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The Naga Tribes

An Assignment In Individual and Society SYBBA Submitted By: Group 1 Melina Colaso Maria Fernandez Vishal Gaonkar Heloise Monteiro Rincy Johnson Karishma Surlakar Mohammad Ayaz R-11-04 R-11-13 R-11-16 R-11-21 R-11-31 R-11-34 R-11-36

Department of Business Administration Rosary College of Commerce and Arts 2011-2014

They are a conglomeration of many tribes with similar cultures and traditions. life cycle rituals. and are still worshipped as the bringers of fertility. disposal of dead. Some of the nagas are: Ananta (symbol of eternity). especially in southern India. They are considered the protectors of springs. The Naga tribes were roughly classified into four categories . they are spread in the hills of Manipur. The Naga tribes are linked with tribes in Assam and Myanmar. Origin of Naga Tribes The word ‘Naga’ is used for tribes living in Nagaland and in some parts of Assam. but are also thought to bring disasters such as floods and drought. Angami Ao Chakhesang Chang FESTIVALS Sekrenyi Moatsu Sükrünye Naknyulum PERIOD Feb last week May 1st week Jan 3rd week July 2nd week . Originally Nagas were not known as tribes. On the basis of language Nagas can be classified as a cross breed of Tibeto-Chinese.The Naga Tribes In Hindu myth. and Mucilinda. The population of the naga tribes is around 2 million. sturdy. The Naga also belongs to the Indo mongoloid race. house pattern. Nagas are people with great hard work. Vasuki. parts of Assam as well as Arunachal Pradesh. 2. They bring rain. Tribes and Festivals in Nagaland TRIBES 1. Naga tribes belonged to Indo-Mongoloid Family. 4. betel chewing habit. 3. Burmese and Aryan. The most important quality of Naga tribes is their hospitality and cheerfulness to greet people with a smiling face while travelling on the roads is the common experience for everyone who notices them. nagas are a primeval race of divine serpent-people that play an important part in religion. Nagas are believed to live in palaces (Patala) in the underground city Bhogavati. From 1816 invasion onwards Assam came under the rule of Myanmar. The Naga groups share common cultural features like the youth dormitory system. Besides forming the majority ethnic group in the Indian state of Nagaland. marriage pattern. Manasa (fertility goddess and protector against snake-bites). and thus fertility.the Southern Nagas. Their ruler is Sesha. the Western Nagas. The Nagas are an ethnic group of people inhabiting the North Eastern part of India and northwestern Myanmar. wells and rivers. Many Naga languages show Austric linguistic characteristics. They are half human and half snake. the Central Nagas and the Eastern Nagas. traditional political organization and clan system. with a high standard of integrity and strong sense of self respect.

pumpkin. seeds. The Naga built their granaries around their villages. Agriculture is the main system which regulates the soil practice of the Naga tribes. Kachari 6. brinjal. ginger and garlic. . Naga village has been regarded as a small republic as every Naga village has existed as an independent village state or a small republic. Pochury 12. Head-hunting inspired the weaving of special textiles of choice. indicating the number of heads taken. maize. Konyak 8. Zeliang Bushu Tsokum Aoling Monyu Mimkut Tokhu Emong Monyu Jemsha Ngada Amongmong Tuluni Metemneo Nga-Ngai Jan last week Oct 1st week April 1st week Jan 3rd week Nov 1st week April 1st week Oct 1st week Nov last week Sept 1st week July 2nd week Aug 2nd week Dec last week Society of Naga Tribes Nagas build their villages on hill tops and receives sufficient amount of rainfall. They are polytheist or animist. Phom 11. The traditional religion of the Nagas is entirely social and individual in character. The traditional Nagas believed in various malevolent and benevolent spirits. Sumi 15. Kuki 9. chilies. oil seeds. The practice is done in two ways-first for paddy cultivation and second for growing vegetable like millet. It is practical and revolves round the needs of the people. By offering gifts and sacrifices these spirits are worshipped. Such wooden figures were also kept in houses as prized trophies. They also collect honey. cucumber. One of the major contributions of the Christian Church has been to liberate the Nagas from the fear of evil spirits and evils of head hunting and continuous warfare. Religious Life of Naga Tribes The Nagas followed their traditional practices until they converted to Christianity. . Rengma 13. Sangtam 14. barks from the jungle and sell them in the market. potato. resin. Shifting cultivation and terrace cultivation are practiced. Agriculture is the main occupation of the Nagas. Kyong 10. The Nagas do not care so much for life after death. Khiamniungan 7. colours and designs for use as shawls by the head-hunter to identify his heroism. Yimchunger 16. Joint family is the traditional form though nuclear family has become a new trend. mustard. beans. Strong and vigorous figures are carved in bold out of wood and fixed to the baskets of the warriors.5. gourd.

The Naga shawls are the most famous ones which come in bright . Nanu is children`s ear boring festival. The ears of all children who were born during previous year in the village are pierced on this day. traditions and customs through the songs and dances. The women are short but stout. some of their dresses are designed as per the different occasions. Culture of Naga Tribes The people of Nagaland are distinctly marked by their looks which are usually marked by medium height. The costumes of tribes of Nagaland are completely different and colourful. customs. Interestingly. Women are fairer in complexion. Ginkimei is a religious festival which is celebrated to please the goddess of wealth. They also wear colourful jewelleries.Classification of Naga Folk-lore The Naga folk-lore may be classified according to the area of the diffusion • • • The folk-literature which are shared by more than one tribe Folk-lore of the particular tribe Village based Folk-lore Festival of Naga Tribes Tribes of Nagaland are well-known for their festivals which are an integral part of the land. with low facial features. Tribal dances are performed during the celebration of the festivals and marriage ceremonies. All the tribes celebrate different seasonal festivals with a pageantry of colour and local music. dyeing and weaving. The eyes of women are deep set with bulged eye sockets. The Naga have been able to preserve their culture language. These are some of the typical tends of mongoloid race which is visible in the Naga tribes. identity. Gantham is a spring festival where they worship all the deities by offering animals. Napko or Napao is celebrated by the villagers as a whole. The tribes of Nagaland are separately marked by indigenous traditions. Every woman is supposed to weave the cloths for her family and carry on the activities like spinning. social and cultural ethos. In this festival. Rih-Ngai is a war festival held for purifying village. Gan Ngai is a post harvesting festival. Traditional songs and dance forms are an integral part and parcel of the rich culture of the tribes of Nagaland. This festival is also known as festival of lights. a farewell feast is celebrated for the spirit of those people who died in the previous year. The nose is flattened but some are sharp in their mongoloid features. straight hair and brownish skin. They celebrate festivals in relation with different stages of agricultural activity. language and dresses. The men are muscular and full of stamina. Their festivals are related with their religion which is associated with their economic vocations.

musical instruments. A common practice among all the tribes is decorating the entrances of their dwellings with the heads of buffaloes. horns. . profusion and complexity in their jewellery. Designs for shawls and wraparound garments (commonly called mekhala) are different for men and women. The arts and crafts of this group of tribes reflect their self-sufficient lifestyle . when villages were isolated and there was little of friendly inter-communication between them. Rongkhim and Tsungrem Khim of the Yimchungers. Sutam. Weaving of colorful woolen and cotton shawls is a central activity for women of all Naga tribes. along with a wide range of materials. There are about thirty languages. hair. claws. jewellery-making and bead-work. They use beads with variety. metalwork. Weaving is an intricate and time consuming work and each shawl takes at least a few days to complete. Languages of Naga Tribes All the major Naga tribes have their own language. smoking pipes. their own hats and rain-coats. these ornaments include the bangles and bracelets. and fibre. Supong of the Sangtams. their own cooking-vessels. Art and Crafts of Naga Tribes The Naga tribes are expert craftsmen. varies from village to village. Nagas excel in making mats and earthen pots by hand alone. Longpensu of the Lothas. The Naga people love colour and this is evident in their colorfully designed shawls and headgear. even within one tribal area. metal. Colorful ornaments are worn by both men & women which are made of ivory. One of the common features of Naga shawls is that three pieces are woven separately and stitched together. Some old men grow hair long and arranged in tangled knots. Some of the more known shawls include Tsungkotepsu and Rongsu of the Ao tribe. weaving. stone. Ethasu. wood carving.“they have made their own cloth. cups and plates of various shapes and size. bone. The multiplicity of Naga languages is mainly because of the living condition in the past.colour and various patterns. Their dwellings are made of wood and straw and these are ornately carved and arranged. Tattooing is customary for Naga tribes only in North and East. shell. teeth or tusk. they have prepared their own medicines. Among many tribes the design of the shawl denotes the social status of the wearer." The various kinds of craft-work done by the people include basketry. The Nagas also produce a variety of wooden articles such as utensils. including glass. seeds. wood. The babbed hair is the fashion for the young Naga girl. Each tribe has a unique way of constructing their huts. The tribe is very much fond of ornaments. and the Angami Lohe shawls with thick embroidered animal motifs. The designs on the costumes are unique to each tribe. In actual practice. rice pounding tables. the language. their own substitutes for crockery.

Zutho. Sometimes the meat is smoke dried and preserved for a long time. The tribal groups. who do not understand one another's language. . Sema. and Dzutse and may be taken at any time. It is taken by all. It is generally of three kinds. converse in NagaAssamese or Nagamese. Lotha and Phom languages. only a fraction of the population in the state speaks or writes English with some degree of accuracy. The state Assembly. and that English be included as one of the languages in the VIII schedule of the constitution. It is nutritive in content and if hygienically prepared is a desirable drink. the central sub-group and the eastern sub-group. Certain items are considered taboo by the Nagas either because they are not clean or because they are suspected to transmit their qualities to the consumer.Naga languages in the Tibeto-Burman family is divided into three groups. Food and Drink of Naga Tribes The staple food of the Naga tribes is rice. the western sub-group. recommended that English be used for all official purposes within the state of Nagaland indefinitely. in a resolution adopted on18 September 1967. It is generally taken with fish. But. Rice beer is the main drink. The food is generally boiled. Rengma and Chakhesang languages. meat or vegetables.even in the interior areas. the central sub-group include Ao. Chang and Konyak languages. It is a hybrid mixture of Assamese and Naga languages but serve as the lingua franca of the Naga people. while the eastern sub-groups is made up of among others. Meat and vegetables are usually cooked together. Hindi is well understood in Nagaland . The western sub-group comprises Angami. Ruhi. The Nagas are very fond of chilies’ and the Semas eat them with the greatest delight. including the very young.

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