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New algorithms for image compression based on wavelets have been recently developed. These methods have resulted in practical advances such as: superior low-bit rate performance, continuous-tone and bit-level compression, lossless and lossy compression, progressive transmission by pixel accuracy and resolution, region-of-interest coding and others. One of the most efficient procedures that fulfil the above goals is the Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT) algorithm. This algorithm bases its efficiency in key concepts like: a) partial ordering of wavelet coefficients by magnitude, with transmission of order by a subset partitioning that is replicated at the decoder, b) ordered bit-plane transmission of refinement bits and c) exploitation of self-similarity of the image wavelet coefficients across different scales.
Most of the implementations known to date for the SPIHT algorithm have been done in C/C++. This project describes a MATLAB implementation of the SPIHT algorithm. MATLAB is widely used in the academic community as one of the teaching platforms for signal and image processing. It has a robust set of toolboxes, particularly the wavelets toolbox. The SPIHT algorithm creates a pyramid structure based on a wavelet decomposition of an image. It has been discussed that the wavelet coefficients at the top of the pyramid have a strong spatial relationship with their children. The SPIHT algorithm bases its efficiency by iteratively searching for significant pixels throughout the pyramid tree. Typically in C/C++, there will be pointers (or arrays pointers) to perform a search in the tree. In MATLAB, one of its newest data structures (structure array) can be used for the same purpose.

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DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

**PRESENTATION ON “ SPIHT ALGORITHM ”
**

BY

**NEERAJ KUMAR (1SI09EC061)
**

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

SWETHA N. , M.Tech.,

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE IMAGE COMPRESSION WAVELET TRANSFROM WAVELET DECOMPOSITION SPIHT CODEC FLOW CHART NUMERICAL RESULTS APPLICATIONS CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

It is a fast and efficient method with good image quality,

**high PSNR, especially for color images.
**

Produces a fully embedded coded file. Simple quantization algorithm. Fast coding/decoding algorithm. It can be used for lossless compression. It can code to exact bit rate or distortion.

in order for it to be put to practical use. The bandwidth required to transmit the image of size 720*1280 pixels is very large so we need to compress these images in order to transmit them without wasting the bandwidth. .OBJECTIVE Digital information must be stored. analyzed and processed in an efficient manner. retrieved.

Redundancy means duplication. The fundamental components of compression are redundancy and irrelevancy reduction. Irrelevancy means the parts of signal that will not be noticed by the Human Visual System. Image compression focuses on reducing the number of bits needed to represent an image.IMAGE COMPRESSION Image compression is technique under image processing having wide variety of applications. .

.

The DWT analyzes the signal at different frequency bands with different resolutions by decomposing the signal into a coarse approximation and detail information.WAVELET TRANSFORM It is used to provide multiresolution analysis. called scaling functions and wavelet functions. It employs two sets of functions. . which are associated with low pass and high pass filters.

Fig 3:-DWT coefficients at different levels .

n is the number of pixels in a given row or column. .WAVELET DECOMPOSITION The level of decomposition is given by: .level=log2n. It produce a pyramid structure where an image is decomposed sequentially by applying low pass and high pass filters and then decimating the resulting images. These are one-dimensional filters that are applied in cascade (row then column) to an image.

This process is repeated until the top of the pyramid is reached. HL and finally HH The resulting LL version is again four-way decomposed. It creates a four-way decomposition: LL.Image decomposition using wavelets . Fig 4:. LH.

.(2i+1.2j). A wavelet coefficient at location (i.(2i.j) in the pyramid representation has four direct descendants (off-springs) at locations: O(i.2j+1).(2i+1.SPIHT CODEC There exists a spatial relationship among the coefficients at different levels in the pyramid structure.2j).2j+1)} This pyramid structure is commonly known as spatial orientation tree.j)={(2i.

Fig 5:-: Off-spring dependencies in the pyramid structure .

H (i. great-grand.j). children.j): D (i. etc. great-grand. children only D (i. parents L (i.j): set of coordinates of all descendants of node (i.j): set of coordinates of all offspring of node (i.ENCODING/DECODING ALGORTIHM O(i.j). . etc.j) – O(i.j) (all descendents except the offspring). grandchildren.j): set of all tree roots (nodes in the highest pyramid level). grandchildren.

for each node in LIP do: if Sn [ i. Initialization:- n = log2 (max |coeff|) LIP = All elements in H LSP = Empty LIS = D’s of Roots Step 1: Initialization: Set n to target bit rate. j] = 1.j) . . move pixel coordinates to the LSP and keep the sign of c(i.

Output sign of coeff(i.j)) .j) in LIP Output Sn(i.j)=1.j) to the LSP End if End loop over LIP Process LIS for each set (i.Significance Map Encoding (“Sorting Pass”) Process LIP for each coeff (i.j): 0/1 = -/+ Move (i.j) in LIS if type D Send Sn(D(i.j) If Sn(i.

l) to the end of the LIP end for End if else (type L ) Send Sn(L(i.l) if Sn(k.l)=1.l)=0.If Sn(D(i.l) ∈ O(i.j))=1 for each (k.j).j) to the end of the LIS as an entry of type D .l)∈ O(i.l) to the LSP and output sign of coeff: 0/1 = -/+ if Sn(k. then add (k.j))=1 add each (k. output Sn(k.j)) If Sn(L(i. then add (k.

.remove (i.j) from the LIS end if on type End loop over LIS Refinement Pass Process LSP for each element (i.j) in LSP – except those just added above Output the nth most significant bit of coeff End loop over LSP Update Decrement n by 1 Go to Significance Map Encoding Step .\kedia\SPIHT_Charts.pdf .

FLOW CHART .

8710 Fig 6: Compression of Lena color image with rate=1 .5560 TOTAL=34.NUMERICAL RESULTS PSNR: P1=34.2734 P3=34.7835 P2=35.

56 sym2-34.05 db4-35.93 Fig 7: Compression of cameraman image with rate=1 .04 bior4.4-35.PSNR: db1-35.

jpeg Sunset.2636 33.Comparison of different images RATE/ IMAGES Lena.8710 39.1100 34.7216 32.75bpp 32.2055 32.1835 28.4383 0.jpeg Fruits.5bpp 30.25bpp 27.0 bpp 34.0384 25.8820 27.1407 0.5162 31.jpeg Tulips.3955 35.7141 30.9807 37.3465 .jpeg 1.7387 0.

5824 30.5 0.2674 26.1478 34.2 0.5560 0.4722 33.3827 34.5 1 1 0.4771 35.5 1 0.Results on Lena image COMPONENT / RATE 111 Y Cb Cr 34.5519 26.5875 30.4919 .2 0.5395 30.5 0.9236 30.3674 26.3266 34.2734 34.5 1 0.5 0.2094 30.8735 35.6729 34.2 1 1 30.

56 33.50 27.50 sym2 34.28 29.68 26.01 30.0 bpp 0.05 32.26 29.39 bior4.07 32.5 bpp 0.46 coif1 35.4 35.75bpp 0.13 .44 29.94 26.Results on grayscale image RATE/ FILTERS db1 1.93 32.69 26.25bpp 35.

23 27.28 33.40 27.54 39.92 36.125 0.68 33.25 0.5 0.69 .0625 8:1 16:1 32:1 64:1 128:1 39.17 30.0 0.38 30.55 36.COMPARISON OF EZW & SPIHT RATE COMPRESSION EZW SPIHT 1.

CT. scientific data.) and medical (X-ray. It is effective in a broad range of reconstruction qualities. It is used in compression of elevation maps. It is also being used in case of ECG signals. . landscape.APPLICATIONS SPIHT has been successfully tested in natural (portraits. etc) images. etc. It can code fair-quality portraits and high-quality medical images equally well. weddings.

ordered bit-plane transmission.CONCLUSION SPHIT algorithm uses the principle of partial ordering by magnitude. The realization of these principles in matched encoding and decoding algorithms is a new one and is shown to be effective than in previous implementations of EZW algorithm. set partitioning by significance of magnitudes with respect to a sequence of octavely decreasing threshold. . and self-similarity across scale in an image wavelet transform.

J. 3. and Efficient Image Codec Based on Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees”. 6 No. IEEE Trans. “Embedded image coding using zerotrees of wavelet coefficients”.REFERENCE AMIR SAID AND WILLIAM A. Dec 1993. “Implementing the SPIHT Algorithm in MATLAB”. 1996. ALDO MORALES AND SEDIG AGILI. “A New. Shapiro. Signal Processing vol. PEARLMAN. Fast.41 pp 3445-3462. Proceedings of the 2003 ASEE/WFEO International Colloquium . IEEE Transaction on circuits & systems for video technology Vol. M.

“Wavelet-based Image Compression”.”DWT-SPIHT image codec implementation”. ROBI POLIKAR.”Wavelet tutorial”. JAMES S. J. “SPIHT_CHARTS”. “WAVELET TRANSFORMS” by Raghuveer M Rao. MALÝ. P. WALKER. “FUNDEMENTALS OF MULTIMEDIA” by Ze-Nian Li and Mark S Drew. . RAJMIC. KAHLID SAYOOD.

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