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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Authors Name 2:T.NIRANJAN KUMAR DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCES PBR VITS KAVALI,NELLORE(D) Email: tniru18@gmail.com

ABSTRACT Artificial intelligence is combination of a computer science, psychology, philosophy, which deals with different fields from machine vision to expert system. This paper gives disciplined description about AI techniques, which explores knowledge and further informs the history and process of development of AI including “HOLY GRAIL” Turing’s test. It enlightens various theories on artificial neural networking, a mimic of human brain including parallel computation and extends its emphasis on Expert systems, Common sense and Fuzzy logic, which are the advanced developments of knowledge-based systems. Here, report exemplifies various applications in fields such as Chess, Robotics, Defense and Revolution in hearing care ( Adapto ™). Further more we tried to focus on various researches which are being carried out in different laboratories around the world. This also debates on the existence of AI for future generations. Finally, we have specified the consequences of AI with humanity and ended with an interesting conclusion. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INTRODUCTION Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that human considers intelligent. The dream of creating intelligent machine has intrigued humans since ancient times and came into reality with the advent of computers and 50 years of research. These smart machines can mimic human thought, understand speech, beat the best human chess player and countless other feats never before possible, equal or exceed human abilities, and became an important part of most business and Government operations as well as

daily activities having the near future with AI impacting human lives. WHAT IS ‘AI’? AI is a combination of computer science, physiology, philosophy. AI is the study of the computations that make the machine possible to perceive, reason and act. AI helps in designing smart machines that can “think”. In order to classify machines as thinking it is necessary to define as it embodies all off the knowledge and feats, both conscious and unconscious, which is acquired through study and experience, highly refined sight and sound perception, thought, imagination; the ability to converse, read, drive a car, memorize and recall facts, express and fell emotions and much more just like remembering a face not seen for thirty or more years, or to build and send rockets to the moon. It is those capabilities that set homosapiens a part from other forms of living things. Hence, researches in the fields to satisfy the conditions and requirements have aided scientists in building intelligent machines which is one of the most challenging approaches facing experts in building systems that mimic the behavior of human brain, made up of billions of neurons and arguably the most complex matter is in the universe. HISTORY OF AI Evidence of artificial intelligence folklore can be traced back to ancient Egypt, but with the development of the electronic computer in 1941, the technology finally became available to create machine intelligence with the invention of an electronic means of processing data, which made AI possible. It is found that one of the most certified tests for intelligent behaviour is the ability to communicate effectively. Indeed this was the purpose of the test consisting of a person asking questions via keyboard to both a person and an intelligent machine. This test has become the ‘HOLY GRAIL’ of the AI community

The knowledge based systems were real world problem solvers. These approaches have been applied to different systems using variety of programs. McCulloch and Pitts theory is the basis of the artificial neural network theory. the complex networks of .HISTORIC MOMENTS OF AI NEWELL and SIMON developed the logic theory. The neurons ‘firing’ passes a signal to the next in the chain. Further researches on the knowledge based systems inferences the fields such as 1. which are based on knowledge. NEURAL NETWORKS AND PARALLEL COMPUTATION The human brain is made up of a web of billions of cells called neurons and understanding its complexities is seen as one of the last frontiers in scientific research. neurons are what give human intelligent characteristics. Bottom-up theorists believe the best way to achieve AI is to build electronic replicas of the human brains complex network of resources. An important back of mathematics logic binary numbers were also the basis of the AI this is the basis of computer simulated neural networks also know as parallel computing McCulloch and Pitts. tackling tasks such as determining complex chemical structures of atomic constituents and mass spectra data from samples of the compounds and later performing diagnosis of infectious blood diseases. Research has shown that a signal received by a neuron travels through the dendrite region and down the axon separating nerve cells is a gap called the synapse in order for the signal to be transferred to the next neuron the signal must be converted from electrical energy. It is the aim of AI research that prefers this bottomup approach the construct electronic circuits that act as neurons do in the human brain.3 pounds and contains an estimated no 1012 neurons. Generally the limited usage of laws and axioms were less effective in solving problems of any complexity. The average human brains weighs about 3. But it self-neurons is not intelligent but when grouped together neurons are able to pass electronic signals together networks. With new top-down methods becoming popular parallel computing up put on hold. Although much of the working of the brain remains unknown. These theories touched on some of the main methods used to create intelligence. Their theory showed how the firing of signals between connected neurons cause the brain to make decisions. considered by many to be the first AI program representing each problem as a tree model. These realizations eventually led to the design known as knowledge based systems. The neurons and their inter connection capabilities provide about 1014 bits of potential storage capacity. Now rural network are making a return and same researches believe that with new computer architectures parallel computing and the bottom theory will be a during factor in creating AI. KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEMS Knowledge is defined as the body of facts and principles accumulated by human kind or the act. bottom-up and top-down. which brought together the founders in AI and served to lay the ground work for the future of AI research. while the top-down approaches attempts to mimic the brains behavior with computer programs. heuristics and procedures.. Experts systems 2. It state that one of the level of single neuron the release of failure to release an impulse was the basis by which the brain makes true/false decisions using the idea of feedback theory. In 1956 John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI organized a conference named “The Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence”. Fuzzy logic NEURAL NETWORKING INTRODUCTION In the quest to create intelligent machines the field of AI has split into several different approaches based on the opinions about the most promising methods and theories with two approaches. Common sense 3. Knowledge based systems get their power from the expert knowledge that has been coded into fact rules. From the researches made for the development of AI it is found that neural networks in AI act as a mimic to that of the networking in human brain. using Boole’s principles wrote a paper on neural network theory. The signal can then be received by the next neuron and processed.

one of the developments of knowledge based systems. Non – atomic logic’s can support default reasoning. in practice. an important aspect of common sense. Some of the latest and advanced robots that can be seen are : Frog bout Robot. The advanced applications of AI are  ROBOTICS The applications of automatic machines to perform tasks are traditionally done by humans. A number of techniques can be used to enable an AI program to represent and reason with common sense knowledge. while human chess master on average considers less than 2 moves. As of yet. which was built as efficiently as possible. In three minutes. Deep thought considers 126 million moves. APPLICATIONS The study of issue of AI for quit some time now made to know all the terms and facts related to it. • CASE – BASED REASONING Computer systems that solve new problems by analogy with old ones are often called as case – based reasoning (CBR). The system knows that there is usually cake and presents because of the information contained in the knowledge frame. say the situation was birthday party. More recent work reduces script individual ‘scenes’. A CBR system draws its power from a large case library. The most widely used way of representing knowledge in expert systems is as a set of production rules. Experts systems are even applicable in forecasting weather Because of the large storage capacity computers ranging in 1012. The idea is to starts solving problems with a heuristic search engine.  AI IN DEFENSE The military put AI based hardware to the test of war during desert storm. It is hard to modify a script. For example. which can be made shade across multiple structures. AI with its learning capabilities can accomplish these tasks. But what is really needed to know is what can be done to get human hand on some AI today. solve problems that are normally solved by human experts which require a kind of intelligence and reasoning mechanism. Memory is another key aspect to common sense. impart to the large amount of knowledge required for common sense. Expert systems have the power and range to aid to benefit and some cases replace humans and human experts. Jumping Robot  CHESS AI based game playing programs combine intelligence with entertainment. On game with strong AI ties is chess. It is difficult to know which script is retrieve. expert systems need access to a substantial domain knowledge base.EXPERT SYSTEMS Expert systems. posse common sense. FUZZY LOGIC Fuzzy logic acts as an alternative for representing some kinds of uncertain knowledge. This is due. For example. Such reasoning’s have been applied in control systems as Simplified control of Robots (a) Software design for industrial projects (b) Prediction for early recognition of earth quakes. A general CBR system must be able to learn a proper set of indices from experience. World chess champion playing programs can seen ahead twenty plus moves in advance for each move they make. COMMON SENSE Computers have entirely deserved reputation for lacking common sense. A system could call on its birthday frame and use the information contained in the frame to apply the situation. It is possible to define a reasoning system based on techniques for combining distributions. Psychology and AI seek to address these issues. A system that cannot learn cannot. To solve expert level problems. expert systems had the potential to interpret statistics in order to solve the problem like a detective solves a mystery. Memory is also the basis for learning. charts like these represent the logic of Expert systems. no program can match the common sense reasoning powers. rather than from a set of basic principles. The use of frames also allows the system to add knowledge. if used with discretion will benefit human kind. AI based . • MEMORY ORGANIZATION Memory is central to common sense behavior. Many are now capable of simple decision making with out the intervention of operator using AI techniques.

“Medical Image Analysis” and “Visualization” are the main three categories. Current Researches on Coco at Present:  Brain infra structure for coco  A mobile coco for social interaction  Medial axis representation for the analysis of human shaping image. In conclusion. 2. The Aries research group is exploring novel processor. inadequate network performance and limited scalability. we won’t see full AI in human lives.Stuart Russell and Peter Nerving. “AI is possible…but it won’t happen”.google. KISMAT.  PROJECT ARIES: Today’s parallel machines suffer from unvarying degrees from poor programmability. Artificial Intelligence and Neural Networks: Steps towards Principle Integration -----Vansant Hanover & Leonard Chr. network and software constructs to overcome these limitations. Oticon had launched the first AI hearing aid that works like a human ear. 3. and MACACO.  MEDICAL VISION GROUP: Its goal is to develop new algorithms for medical images analysis and visualization of medical imaginary as well as to build vision based system for surgical navigation and surgical planning. to explore humanoid intelligence. It requires large amount of parallel computation in order to support rich real time and multi – model sensory input and complex behavioral output. Adpoto ™ is a hearing aid that understands peoples. It may sound quite simple. but should live to get a good feel for whether are not it is possible and how it could be achieved by our descendants. heads up displays and other advancements. One can expect that classical AI will go on producing more and more sophisticated applications in restricted domains. ADVANCE RESEARCHES Many famous research institutes around the world are undertaking the important advanced researches related to AI. In this project “Image Guided System”. Some of those researches are:  ROBOTICS Coco is a small ape like robot. . At last it can be said. But any time one can expect common sense will continue to be disappointed may even in the past. It not only recognizes but priorities human speech signals over others sounds in the environment. http://www. At vulnerable points these will continue to be exposed as “blind automata”. containing a host of cutting edge software including voice activation. 1.technologies in missile systems.com/ CONCLUSION In the coming decades one should not expect that human race will become extinct and be replaced by AI. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach ---. Some other famous Robots are COG. REFERENCES  AI REACHING THE EAR According to press reports on October 20th 2001 in New Zealand. Introduction to knowledge systems -----Mark stefik 4.