipeline. Using the locator, watch the MCGT passage through the scraper launcher outlet gate valve, the T-piece and SPI Series indicator (Fig. 3.).

Fig. 3.

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3.12. Open the gate valve V 1 fully as soon as the locator will detect the MCGT at the first reference marker. 3.13. Isolate the scraper launcher by closing the gate valves V 2 and V 3. 4. TRACKING OF MCGT ALONG THE PIPELINE 4.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS To track MCGT, the following facilities are applied: MCGT transceivers, antennae of which are fitted under the bumper grate in the forefront and ground tracking devices that include locators. The MCGT transceivers generate low frequency electromagnetic signals that are received by the locator receiver antenna on the ground surface from 3 meters from the transmitter in a pipeline. The locator receivers designed to track the MCGT during their travel along a pipeline, they shall be needed to refer inspection data to particular oil pipeline locations and shall be installed at the reference marker locations. Tracking teams with the locator receivers shall arrive at the reference marker location not later than 20 minutes before the expected time of the MCGT passage. To track the MCGT by the acoustic noise produced during its travel along a pipeline, acoustic locators may be applied. The cleaning scraper equipped with remote signal transmitter will travel along a pipeline and it will be tracked by the acoustic locator or aurally at valves locations (gate valves and plungers), as well as at exposed pipeline sections.

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Fig. 4: General View of Marker Signal Logger (MSL) and its faceplate

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4.2.1 LOGGING OF A MOVING MCGT Place MSL at a minimum possible distance above the pipeline at the location where an in-line MCGT or a cleaning scraper is expected to pass (control point). Longitudinal axis of MSL should be parallel to pipeline axis, see Fig. 7.2. (a). Efficiency of transmitting device (TD) signal detection depends on the distance between the axes. When MSL is logged, there is a specific sound signal accompanied by four or more flashing indicators. 4.2.2 LOGGING OF A STATIONARY MCGT Move MSL along the pipeline as close as possible to its axis. Efficiency of TD signal detection is maximum when MSL antenna axis is parallel to the pipeline axis. When MSL is logged, there is a specific periodic sound signal accompanied by four or more flashing indicators. While approaching to MCGT it is necessary to reduce sensitivity of MSL gradually and keep the number of flashing indicators between five and six in order to identify a location with maximum strength of the signal. MSL antenna axis should be parallel to the pipeline axis. The location where the MSL signal strength is maximum corresponds to the location of TD antenna, fixed on a flaw detector. For more exact detection of MCGT it is necessary to find minimum strength of a signal by putting MSL antenna axis 90 to the pipeline axis, see Fig. 5 (b). It is acceptable to change sensitivity of MSL during search to watch the signal alteration.

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Fig. 5: Variants of MSL antenna positioning over the pipeline axis.

4.2.3 APPLICATION OF MSL FOR LOGGING OF MCGT PASSAGE MOMENT Prior to placement of MSL in a marker point it is essential to synchronize timers of the MCGT and MSL. This procedure is carried out immediately before launching of the MCGT. After MSL placement in a marker point and adjustment of due sensitivity turnrecording enable on. After passage of MCGT turn the power of MSL or recording enable off. Copying of received data and its subsequent processing are made with a special computer program. In order to increase reliability of marker work it is recommended to take into account the following rules:

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March 11 2010 Placement of MSL in marker points during tracking of MCGT should be made in the following way: antenna (MSL axis) can be placed vertically, strictly above pipeline axis;

Fig. 6. Antenna can be placed horizontally above pipeline, parallel to pipeline axis.


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March 11 2010 Variant of antenna placement is subject to operators decision depending on existing disturbance in a marker point. It is important to choose optimum type of MSL placement to reduce the influence of disturbance. Note 1: Vertical placement is preferable, since in this case (during postprocessing of obtained information) the moment of MCGT passage through the marker point is more exact. Note 2: In a situation of high disturbance, high speed of MCGT motion or deep occurrence of the pipeline it is recommended to place two MSLs in every marker point: one is vertical, the other is horizontal. 5. RECEIVING OF MCGT 5.1 Scraper Receiver Initial Position (refer to Fig. 8): The gate valve V1 is closed; The gate valves V2 and V3 are opened.

Fig. 8.

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5.2 Position the locator receiver about 20 m from T-piece of the scraper receiver (refer to fig. 9). 5.3 Watch the MCGT passes "" T-piece by the locator receiver. 5.4 Move the locator receiver to the scraper receiver to identify the MCGT position (transmitter antenna) at the scraper receiver. 5.5 Carrying the locator along the scraper receiver (the antenna shall be perpendicular to the scraper receiver wall), find the accurate position ( 20 ) of the transmitter antenna by the minimum signal to make sure that the MCGT entered the scraper receiver fully and the gate V2 will not obstruct to close it. 5.6 Open the gate valve V1 fully. 5.6 If the MCGT entered the scraper receiver fully, close gate valves V2 and V3 sequentially.

Fig. 9.

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5.7. Release pressure in the scraper receiver.

6. REMOVAL OF MCGT FROM SCRAPER RECEIVER 6.1 Using a hoist, lift a tray from the transport facility and put it near the closed scraper receiver. 6.2 Connect a ground cable between the scraper entry facility and the scraper receiver. Make sure the ground cable runs along both sides. Warning! Make sure the ground cable is clamped at coating-free sections! It is prohibited to connect or disconnect the ground cable with the open cap of the scraper receiver! 6.3 Release a product from the scraper receiver. If necessary, use an inert gas. 6.4 Open the scraper receiver cap and remove remaining product.

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6.5 Wait 15 minutes to let fumes out of the scraper receiver or purge by inert gas. 6.6 Lift the tray by hoist and position it in front of the scraper receiver opening so as its rear end is close to the open scraper receiver and the tray bottom is not higher than the scraper receiver bottom. Adjust the feet and secure them. Secure the MCGT tray on the scraper receiver to avoid offset. 6.7 Secure a wire in the bumper lug in the front of the MCGT. Using a winch or a tractor, pull the MCGT smoothly from the scraper receiver, until it is completely placed on the tray. Secure the MCGT in the tray to avoid offset. 6.8 Remove the tray with the MCGT from the scraper receiver to close the scraper receiver cap. 6.9 Close the scraper receiver cap. 6.10 Disconnect the ground cable between the scraper receiver and the tray. 6.11 Move the tray with the MCGT beyond the dangerous zone of the scraper receiver (out of the safety guard). 6.12 According to the MCGT operation guidelines, take the MCGT run-related initial data and shut down the MCGT. 6.13 Axamine the MCGT visually. 7. CLEANING OF MCGT 1. Remove possible deposits. It is prohibited to apply heavy tool or sharpedged tool, since it may damage connection cables and the odometer wheels. 2. The amount of wax and tar deposits, as well as damages detected during initial inspection and cleaning shall be indicated in MCGT Acceptance Report. 3. 4. Clean all MCGT components thoroughly, including cables. Steam and water jetting will be the most appropriate cleaning technique. If a steam facility is unavailable, diesel fuel-wet rags may clean the MCGT. Upon cleaning, the MCGT shall be dried by clean rags.

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When the MCGT is cleaned to a degree that allows to ship it to the operation facility, examine the external condition of the MCGT and execute the appropriate "MCGT Acceptance Report".

8. PECULIARITIES OF RUNNING CALIPER BY AIR Essentials Major issues related to running caliper with the help of air: - increased wear of cup-type seals; - non-uniform movement of caliper with stops and brisk accelerations (in excess of maximum allowable 8 m/s); - difficulties in choosing compressor duty. As distinct from running with the help of liquid, pressure drop contributing to in-line inspection tool movement heavily depends on the force of the tool friction against pipeline wall. Such force heavily depends on deposits covering pipeline inner wall. Increased wear of cup-type seals in large-diameter pipelines could be handled using support wheels for the caliper body. The wheels serve as an additional support for the body and reduce cup-type seals pressure. Base of the wheels contains instrument transducers capable of measuring all pipeline geometrics. Service life of the support wheels is no less than 250 km. They assist in reducing wear of cup-type seals. Components of the Caliper The product mainly consists of the body (Figure 10, 11). The body holds cuptype seals, support wheels, with rate-of-turn sensors. Head of the product carries a bumper, and low-frequency transmitter. Rear part of the product contains odometers. Cup-type seals align the product within the pipeline and enable its movement through the pipeline with the medium. The wheels roll over the pipeline inner surface tracking all its irregularities. Data from rate-of-turn sensors enter

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electronics unit to undergo further processing. Data related to traveled distance, speed and acceleration will be transmitted from odometers to the same electronics unit. Bumper, contains an eye used to insert the product into the launcher (when pulling it in), while its rear part contains a ringbolt used to withdraw the product from the pipeline receiver and handling operations.

Fig. 10. Version 48-PM

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Fig. 11. Version 38-PM

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9. IDENTIFYING CALIPER RUNNING CONDITIONS Pipelines vary in terms of design (according to terrain peculiarities, laying conditions and elevation differences; application of T-joints, gate valves etc.), steel grades and equipment used for in-line operations (compressors etc.). Therefore, caliper running conditions would be identified based on cleaning pig running results. Caliper run should without fail be preceded with cleaning pig run. In the course of the run, technical personnel will not only assess pipeline cleaning degree, but identify service conditions adequate for ensuring allowable caliper travel speed. Equipment service conditions shall correspond to the pre-set parameters: speed from 0.5 to 4 m/s (for short periods: no less than 0.2 m/s and no more than 8 m/s) the caliper shall move continuously for XYZ Mapping, At particularly heavy route sections, where the caliper may stick, the Customers technical personnel should run a foam pig behind the caliper. Joint application of the caliper and foam pig will enable to negotiate the heaviest pipeline sections changing no compressor duty. Personnel accompanying the caliper along the pipeline route will make rapid calculation of its travel speed using obtained results to adjust compressor duty. Peculiarities of running caliper during dewatering: Running caliper to displace water left after hydrotesting almost does not differ from its run with the help of liquid (crude or water).

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A peculiarity: Prior to running a caliper, technical personnel operating the pipeline will calculate water displacement conditions depending on air feed flow rate and potential water flow rate. Motion mode could be adjusted by reducing / increasing liquid outflow from the pipeline. Caliper motion mode will be controlled by technical personnel operating the pipeline at the run start as soon as the caliper leaves checkpoint I behind.

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10. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS The following acronyms and terms with appropriate definitions shall be used in the Technology: Pipeline A system of pipes and other components used for the transportationof products between (but excluding ) plants. A pipeline extends from pig trap to pig trap (including the pig traps), or, if no pig trap is fitted, to the first isolation valve within the plant boundaries or a more inward valve if so nominated. means a long distance oil transmission pipeline. means an owner of an oil pipeline that enters into agreement with the Contractor to execute LDOTP inspection-related operations. means a Customer-contracted dedicated company conducting cross-country pipeline diagnostics. means detection of defects and anomalies in a pipeline by means of in-line inspection tool. means an in-line intpection tool designed to clean a pipe and a pipe wall from wax and tar deposits as well as from foreign matters.

LDOTP Customer

Contractor Flaw Detection Cleaning Scraper

Multi-channel Geometry Tool (MCGT) Equipped with Navigation System means an in-line inspection tool designed to detect such features as dents, buckles, ovality, bend radius and angle and in some cases considerable areas of internal corrosion during inline geometry inspection and also to define pipeline positioning coordinates. Transmitting Device or Transmitter means a device generating low frequency electromagnetic pulses and emitting them through a dedicated aerial. It is mounted on an in-line inspection tool to detect its location from the ground surface.

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Locator or Marker Signal Logger

means a surface hand-held device designed to detect low frequency transmitters-fitted in-line inspection tools in a pipeline by means of signals to be produced. means a surface hand-held device designed to detect in-line inspection tool passage through a location of a pipeline by the acoustic noise means a partial collapse of the pipe due to excessive bending or compression associated with soil instability, land slides, washouts, frost heaves, earthquakes, etc means a distortion of the pipe wall resulting in a change of the internal diameter but not necessarily resulting in localized of wall thickness

Acoustic Locator



Launching/Receiving Trap means an ancilliary item of pipeline equipment, with associated pipeworks and valves, for introducing and removing MCGT from a pipeline.

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