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French Tutorial Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

Note: Before heading to the tutorial I would Strictly recommend to download any
online dictionary which could easily translate the difficult French words provided below so that you can understand them easily and learn quickly, if you have one so that’s good if not then I’ll personally prefer BabelFish dictionary which is free so you don’t need to buy it. The download link is provided below: 1. Basic Phrases / les expressions de base Bonjour /bɔʒ ̃ uʀ/ Hello / Good day / Good morning Salut /saly/ Hi / Bye Merci (beaucoup) /mɛʀsi boku/ Thank you (very much) Bienvenu(e) /bjɛ vəny/ ̃ Welcome (also You're welcome in Quebec) A plus tard /a ply taʀ/ See you later Bonsoir /bɔ swa ̃ ʀ/ Good evening Au revoir /ɔʀ(ə)vwaʀ/ Goodbye De rien. /də ʀjɛ /̃ You're welcome. Allons-y! /alɔ̃ zi/ Let's go! A bientôt /a bjɛ to/ ̃ See you soon Pardon ! /paʀdɔ /̃ Excuse me! (pushing through a crowd) / Sorry! (stepped on someone's foot) Je vais bien /ʒə ve bjɛ /̃ I'm fine. Bonne nuit /bɔn nɥi/ Good night (only said when going to bed) S'il vous plaît / S'il te plaît /sil vu plɛ/ Please (formal / informal) Je vous en prie. /ʒəvu zɑ̃ pri/ You're welcome. (formal) / Go ahead. A tout à l'heure /a tu ta lœʀ/ See you in a little while A demain /a dəmɛ /̃ See you tomorrow Excusez-moi ! /ekskyze mwa/ Excuse me! (getting someone's attention) / I'm sorry! (more formal apology) Très bien / mal / pas mal /tʀɛ bjɛ /̃ /mal/ /pa mal/ Very good / bad / not bad

Je suis désolé(e) /dezɔle/ I'm sorry

Comment allez-vous ? /kɔmɑ̃ tale vu/ How are you? (formal)

Ça va ? /sa va/ How are you? (informal) Comment vous appelezvous ? /kɔmɑ̃ vu zaple vu/ What's your name? (formal) Enchanté(e) /ɑʃɑ ̃ ̃te/ Nice to meet you.

Ça va. /sa va/ I'm fine. (informal response to Ça va ?) Tu t'appelles comment ? /ty tapɛl kɔmɑ̃/ What's your name? (informal) Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle /məsjø/ /madam/ /madwazɛl/ Mister, Misses, Miss Tu es d'où ? / Tu viens d'où ? /ty ɛ du/ /ty vjɛ̃du/ Where are you from? (informal) Tu habites où ? /ty abit u/ Where do you live? (informal) Tu as quel âge ? /ty ɑ kɛl ɑʒ/ How old are you? (informal)

Oui / non /wi/ /nɔ /̃ Yes / no Je m'appelle... /ʒə mapɛl/ My name is...

Mesdames et Messieurs /medam/ /mesjø/ Ladies and gentlemen

Vous êtes d'où ? / Vous venez d'où ? /vu zɛt du/ /vu vəne du/ Where are you from? (formal) Où habitez-vous ? /u abite vu/ Where do you live? (formal) Quel âge avez-vous ? /kɛl ɑʒ ave vu/ How old are you? (formal) Parlez-vous français ? / Tu parles anglais ? /paʀle vu frɑ̃s ɛ/ /ty paʀl ɑ̃gl ɛ/ Do you speak French? (formal) / Do you speak English? (informal) Comprenez-vous? / Tu comprends? /kɔ p ̃ ʀəne vu/ /ty kɔ p ̃ ʀɑ̃/ Do you understand? (formal / informal) Pouvez-vous m'aider ? / Tu

Je suis de... / Je viens de... /ʒə sɥi də/ /ʒə vjɛ̃də/ I am from...

J'habite à... /ʒabit a/ I live in... J'ai ____ ans. /ʒe __ ɑ̃/ I am ____ years old.

Je parle allemand. /ʒə paʀl almɑ/̃ I speak German.

Je ne parle pas espagnol. /ʒə nə paʀl pa ɛspaɲɔl/ I don't speak Spanish.

Je comprends /ʒə kɔ p ̃ ʀɑ̃/ I understand Bien sûr.

Je ne comprends pas /ʒə nə kɔ p ̃ ʀɑ̃ pa/ I don't understand Comment ?

Ça m'est égal. /bjɛ̃sy ʀ/ Of course. Je suis fatigué(e) / Je suis malade. / It's alright. /sa mɛ teɡal/ /ʒə mɑ̃ fi ʃ/ It's the same to me / I don't care. / Ne t'en fais pas.. /ʒe ʃo/ /ʒe fʀwɑ/ I'm hot / I'm cold. /ʒə sɥi fatiɡe/ /ʒə sɥi malad/ I'm tired / I'm sick. Qu'est-ce que c'est que ça ? /kɛs kə sɛ kə sa/ What is that? Qu'est-ce qui se passe ? /kɛs ki sə pas/ What's happening? J'ai faim / J'ai soif. Ne vous en faites pas.. /il i a/ /il i avɛ/ There is / are.... Bonne chance ! /bɔn ʃɑ̃s/ Good luck! Je vous aime / Je t'aime Je m'ennuie.peux m'aider ? /puve vu mede/ /ty pø mede/ Can you help me? (formal / informal) Tenez / Tiens /təne/ /tjɛ /̃ Hey / Here (formal / informal) Où est . /sa nə fɛ ʀjɛ /̃ It doesn't matter. /ʒe ublije/ I forgot. A vos souhaits ! / A tes souhaits ! /a vo swɛ/ /a te swɛ/ Bless you! (formal / informal) C'est à vous ! / C'est à toi ! ... / Où sont .. (informal) J'ai oublié. /kɔmɑ̃/ What? Pardon? Je sais /ʒə sɛ/ I know Voici / Voilà /vwasi/ /vwala/ Here is/are. /ʒe fɛ /̃ / ʒe swaf/ I'm hungry / I'm thirsty. / Il y avait. ? /u ɛ/ /u sɔ /̃ Where is . /ʒə ne okyn ide/ I have no idea..... / Je m'en fiche.. Ce n'est pas grave. /sə nɛ pa gʀav/ It's no problem. Félicitations ! /felisitasjɔ /̃ Congratulations! Taisez-vous ! / Tais-toi ! Je ne sais pas /ʒən sɛ pa/ I don't know Il y a .. / Where are .. / There it is.. / There was / were. /nə vu ɑ̃ f ɛt pa/ /nə tɑ̃ f ɛ pa/ Don't worry (formal / informal) Je dois y aller.. /ʒə dwa i ale/ I must go. Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ? /kɛs kil i a/ What's the matter? Je n'ai aucune idée. /ʒə mɑ̃n ɥi/ I'm bored.. ? Comment dit-on ____ en français ? /kɔmɑ̃ di t ɔ̃ __ ɑ̃ f ʀɑ̃s ɛ/ How do you say ____ in French? Ça ne fait rien. J'ai chaud / J'ai froid.

ah salade ah longer bas. /pa gʀɑ̃ ʃoz/ Not a whole lot. To make verbs negative. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in French (as well as in many other languages. riz rue. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met. lit. Also notice that some words take an extra e. queue. ei. ay pied ay jeu. but in most cases. used when speaking to more than one person. œuf. nez. jus. papa. balai. French adds ne before the verb and pas after it. or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor. grâce. Don't forget to check out my video series on informal French expressions: 2.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends. If the word refers to a woman or is spoken by a woman. tissu. â vie. for example. et. the ne is frequently dropped in spoken French. do not know well. Pronunciation / la prononciation French Vowels Phonetic spelling [i] ee ee [y] rounded IPA [e] [ø] [ɛ] [œ] [a] [ɑ ] Sample words General spellings i.) There is also a plural you. then the e is added in spelling. ai. è. fleur. y u é. â a. ami. ais œu. aile. animals or children. eu a. à. Notice that French has informal and formal ways of saying things. although it must appear in written French. rounded bleu lait. shown in parentheses. cahier. . /ty mə mɑ̃k/ I miss you./sɛ ta vu/ /sɛ ta twɑ/ It's your turn! (formal / informal) Tu me manques. (informal) /tɛze vu/ /tɛ twɑ/ Shut up! / Be quiet! (formal / informal) Quoi de neuf ? /kwɑ də nœf/ What's new? /ʒə vu zɛm/ /ʒə tɛm/ I love you (formal & plural / informal) Pas grand-chose. final er and ez eu e. However. midi. rounded beurre chat. yeux. relatives. usine blé. eh reine eh sœur. it does not change the pronunciation. ê. âne.

ien. im. [j] yuh ill. the in. e cheval. French Consonants egz examen. dent en. archéologie ex + vowel ex + consonant ch (Latin origin) ch (Greek origin) . oint. expression sh architecte.[u] oo [o] oh [ɔ] aw [ə] uh château loup. pain. caillou. [w] w oi. o cloche. éen brun. oin. ou outil eau. an. Vowels that do not exist in English are marked in blue. yen. dos. linge en. ain. y Mireille French nasal vowels Sample words General spelling gant. parfum un rond.prefix is pronounce een before a vowel. front on. um. am. banc. exercice eks exceptionnel. genou. ongle. eng. cerise [ɑ] is disappearing in modern French. aon. vin. cou. ô escargot. aim. em. lundi. archives k orchestre. pomme. yn. hôtel sol. suisse ui oreille. o. oui. ou Louis [ɥ] ew-ee lui. being replaced by [a]. oing. Otherwise. aen in. un. a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. eim. om [œ̃] is being replaced with [ɛ̃] in modern French In words beginning with in-. IPA [ã] Phonetic spelling awn ahn uhn ohn [ɛ̃] [œ̃] [õ] French semi-vowels Phonetic Sample General IPA spelling words spelling fois. ein. horloge fenêtre. ym.

slur the two together as if it were one word. y.. jeune que. maçon caillou. S and x are pronounced as z. trop fort. . o. des amis before or after a pronoun: vous avez. i. so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h. sauv(e)tage /ʀapidmɑ̃/ / ɑ̃tm ɑ̃/ /sovta ʒ/ sous l(e) bureau. final q h vowel + s + vowel x + vowel final x see s k zh g t zh k silent z z s démocratie. hasard rose. u th j qu. i. chez l(e) docteur /sul byʀo/ /ʃel dɔktoʀ/ il y a d(e). grecque haricot. o. or ç c + a. plus d(e). y g + a. and you usually do not pronounce the final consonant. unless that final consonant is C. gingembre gomme. dix.. c(e) que /ʃt/ /skə/ (note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well) Stress & Intonation: Stress on syllables is not as heavily pronounced as in English and it generally falls on the last syllable of the word. soixante (these 3 only!) There are a lot of silent letters in French.. d as t. herbe. car. . de n(e) /ʒən/ /dən/ j(e) te. lent(e)ment. Intonation usually only rises for yes/no questions. nation cent. quoi. ganglion maths. shortening the syllables and slurring more words. • • • • • rapid(e)ment. and all other times. it goes down at the end of the sentence.ti + vowel (except é) c + e... jus. Silent e: Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases. u g + e. and the forms of être. thym jambe. thème. . and f as v in these liaisons. plus. /yad/ /pad/ / plyd/ je n(e). beaux arts six. casino six ans. petits enfants after one syllable prepositions: en avion. but it is never made after et. Liaison: French slurs most words together in a sentence. Liaison is always made in the following cases: • • • • • • after a determiner: un ami. dans un livre after some one-syllable adverbs (très. cube genou. R. F or L (except verbs that end in -r).. falaise. bien) after est It is optional after pas. ceinture. je les ai after a preceding adjective: bon ami. pas d(e).

and you may have to repeat the article in some cases.3. les articles & les demonstratifs All nouns in French have a gender. That. and -ette are usually feminine. -ence. either masculine or feminine. you must memorize the gender. -tion. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. These. Nouns ending in -ure. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine. Definite Articles (The) Masculine le lit /lə li/ the bed Feminine la pomme /la pɔm/ the apple Before Vowel l'oiseau /lwazo/ the bird Plural des gants /de ɡɑ̃/ some gloves Plural les gants /le ɡɑ̃/ the gloves Indefinite Articles (A. Articles & Demonstratives / les noms. -ance. Alphabet / l'alphabet a c e f g i /a/ j k l n o p q r /ʒi/ /ka/ /ɛl/ s t v x y z /ɛs/ /te/ b /be/ /se/ u /y/ /ve/ d /de/ /ə/ /ɛf/ /ʒɜ/ m /ɛm/ /ɛn/ /o/ /pe/ /ky/ /ɛʀ/ w /dubləve/ /iks/ /igrɛk/ /zɛd/ h /aʃ/ /i/ 4. -sion. Some) Masculine un lit /œ̃̃ li/ a bed Feminine une pomme / yn pɔm/ an apple Demonstrative Adjectives (This. -té. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles. For the most part. as are nouns ending with a consonant. but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. An. Those) . Nouns.

kɔm sa/ /pa mal/ /lə livʀ/ /lə kʀɛjɔ /̃ /lə stilo/ /lə papje/ /lə ʃjɛ /̃ /lə ʃa/ /laʀʒɑ̃/ There is/are Here is/are always often sometimes usually also. ce lit /sə li/ this/that bed Masc. comme ça pas mal le livre le crayon le stylo le papier le chien le chat l'argent (m) /sɛ/ /vwala/ /e/ /mɛ/ /mɛ tn ̃ ɑ̃/ /syʀtu/ /sof/ /bjɛ̃sy ʀ/ /kɔm si. you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these. When il y a is followed by a number. it means ago. 6. while ce lit-là is that bed. le pèze. cette pomme /sɛt pɔm/ this/that apple Plural ces gants /se ɡɑ̃/ these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those. Useful Words / les mots utiles It's / That's There is/are and but now especially except of course so so not bad book pencil pen paper dog cat money c'est voilà et mais maintenant surtout sauf bien sûr comme ci. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago.Masc. 5. For example. too again late almost friend (fem) friend (masc) woman man girl boy job / work il y a voici toujours souvent quelquefois d'habitude aussi encore en retard presque une amie un ami une femme un homme une fille un garçon le travail /il i a/ /vwasi/ /tuʒuʀ/ /suvɑ̃/ /kɛlkəfwa/ /dabityd/ /osi/ /ɑ̃k ɔʀ/ /ɑʀ ̃ ətaʀ/ /pʀɛsk/ /y nami/ /œ̃ nami/ /yn fam/ /œ̃ nɔm/ /yn fij/ /œ̃̃ gaʀsɔ /̃ /lə tʀavaj/ Note: The expression il y a is reduced to y a in everyday speech. le pognon. Some common slang words for money include: le fric. and -là to the end of the noun for that and those. ce lit-ci is this bed. Subject Pronouns / les pronoms sujets Subject Pronouns . Before Vowel cet oiseau /sɛ twazo/ this/that bird Fem. des sous and for job/work: le boulot.

) Note: Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns. Notice there are two ways to say you. or you. To Be & To Have / Etre & avoir Present tense of être /ɛtʀ/ . Tutoyer means to use tu or be informal with someone. or to someone you don't know or who is older. we. animals. Tu is used when speaking to children. and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. Future Tense of être . they. or close friends and relatives. On can be translated into English as one.to be I am He is She is One is je suis il est elle est on est /ʒə sɥi/ /ty ɛ/ /il ɛ/ /ɛl ɛ/ /ɔ̃ n ɛ/ We are You are They are They are nous sommes /nu sɔm/ vous êtes ils sont elles sont /vu zɛt/ /il sɔ /̃ /ɛl sɔ /̃ You are tu es Past tense of être . Vous is used when speaking to more than one person. the people.to be .to be I was You were He was She was One was j'étais /ʒetɛ/ We were You were nous étions vous étiez ils étaient elles étaient /nu zetjɔ /̃ /vu zetje/ /il zetɛ/ /ɛl zetɛ/ tu étais /tu etɛ/ il était /il etɛ/ elle They were /ɛl etɛ/ était They were /ɔ̃ net ɛ/ on était Note: Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation. Tutoyer and vouvoyer are two verbs that have no direct translation into English.) They (fem. 7. while vouvoyer means to use vous or be formal with someone. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way.je /ʒə/ I nous /nu/ We tu /ty/ il /il/ elle /ɛl/ on /ɔ /̃ You (informal) vous /vu/ You (formal and plural) He She One ils /il/ elles /ɛl/ They (masc.

.to have I have You have He has She has One has j'ai tu as /ʒe/ /ty ɑ/ We have You have nous avons /nu zavɔ /̃ vous avez /vu zave/ /il zɔ /̃ /ɛl zɔ /̃ il a /il ɑ/ elle a /ɛl ɑ/ on a /ɔ̃ n ɑ/ They have ils ont They have elles ont Past tense of avoir . etc.to have I will have You will have He will have She will have One will have j'aurai nous aurons vous aurez /nu zoʀɔ /̃ /vu zoʀe/ tu auras /ty oʀɑ/ il aura /il oʀa/ elle /ɛl oʀa/ aura /ɔ̃ no ʀa/ on aura /il zoʀɔ /̃ ils auront elles /ɛl auront zoʀɔ /̃ In spoken French.to have I had You had He had She had One had j'avais /ʒavɛ/ tu avais /ty avɛ/ We had You had nous avions vous aviez ils avaient elles avaient /nu zavjɔ /̃ /vu zavje/ il avait elle /il avɛ/ avait /ɛl avɛ/ They had on /ɔ̃ nav ɛ/ avait /ʒoʀe/ We will have You will have They will have They will have /il zavɛ/ /ɛl zavɛ/ Future tense of avoir . tu as = t'as /tɑ/.I will be je serai /ʒə səʀe/ We will be nous serons /nu səʀɔ /̃ /vu səʀe/ You will You will tu seras /ty səʀa/ vous serez be be He will be She will be One will be il sera They /il səʀa/ elle will be ils seront /il səʀɔ /̃ /ɛl səʀa/ sera They will elles seront /ɛl səʀɔ /̃ /ɔ̃ sə ʀa/ on sera be Present tense of avoir /avwaʀ/ . the tu forms of verbs that begin with a vowel contract with the pronoun: tu es = t'es /tɛ/.

He will be tired tonight. You were wrong. aurons faim plus tard. avoir l'air de /avwaʀ ɛʀ də/ seem avoir /avwaʀ to intend to l'intention de ɛ t̃ ɑ̃sj ɔ /̃ /avwaʀ ɑ̃vi avoir envie de to feel like də/ avoir de la /avwaʀ də la to be lucky chance ʃɑ̃s/ roid.In addition. It is Monday. We/you/they/the people are back. They are hot. I'm cold. Vous étiez enrhumé. aviez tort. Common Expressions with avoir and Etre Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud avoir froid avoir peur avoir raison avoir tort avoir faim avoir soif avoir sommeil avoir honte avoir besoin de /avwaʀ ʃo/ to be hot /ɛtʀ də ʀətuʀ/ /ɛtʀ ɑ̃ être en retard ʀətaʀ/ /ɛtʀ ɑ̃ être en avance navɑ̃s/ être de retour être d'accord /ɛtʀ dakɔʀ/ to be back to be late to be early to be in agreement /avwaʀ fʀwa/ to be cold /avwaʀ pœʀ/ to be afraid /avwaʀ ʀɛzɔ /̃ to be right /avwaʀ tɔʀ/ /avwaʀ fɛ /̃ to be wrong être sur le point de être en train to be hungry de /avwaʀ swaf/ to be thirsty /avwaʀ sɔmɛj/ /avwaʀ ʽɔ t/ ̃ to be sleepy to be ashamed /ɛtʀ syʀ lə to be about to pwɛ̃də/ /ɛtʀ ɑ̃ t ʀɛ̃ to be in the act də/ of /ɛtʀ être enrhumée to have a cold ɑʀ ̃ yme/ nous + être /ɛtʀ œ̃̃ ʒuʀ/ to be (a day) (un jour) /avwaʀ bəzwɛ̃ to need də/ to look like. You were early. Ils seront en train d'étudier. You had a cold. They will be (in the act of) studying. it is very common to use on (plus 3rd person singular conjugation) to mean we instead of nous. You were right. Elle sera d'accord. . She will agree. Elles étaient sur le point de partir. ra sommeil ce soir. They were about to leave. On est de retour. nt chaud. They were afraid yesterday. Je suis en retard! I'm late! vais raison. We will be hungry later. avaient peur hier. Tu étais en avance. a de la chance ! She's lucky! Nous sommes lundi.

Question Words / les interrogatifs Who What Why When Where How How much / many Which / what Qui Quoi Pourquoi Quand Où Comment Combien Quel(le) /ki/ /kwa/ /puʀkwa/ /kɑ̃/ /u/ /kɔmɑ̃/ /kɔ bj ̃ ɛ /̃ /kɛl/ 9. cardinal Numbers / Les nombres cardinaux Zero One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen Fourteen Fifteen Sixteen Seventeen Eighteen Nineteen Twenty Twenty-one Twenty-two Twenty-three Thirty Thirty-one Zéro Un Deux Trois Quatre Cinq Six Sept Huit Neuf Dix Onze Douze Treize Quatorze Quinze Seize Dix-sept Dix-huit Dix-neuf Vingt Vingt et un Vingt-deux Vingt-trois Trente Trente et un /zeʀo/ /œ̃̃/ /dø/ /tʀwɑ/ /katʀ/ /sɛ k/ ̃ /sis/ /sɛt/ /ʽɥit/ /nœf/ /dis/ /ɔ z/ ̃ /duz/ /tʀɛz/ /katɔʀz/ /kɛ z/ ̃ /sɛz/ /disɛt/ /dizɥit/ /diznœf/ /vɛ /̃ /vɛ t̃ e œ̃̃/ /vɛdø/ ̃ /vɛt ̃ ʀwɑ/ /tʀɑ̃t/ /tʀɑ̃t e œ̃̃/̃/ .8.

and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant. and pronounced thus: 01 36 55 89 28 = zéro un. 6. cinquante-cinq. 1. Also. They are written two digits at a time. Phone numbers in France are ten digits. 8. Belgian and Swiss French use septante. or 05 depending on the geographical region. 04. 02. vingt-huit.00 would be 1. and 90 (though some parts of Switzerland use huitante instead of octante).Thirty-two Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy (Belgium & Switzerland) Seventy-one Seventy-two Eighty (Belgium & Switzerland) Eighty-one Eighty-two Ninety (Belgium & Switzerland) Ninety-one Ninety-two One Hundred One Hundred One Two Hundred Two Hundred One Thousand Two Thousand Million Billion Trente-deux Quarante Cinquante Soixante Soixante-dix Septante Soixante et onze Soixante-douze Quatre-vingts Octante Quatre-vingt-un Quatre-vingt-deux Quatre-vingt-dix Nonante Quatre-vingt-onze Quatre-vingt-douze Cent Cent un Deux cents Deux cent un Mille Deux mille Un million Un milliard /tʀɑ̃t dø/ /kaʀɑ̃t/ /sɛ k ̃ ɑ̃t/ /swasɑ̃t/ /swasɑ̃tdis/ /sɛptɑ̃t/ /swasɑ̃t e ɔ z/ ̃ /swasɑ̃t duz/ /katʀəvɛ /̃ /ɔktɑ̃t/ /katʀəvɛ̃tœ̃̃/ /katʀəvɛ̃dø/ /katʀəvɛ̃dis/ /nɔnɑ̃t/ /katʀəvɛ̃ ɔ z/ ̃ /katʀəvɛ̃duz/ /sɑ̃/ /sɑ̃ tœ̃̃/ /dø sɑ̃/ /dø sɑ̃ tœ̃̃/ /mil/ /dø mil/ /õ miljɔ /̃ /õ miljaʀ/ Note: French switches the use of commas and periods. beginning with 01. their final consonants are not pronounced. 03. Ordinal Numbers / Les nombres ordinaux first second third fourth premier / première deuxième / second troisième quatrième . 80. when the numbers 5. quatre-vingt-neuf. or 06 for cell phones. trente-six.00 in English. octante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70.

you must add a u before the -ième. And an f becomes a v before the -ième. you must drop it before adding the -ième.fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth twentieth twenty-first thirtieth cinquième sixième septième huitième neuvième dixième onzième douzième vingtième vingt et unième trentième Note: The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième. But if a number ends in an e. Days of the Week / Les jours de la semaine Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday day week today yesterday tomorrow next last day before yesterday day after tomorrow the following day the day before lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi samedi dimanche le jour la semaine aujourd'hui hier demain prochain / prochaine dernier / dernière avant-hier après-demain le lendemain la veille /lœ̃di/ /maʀdi/ /mɛʀkʀədi/ /ʒødi/ /vɑ̃d ʀədi/ /samdi/ /dimɑʃ ̃/ /lə ʒuʀ/ /la s(ə)mɛn/ /oʒuʀdɥi/ /jɛʀ/ /dəmɛ /̃ /pʀɔʃɛ /̃ /p ʀɔʃɛn/ /dɛʀnje/ /dɛʀnjɛʀ/ /avɑ̃tj ɛʀ/ /apʀɛdmɛ /̃ /lə lɑ̃dəm ɛ /̃ /la vɛj/ . After a q. 10.

such as le lundi = on Mondays. Also note that months are all masculine and not capitalized in French (same as days of the week).Articles are not used before days. Seasons / Les saisons Summer l'été Fall Winter Spring /lete/ in the summer en été en in the fall automne in the winter in the spring /ɑ̃ nete/ /ɑ̃ notɔn/ /ɑ̃ en hiver nivɛʀ/ au /o printemps prɛ t̃ ɑ̃/ l'automne /lotɔn/ l'hiver /livɛʀ/ le /lə printemps pʀɛ t̃ ɑ̃/ 13. Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. Months of the Year / Les mois de l'annEe January February March April May June July August September October November December month year decade century millennium janvier février mars avril mai juin juillet août septembre octobre novembre décembre le mois l'an / l'année la décennie le siècle le millénaire /ʒɑ̃vje/ /fevʀije/ /maʀs/ /avʀil/ /mɛ/ /ʒɥɛ /̃ /ʒɥijɛ/ /u(t)/ /sɛptɑ̃b ʀ/ /ɔktɔbʀ/ /nɔvɑ̃b ʀ/ /desɑ̃b ʀ/ /lə mwa/ /lɑ̃/ /lane/ /deseni/ /lə sjɛkl/ /milenɛʀ/ To express in a certain month. use en before the month as in "en mai. such as in May. except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day." With dates. except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin. 12. the ordinal numbers are not used. Directions / Les directions . 11.

and compound adjectives: bleu clair.on the left on the right straight ahead North South East West le nord le sud l'est l'ouest /lə nɔʀ/ /lə syd/ /lɛst/ /lwɛst/ à gauche /a goʃ/ à droite /a dʀwɑt/ tout /tu dʀwɑ/ droit le nord-est le nord-ouest le sud-est le sud-ouest /lə nɔʀ(d)ɛst/ /lə nɔʀ(d)wɛst/ /sydɛst/ /sydwɛst/ Northeast Northwest Southeast Southwest 14. Weather / Le temps qu'il fait What's the weather like? It's nice Quel temps fait-il ? Il fait bon /kɛl tɑ̃ f ɛ til/ /il fɛ bɔ /̃ . Colors & Shapes / Les couleurs & les formes Red rouge /ʀuʒ/ /ɔʀɑʒ ̃ / /ʒon/ /vɛʀ/ /vɛʀt/ /blø/ /blɑ̃/ /bl ɑʃ ̃/ /bʀõ/ /bʀyn/ /maʀɔ /̃ /nwaʀ/ /ʀoz/ /dɔʀe/ /aʀʒɑ̃te/ /gʀi/ /gʀiz/ square circle triangle rectangle oval cube sphere cylinder cone octagon box light dark le carré le cercle le triangle l'ovale le cube la sphère le cylindre le cône l'octogone la boîte /kaʀe/ /sɛʀkl/ /tʀijɑ̃gl/ /ɔval/ /kyb/ /sfɛʀ/ /silɛ d ̃ ʀ/ /kon/ /ɔktogɔn/ /bwat/ Orange orange Yellow jaune Green Blue vert / verte bleu / bleue blanc / blanche brun / brune marron noir / noire rose doré / dorée argenté / argentée gris / grise le rectangle /ʀɛktɑ̃gl/ Purple violet / violette /vjɔlɛ/ /vjɔlɛt/ White Brown Black Pink Gold Silver Gray clair / claire /klɛʀ/ foncé / foncée /fɔ se/ ̃ Some adjectives of color do not change to agree with gender or number. noir foncé remain masculine even if they describe a feminine noun. marron. such as adjectives that also exist as nouns: orange. 15. rose. Remember to place the color adjective after the noun.

. Il fait mauvais Il fait frais Il fait froid Il fait chaud Il fait nuageux Il fait beau Il fait doux Il fait orageux Il fait soleil Il fait humide Il fait lourd Il fait du vent Il fait du brouillard Il neige Il pleut Il gèle Il grêle Il fait ____ degrés. hot cloudy beautiful mild stormy sunny humid muggy windy foggy snowing raining freezing hailing It is ____ degrees. 16. Il caille /il kaj/ or ça caille /sa kaj/ is slang for it's freezing..bad cool cold warm. /il fɛ mɔve/ /il fɛ fʀɛ/ /il fɛ fʀwɑ/ /il fɛ ʃo/ /il fɛ nyaʒ/ /il fɛ bo/ /il fɛ du/ /il fɛ ɔʀaʒ/ /il fɛ sɔlɛj/ /il fɛ ymid/ /il fɛ luʀ/ /il fɛ dy vɑ̃/ /il fɛ dy bʀujaʀ/ /il nɛʒ/ /il plø/ /il ʒɛl/ /il gʀɛl/ /il fɛ __ dəgʀe/ Il pleut des cordes /il plø de koʀd/ is a common expression meaning it's pouring. one o'clock two o'clock noon midnight a quarter after three one o'clock sharp four o'clock sharp twelve thirty six thirty a quarter to seven five twenty Quelle heure est-il ? Il est.. une heure deux heures midi minuit trois heures et quart une heure précise quatre heures précises midi (minuit) et demi six heures et demie sept heures moins le quart cinq heures vingt /kɛl œʀ ɛ til/ /il ɛ/ /yn œʀ/ /dø zœʀ/ /midi/ /minɥi/ /tʀwɑ zœʀ e kaʀ/ /yn œʀ pʀesiz/ /katʀœʀ pʀesiz/ /midi (minɥi) e dəmi/ /si zœʀ e dəmi/ /sɛt œʀ mwɛlə ̃ ka ʀ/ /sɛ k ̃ œ ʀ vɛ /̃ .. And remember that France uses Celcius degrees. Time / Le temps qui passe What time is it? It is.

and not demi. quart. sharp). when reporting time with the 24 hour system.ten fifty in the morning/AM in the afternoon/PM in the evening/PM onze heures moins dix du matin de l'après-midi du soir /ɔ z ̃ œ ʀ mwɛ̃dis/ /dy matɛ /̃ /də lapʀɛmidi/ /dy swaʀ/ Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock. if it is 18h30. etc.la belleLaw mère le père / Dad papa Stepfather/Father-inle beauLaw père Daughter la fille Family Son Sister le fils /famij/ /paʀɑ̃/ /paʀɑ̃/ /gʀɑ̃pa ʀɑ̃/ /mɛʀ/ /mɑmɑ̃/ /bɛlmɛʀ/ Niece Nephew Grandchildren Granddaughter Grandson Godfather la nièce le neveu /njɛs/ /n(ə)vœ/ les petits/p(ə)tizɑ̃f ɑ̃/ enfants la petitefille /p(ə)tit fij/ le petit-fils /p(ə)tifis/ le parrain /paʀɛ /̃ la /maʀɛn/ marraine le filleul la filleule des parents éloignés célibataire marié(e) séparé(e) /fijœl/ /fijœl/ /paʀɑ̃ elwaɲe/ /selibatɛʀ/ /maʀje/ /sepaʀe/ /pɛʀ/ /papa/ Godmother /bopɛʀ/ /fij/ /fis/ /sœʀ/ Godson Goddaughter Distant Relatives Single la sœur la demiHalf/Step Sister sœur la belleSister-in-Law sœur Stepdaughter/Daughter. 17. Family & Animals / La famille & les animaux la famille des Relatives parents les Parents parents les Grandparents grandsparents la mère / Mom maman Stepmother/Mother-in. For example. you must say dix-huit heures trente.) You can only use regular numbers.la bellein-Law fille Brother le frère /dəmi sœʀ/ Married /bɛlsœʀ/ /bɛl fij/ /fʀɛʀ/ Separated Divorced Widower divorcé(e) /divɔʀse/ veuf /vœf/ . The word pile /pil/ is also a more informal way of saying précise (exactly.

/gʀɑ̃m ɛʀ/ mère le grand/gʀɑ̃p ɛʀ/ père la /kuzin/ cousine le cousin /kuzɛ /̃ la /fam/ femme le mari /maʀi/ la /fam/ femme l'homme /ɔm/ un enfant / /ɑ̃f ɑ̃/ une enfant la fille /fij/ le /gaʀsɔ /̃ garçon Dog veuve /vœv/ Stepson/Son-in-Law Twins (m) Twins (f) Uncle Aunt Grandmother Grandfather Cousin (f) Cousin (m) Wife Husband Woman Man Child (m) / (f) Girl Boy Cat Puppy Kitten Pig Rooster Rabbit Cow Horse Duck Goat Goose Sheep Lamb Donkey Mouse le chien / la /ʃjɛ /̃ / ʃjɛn/ chienne (m) / (f) le chat / la chatte /ʃa/ /ʃat/ (m) / (f) le chiot /ʃjo/ le chaton /ʃatɔ /̃ le cochon /kɔʃɔ /̃ le coq le lapin la vache le cheval /kɔk/ /lapɛ /̃ /vaʃ/ /ʃ(ə)val/ le canard /kanaʀ/ la chèvre l'oie /ʃɛvʀ/ /wa/ le mouton /mutɔ /̃ l'agneau l'âne la souris /aɲo/ /ɑn/ /suʀi/ Note: Le gendre /ʒɑ̃d ʀ/ is another word for son-in-law. Slang words for people and pets: The entire toute la smala /tut la smala/ Sister la frangine /fʀɑʒ ̃ in/ .Half/Step Brother Brother-in-Law le demi/dəmi fʀɛʀ/ Widow frère le beau/bo fʀɛʀ/ frère le beau/bo fis/ fils les /ʒymo/ jumeaux les /ʒymɛl/ jumelles l'oncle /ɔ kl/ ̃ la tante /tɑ̃t/ la grand.

nous connaissons Grenoble. and savoir is used when you know facts. Ils savent nager. Yes. There is another form of savoir commonly used in the expressions que je sache that I know (of) and pas que je sache not that I know (of). I know your brother. places. They know how to swim. Les Enfants? Tu connais Lyon ? Have you ever been to Lyon? Tu connais la tartiflette ? Have you ever eaten tartiflette? 19.family Grandma Grandpa Children Kid Woman Man mémé / mamie pépé / papi des gosses un gamin / une gamine une nana un mec / type / gars /meme/ /mami/ /pepe/ /papi/ /gɔs/ /gamɛ /̃ /gamin/ /nana/ /mɛk/ /tip/ /gaʀ/ Brother le frangin Son Aunt le fiston tata / tatie /fʀɑʒɛ ̃ /̃ /fistɔ /̃ /tata/ /tati/ /tɔ t̃ ɔ /̃ /kabo/ /klebaʀ/ /minu/ Uncle tonton Dog Cat le cabot / clébard le minou 18. you usually add an -s (which is not pronounced). Plural . To Know People & Places / connaitre & savoir connaître-to know people /kɔnɛtʀ/ connais /kɔnɛ/ connais /kɔnɛ/ connaît /kɔnɛ/ connaissons connaissez connaissent /kɔnɛsɔ /̃ /kɔnɛse/ /kɔnɛs/ savoir-to know facts /savwaʀ/ sais sais sait /sɛ/ savons /sɛ/ savez /sɛ/ savent /savɔ /̃ /save/ /sav/ Connaître is used when you know (are familiar with) people. food. movies. I know that your brother is named John. we've been to Grenoble. Je connais ton frère. Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve. Les Enfants ? Have you seen the film. etc. books. Sing. Formation of Plural Nouns / la formation des noms pluriels To make a noun plural. Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. / Yes. we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. Connaissez-vous Grenoble ? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? / Have you ever been to Grenoble? Oui. Connaître can be translated several ways into English: Tu connais le film. You know where Grenoble is located.

20.les cieux (skies). détail. His grandmother is a widow. Notre frère est marié. If a noun ends in -eu or -eau. even though amie is feminine. bleu. All other nouns are pronounced the same in the singular and the plural . C'est ma mère et mon père. Remember that adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number. This is my mother and my father. My Your His/Her/Its Our Your Their mon /mɔ /̃ ton /tɔ /̃ son /sɔ /̃ notre /nɔtʀ/ votre /vɔtʀ/ leur /lœʀ/ Fem. knee(s) Exceptions: festival. genou. There are. Our brother is married. landau. le ciel (sky) . When a feminine noun begins with a vowel. and un jeune homme (a young man) des jeunes gens (young men). some irregular exceptions: un œil (eye) .des yeux (eyes). of course. Ce sont vos petits-enfants ? These are your grandchildren? Mes parents sont divorcés. carnaval. Notice that the only time the pronunciation will change in the plural form is for masculine nouns that change -al or -ail to -aux and for the irregular forms. because it agrees with mère and not the possessor (his or her). bus(es) boat(s) le bus le bateau le cheval le genou les bus les bateaux les chevaux les genoux If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail. mais notre sœur est célibataire. joujou. l' to les). bal. but our . you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. My parents are divorced.it is only the article that changes pronunciation (le. caillou. pou. add nothing. chandail all add -s. chou. pneu. change it to horse(s) -aux. Sa grand-mère est veuve. Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s. ma /ma/ ta /ta/ sa /sa/ notre /nɔtʀ/ votre /vɔtʀ/ leur /lœʀ/ Plural mes /mɛ/ tes /tɛ/ ses /sɛ/ nos /no/ vos /vo/ leurs /lœʀ/ Possessive pronouns go before the noun. not the possessor! Sa mère can mean his mother or her mother even though sa is the feminine form. There are only seven nouns ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou.But there are some exceptions: If a noun already ends in an -s. Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie. la. Possessive Adjectives / les adjectifs possessifs Masc. add an x. hibou.

n'est-ce pas ? Your uncle is an architect. . isn't he? Leurs cousines sont néerlandaises. Their cousins are Dutch. Ton oncle est architecte.sister is single.