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The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. The Peace of Westphalia treaties involved the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand III, of the House of Habsburg, the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of France, the Swedish Empire, the Dutch Republic, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, and sovereigns of the free imperial cities and can be denoted by two major events.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaties of Osnabrück and Münster
The signing of the Peace of Münster between the Ratification of the Peace of Münster (Gerard ter Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 Borch, Münster, 1648) January 1648, officially ratified in Münster on 15 May Peace treaty Type 1648. The signing of two complementary treaties on 24 Drafted 1646-1648 October 1648, namely: Signed 15 May - 24 October 1648 The Treaty of Münster (Instrumentum Pacis Location Osnabrück and Münster, Westphalia, Monasteriensis, IPM), concerning the Holy modern-day Germany Roman Emperor and France and their respective allies. Parties 109 The Treaty of Osnabrück (Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugensis, IPO), concerning the Holy Roman Emperor, the Empire and Sweden and their respective allies. The treaties resulted from the big diplomatic congress, thereby initiating a new system of political order in central Europe, later called Westphalian sovereignty, based upon the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign and establishing a prejudice in international affairs against interference in another nation's domestic business. The treaty not only signaled the end of the perennial, destructive wars that had ravaged Europe, it also represented the triumph of sovereignty over empire, of national rule over the personal writ of the Habsburgs. The treaties’ regulations became integral to the constitutional law of the Holy Roman Empire, and stood as a precursor to later large international treaties and thereby the development of international law in general. The treaties did not restore the peace throughout Europe, however; France and Spain remained at war for the next eleven years. But the peace of Westphalia at least created a basis for national self-determination.
Since Lutheran Sweden preferred Osnabrück as a conference venue. and the prohibition of all political influence by the warring parties including their overlords. Delegations . as well as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and its opponent Spain (and their respective allies) negotiated in Münster. Both cities were to be maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. whether sovereign or a state within the Holy Roman Empire. While under Swedish occupation Osnabrücks's Catholics were not expelled. provided by the Holy Roman Emperor and the Spanish King. were to be started in Cologne in 1636. since its re-Catholization in 1535. Both cities strove for more autonomy. Count of Wartenberg then imposed the Counter-Reformation onto the city with many Lutheran burgher families being exiled. No places of worship were provided for Calvinists and Lutherans. its peace negotiations with the Empire. Only Roman Catholic worship was permitted. but the city severely suffered from Swedish war contributions. Therefore Osnabrück hoped for a great relief becoming neutralised and demilitarised. Sweden and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated the Treaty of Hamburg. The Holy Roman Empire and Sweden declared the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg to be preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. took place in Osnabrück. including the allies of both sides. This larger agreement was to be negotiated in Westphalia. including the allies of each. a strictly mono-denominational community. In the years of 1628-1633 Osnabrück had been subjugated by troops of the Catholic League. The Catholic Prince-Bishop Franz Wilhelm. It housed the Chapter of the PrinceBishopric of Münster. Cardinal Richelieu of France desired the inclusion of all its allies.1 Internal political boundaries 3. Münster was. aspiring to become Free Imperial Cities.1 Locations 2 Delegations 3 Results 3. These negotiations were blocked by France. In Hamburg and Lübeck. The Empire and its opponent France. with two Lutheran and two Catholic churches for its mostly Lutheran burghers and exclusively Lutheran city council and the Catholic Chapter of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück with pertaining other clergy and also other Catholic inhabitants. so they welcomed the neutrality imposed by the peace negotiations.2 Tenets 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Locations Peace negotiations between France and the Habsburgs. This was done with the intervention of Richelieu. Contemporary medal celebrating the Peace of Westphalia Osnabrück was a bidenominational Lutheran and Catholic city. the prince-bishops. in the neighbouring cities of Münster and Osnabrück.
Brandenburg sent several representatives. Tenets The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia were: A simplified map of Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. and besides included the diplomats and writers Diego de Saavedra Fajardo. a lawyer. The French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans. represented the Old Swiss Confederacy. duc de Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and Abel Servien. invalid. All parties would recognize the Peace of Augsburg of 1555. in Münster. Results Internal political boundaries The power taken by Ferdinand III in contravention of the Holy Roman Empire's constitution was stripped and returned to the rulers of the Imperial States. void. reprobate. inane. because the participating total of 109 delegations never met in a plenary session. two provinces were not present). The Swedes plenipotentiaries sent Johan Oxenstierna. The Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán. in Osnabrück. Protestants and Catholics were redefined as equal before the law. The papal nuntius in Cologne. empty of meaning and effect for all time". and Johan Adler Salvius. and Bernardino de Rebolledo. in which each prince would have the right to . Various Imperial States of the Holy Roman Empire also sent delegations. Fabio Chigi. including Vollmar. but dropped in between 1643 and 1646 and left between 1647 and 1649. his aides were Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamar and Isaak Volmar (a lawyer). Johann Rudolf Wettstein. the son of chancellor Axel Oxenstierna. iniquitous. The head of the delegation of the Holy Roman Empire for both cities was Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff. The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands sent a delegation of six (including two delegates from the province of Holland (Adriaan Pauw) and Willem Ripperda from one of the other provinces. representing the interests of a total of 140 involved Imperial States. and the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. damnable. The Holy See was very displeased at the settlement. sixty-six Imperial States. Between January 1646 and July 1647 probably the largest number of diplomats were present. and 27 interest groups. unjust. representing the interests of a variety of a total of 38 groups. with Pope Innocent X in Zelo Domus Dei reportedly calling it "null. the mayor of Basel. This rectification allowed the rulers of the Imperial States to independently decide their religious worship. and Calvinism was given legal recognition. his team comprised Johann Maximilian von Lamberg and Reichshofrat Johann Krane.The peace negotiations had no exact beginning and ending. Delegations had been sent by 16 European states.
Lower Saxon and Westphalian circles. France came out of the war in a far better position than any of the other participants. these territories had enjoyed de facto independence for decades. both Sweden and Brandenburg had claimed the whole duchy. General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands. The treaty also delegated the determination of the Swedish-Brandenburgian border in the Duchy of Pomerania to the parties. The majority of the Peace's terms can be attributed to the work of Cardinal Mazarin. the wording of the treaties was ambiguous: Whether or not the city of Bremen was included in Swedish Bremen-Verden remained disputed. Not surprisingly. being a child). and the Prince-Bishoprics of Bremen and Verden as hereditary fiefs. At Osnabrück. owing their re-investiture to the Swedes. cede Historical map . However. Sweden understood that Bremen was nevertheless to be ceded to her. which had been under Swedish control since 1630 despite legal claims of Brandenburgian succession. which was granted by the emperor and thus separated the city from the surrounding bishopric with the same name.determine the religion of his own state. Bremen had claimed Imperial immediacy. There were also territorial adjustments: The independence of the Switzerland from the Empire was formally recognized. eius religio). used primarily to pay her troops. thus gaining a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet of the imperial as well as in the respective circle diets (Kreistag) of the Upper Saxon. Lutheranism. and agents abroad. received Western Pomerania (henceforth Swedish Pomerania). and now Calvinism (the principle of cuius regio. France won control of the Bishoprics of Metz. Louis XIV. Sweden further Holy Roman Empire in 1648. Issuance of unrestricted letters of marque and reprisal to privateers was forbidden. and each and several responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents. The treaty ruled that the Dukes of Mecklenburg. Wismar. or Mülhausen). Facing the Swedish take-over. and the cities of the Décapole in Alsace (but not Strasbourg. While the parties settled for a border in 1653. the options being Catholicism. people. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will. the de facto leader of France at the time (the king. Toul and Verdun near Lorraine. the underlying conflict continued. the Bishopric of Strasbourg. Sweden received an indemnity of five million talers. and started the Swedish-Bremen wars in 1653/54.
 Wildeshausen. The Prince Palatine. with the Protestant bishops chosen from cadets of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. The succession to the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg.nl.Wismar and the Mecklenburgian port tolls. to the north of Bavaria. a petty exclave of Bremen-Verden and fragile basis for Sweden's seat in the Westphalian circle diet. beeldbank. Kammin. Halberstadt. while Maximilian kept the Upper Palatinate.  See also Charter of Liberties Concordat of Worms Eighty Years' War Freedom of religion History of Sweden 1648-1700 List of treaties Peace of Augsburg Peace of Münster Roger Williams (theologian) Thirty Years' War Westphalian sovereignty References 1. 2. Bavaria retained the Palatinate's vote in the Imperial Council of Electors (which elected the Holy Roman Emperor).nl/na:col1:dat515773). Charles Louis obtained the Lower Palatinate. ^ "Digital German text Treaty of Münster" (http://www. and thus between the Protestants and Catholics. Brandenburg-Prussia (later Prussia) received Farther Pomerania. The independence of the city of Bremen was clarified. along the Rhine.lwl. while Cleves.org/westfaelische- . eighth electoral vote. Mark. and "a degree" of free navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine. It was agreed that the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück would alternate between Protestant and Catholic holders. and Ravensberg went to Brandenburg. The Palatinate was divided between the re-established Elector Palatine Charles Louis (son and heir of Frederick V) and Elector-Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. the Mecklenburgian dukes as well as the emperor understood this to refer to Wismar only. and Minden. ^ "Original text in Dutch National Archives" (http://beeldbank. was also claimed by the Bishopric of Münster. Jülich. who had died out in 1609. Frederick's son. and the Bishoprics of Magdeburg. Barriers to trade and commerce erected during the war were abolished. Berg.nationaalarchief. and Ravenstein were given to the Count Palatine of Neuburg.nationaalarchief. which it had been granted by the ban on the Elector Palatine Frederick V in 1623. was given a new. was clarified. While Sweden understood this to include the tolls of all Mecklenburgian ports.
php?urlID=740&url_tabelle=tab_quelle).muenster. 13. 37. Der Westfälische Frieden von 1648: Wende in der Geschichte des Ostseeraums (in German). ISBN 3-8300-0500-8. External links Treaty of Münster Text (http://avalon. 9. 355-372. p. 7. Plattner. In Hacker. Der Westfälische Frieden von 1648: Wende in der Geschichte des Ostseeraums (in German).edu/gbrown/westernciv/wc201/wciv2c10/wciv2c10lsec2. Klaus-R (2001). doi:10. pp.) on behalf of the Veranstaltungsgesellschaft 350 Jahre Westfälischer Friede.. Retrieved 2012-09-11. 5.geschichte/portal/Internet/finde/langDatensatz. "Die sicherheitspolitische Lage Schwedens nach dem Westfälischen Frieden". ^ a b c Böhme. 6.asp) (Yale University) Texts of the Westphalian Treaties (http://www.edu. 'Essay Volume 1: Politics.law. Kovač. 11. Paul. Hans-Joachim.Firmly Plants Protestantism in Europe (http://www. American Journal of International Law 42 (1): 20– 41 [p. "The Peace of Westphalia.net/peacewestphalia/) . ^ Konrad Repgen. 1648-1948". R. "Die sicherheitspolitische Lage Schwedens nach dem Westfälischen Frieden". Kovač. Mazarin's quest: the Congress of Westphalia and the coming of the Fronde (http://books. 38. 356. Klaus-R (2001). 5. "Which Countries have State Religions?" (http://economics. lwl. ^ a b c Treaty of Münster 1648 10. Klaus Bußmann and Heinz Schilling (eds. Klaus-R (2001).edu/17th_century/westphal. Religion.php). (Catalogue of the 26th exhibition of the Council of Europe. 355-372. Kovač. Muenster. 35. lwl. 'Negotiating the Peace of Westphalia: A Survey with an Examination of the Major Problems'.html). Marc F.2307/2193560 (http://dx. ISBN 3-8300-0500-8. In: 1648: War and Peace in Europe: 3 vols. R. Religion. ^ Sonnino. ^ "Principles of the State System" (http://faculty. p. Leo (1948). 16. 25]. p. 4. on the Peace of Westphalia).pdf). ^ Böhme. "Die sicherheitspolitische Lage Schwedens nach dem Westfälischen Frieden". ISBN 3-8300-0500-8. University of Chicago. In Hacker. Law and Society'. here pp.2307%2F2193560). ^ "Digital German text Treaty of Osnabrück" (http://www. Münster and Osnabrück: no publ. Retrieved 2012-09-11. Klaus-R (2001). J. on the Peace of Westphalia). (Catalogue of the 26th exhibition of the Council of Europe.unlv. ^ Gross. Der Westfälische Frieden von 1648: Wende in der Geschichte des Ostseeraums (in German). 36. pp. ^ Böhme. 1998. Costopoulo (2005). 8. ^ Konrad Repgen. ISBN 3-8300-0500-8. 14.com/books? id=eu8Lb7ZuayEC&pg=PA119&lpg=PA119&dq=Clant+Ripperda+Pauw&source=bl&ots=_uVycVA9uW&sig=LQ 8AaZ0mXqxQL0UKHxvoK0gKz8&hl=en&ei=OnWdTujsL8PpOfilxIMJ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CBsQ 6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Clant%20Ripperda%20Pauw&f=false). Hans-Joachim.) on behalf of the Veranstaltungsgesellschaft 350 Jahre Westfälischer Friede. p. p. and McCleary.de/en/peace_of_westphalia. 355seq. Kovač. ^ Böhme. Philip J. ^ a b Barro. Faculty.famoushistoricalevents.org/westfaelischegeschichte/portal/Internet/finde/langDatensatz.uchicago.lwl.doi. In: 1648: War and Peace in Europe: 3 vols. 1998. Der Westfälische Frieden von 1648: Wende in der Geschichte des Ostseeraums (in German). Law and Society'.yale.unlv. 3.php?urlID=741&url_tabelle=tab_quelle).edu/download/state_religion_03-03.de) (German) Peace Of Westphalia .org/10.org. World religions and democracy. Hans-Joachim.google. In Hacker. "Die sicherheitspolitische Lage Schwedens nach dem Westfälischen Frieden". here p. 12. 'Negotiating the Peace of Westphalia: A Survey with an Examination of the Major Problems'. Hans-Joachim. In Hacker.. M. Münster and Osnabrück: no publ.pax-westphalica. ^ Larry Jay Diamond. 15. 'Essay Volume 1: Politics. Retrieved 7 November 2006.de. ^ "Information from city of Münster" (http://www. Klaus Bußmann and Heinz Schilling (eds.org.
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