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Book 1 THE HUMAN GOOD

SUBJECT OR OUR INQUIRY

1. All human activities aim at some good: some goods subordinate to others.
   Some ends are activities, others are products. Where there are ends apart from actions, it is the nature of the products to be better than the activities. It makes no difference whether the activities themselves are the ends of actions, or something else apart from the activities.

2. The science of the human good is politics.
 If, then, there is some end of the things we do, which we desire for its own sake (everything else being desired for the sake of this), and if we do not choose everything for the sake of something else, clearly this must be the good and the chief good. (hierarchy of ends) Politics is the most authoritative art and is most truly the master art. Because: o it ordains which of the sciences should be studied in a state o Which each class of citizens should learn and up to what point they should learn them o It uses the rest of the sciences o It legislates what we are to do and what we are to abstain from o The end of this science must include those of the others, so that this end must be the human good. The end of a state is worthier than the end of a single man because it is more complete and something greater. NATURE OF THE SCIENCE

3. We must not expect more precision than the subject -matter admits of. The student should have reached the years of discretion
 Noble and just actions, which political science investigates, exhibit much variety and fluctuation, so that they may be thought to exist only by convention, and not by nature. (variety means probably the importance of circumstance) We must be content, then, in speaking about such subjects and with such premisses to indicate the truth roughly and in outline, and in speaking about things which are only for the most part true, and with premisses of the same kind, to reach conclusions that are no better. Each man judges well the things he knows (is educated), and of these he is a good judge. Young cannot be student of political science: o Hence a young man is not a proper hearer of lectures on political science o He is inexperienced in the actions that occur in life, o He tends to follow his passions

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then. honor. It has lots of definitions differs from man to man or according to same man it differs from situation to situation. but the good we divine to be something of one’s own and not easily taken from one. the happiness with pleasure because they love the life of enjoyment. The life money making is not the good we are seeking because money is for the sake of something else.  .   Men of the most vulgar type seem to identify the good. with the greatest sufferings and misfortunes. (he do not opposes the idea of enjoyment even he thinks the best life is accompanied by enjoyment) Happiness with honor: it seems too superficial to be what we are looking for. but the chief good is evidently something final. such as is produced by a good upbringing. Some thought that apart from these many goods there is another which is good in itself and causes the goodness of all these as well (Plato’s and his followers idea). clearly not all ends are final ends. generally. It is generally agreed to be happiness. deferred to future discussion. and we choose some of these for the sake of something else. Discussion of the popular views that the good is pleasure. What is required at the start is an unreasoned conviction about the facts.      The human good is generally agreed to be happiness (living well and faring well). and is the end of action. and. Since there is evidently more than one end. 5. his study will be vain and unprofitable. is something final and self-sufficient. or with lifelong inactivity. Definition of happiness reached by considering the characteristic function of man   If there is an end for all that we do. The good must be something final and self -sufficient. o He aims the action but not knowledge.    7. Youngness is not necessarily about being young in years and youthful in character but it depends on living. wealth. these will be goods achievable by action. this will be good achievable by action. but a man who was living so no one would call happy. The possession of virtue seems actually compatible with being asleep. unless he were maintaining a thesis at all costs. further. WHAT IS THE HUMAN GOOD? 4. about the subjects of political science must have been brought up in good habits. and pursuing each successive object. since it is thought to depend on those who bestow honor rather than on him who receives it. Happiness. There are three prominent life: life of enjoyment. Hence anyone who is to listen intelligently to lectures about what is noble and just and. but there are various views as to what happiness is. a fourth kind of life that of contemplation. the political and the contemplative life. as passion directs. The man who has been well brought up can get starting points easily. and if there are more than one.

like the arts. when a man bears with resignation many great misfortunes. Yet even in these nobility shines through. Happiness then is the best.    9. Intellectual in the main owes its birth and its growth to teaching while moral comes about as a result of habit. and some are described as external. or sent by god or by chance?  Happiness seems. for that which is the prize and the end of virtue seems to be the best thing in the world. noblest. and if there is more than one virtue. while a single man may suffer many turns of fortune’s wheel (16). it should be capable to share in such activity (not like the animals). To call someone happy. Success and failure in life does not depend on these. ( we must add in a complete life) 8. We have practically defined happiness as a sort of living and faring well. to be among the most godlike things. HOW IT IS ACQUİRED 1.  10. in accordance with the best and more complete.   Book 2 MORAL VIRTUE MORAL VIRTUE. Not only complete virtue but also complete life is needed. we call those that related to soul most properly and truly goods. needs these as well. intellectual. human good turns out to be activity of soul exhibiting virtue. Is happiness acquired by learning or habituation. and something godlike and blessed. and the most pleasant thing in the world. and because we have assumed happiness to be something permanent and by no means easily changed. Should no man be called happy while he lives?  We do not wish to call living man happy. even if is not god-sent but comes as a result of virtue and some process of learning and training. as we said. is acquired by repetition of corresponding acts  Virtue being of two kinds: moral. should be mature enough (according to his age). and psychical actions and activities we class as relating to soul. on account of the changes that may befall them. Moral virtue. No one would call a man just who did not enjoy acting justly…so virtuous actions must be in themselves pleasant. others are relating to soul or to body. not trough insensibility to pain but through nobility and greatness of soul (17). . If eminence in respect of goodness being added to the name of the function. but human life. Our definition is confirmed by current beliefs about happiness  Now goods have been divided into three classes. while virtuous activities or their opposites are what determine happiness or the reverse (17).

not a passion. The noble. the painful Both virtue and art is concerned with what is harder. this kind of virtue tends to do what is best with regard to pleasures and pains. DEFINITION OF MORAL VIRTUE     5. we assume then. If punishment is a kind of cure. we become just or unjust. We are neither praised nor blamed for our passions. but for our virtues or our vices we are praised or blamed.   Moral virtue is not natural but we are adapted by nature to receive them and they are made perfect by habit. but must avoid excess and defect 3. The genus of moral virtue: it is a state of character. and every action and every passion is accompanied with the pain and pleasure. These acts cannot be prescribe exactly. nor a capacity    Passions virtues. the injurious. Legislators make the citizens good by forming habits in them. Virtues are states of character if we stated it according to its genus. 2. the advantageous. and by doing the acts we do in the presence of danger. and vice does the contrary.  If the virtues are concerned with the actions and passions. and by being habituated to feel fear or confidence we become brave and cowardly. and it is the nature of cures to be effected by contraries. Virtues are defined as certain states of impassivity and tranquility. By doing the acts that we do in our transactions with other men. virtue will be concerned with pain and pleasure. the pleasant the base. . even the good is better when it is harder.