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Interpretation and Implementation guidelines
Together we will cover
A Quick Overview Definitions The changes The transition
Exercises and discussions in between!
22 February 2008
When OHSAS 18001 was initially drafted in 1999, it was specifically written to be consistent with ISO 14001:1996, the environmental management system standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
With subsequent revision of ISO 14001 in 2004, some of the alignment between the two standards were lost.
In 2005, the OHSAS Working Group decided to revise the OHSAS 18001 standard to again align it with ISO 14001 and to improve it based on the experience of the standard’s users since it was first published in 1999.
In addition to alignment with ISO 14001, another major factor taken into consideration during the revision process was alignment with other occupational safety and health management system standards such as the ILO and the ANSI/AIHA Z10 standards
22 February 2008
Summary of Changes
Based on these inputs, a number of significant changes has been made to the OHSAS 18001:2007 Alignment with ISO 14001:2004 & improved compatibility with ISO 9001:2000 New requirements related to hazard identification, risk assessment and the selection of controls New requirements for external consultation and worker participation Clarification of the role of incident investigation The importance of “health” has now been given greater emphasis. OHSAS 18001 now refers to itself as a standard, not a specification, or document, as in the earlier edition. This reflects the increasing adoption of OHSAS 18001 as the basis for national standards on occupational health and safety management systems.
22 February 2008
Summary of Changes
Reference publications in Clause 2 have been limited to purely international documents. New definitions have been added, and existing definitions revised. Significant improvement in alignment with ISO 14001:2004 throughout the standard, and improved compatibility with ISO 9001:2000. The definition of the term “HAZARD” no longer refers to “damage to property or damage to the workplace environment”.
22 February 2008
hazards are limited to sources. which is the purpose of this OHSAS Standard. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 6 . and be controlled through the application of appropriate risk controls.Why change in definition of “HAZARD” It is now considered that such “damage” is not directly related to occupational health and safety management. the risk of such “damage” having an effect on occupational health and safety should be identified through the organization’s risk assessment process. Instead. The focus is on harm to humans not property. and that it is included in the field of asset management. For purposes of OHSAS 18001. situations or acts with the potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health.
2) has been introduced.1).Summary of Changes Sub-clauses 4.3 and 4.1 and 4.5.3. New requirements have been introduced for participation and consultation (see 4.3.4 have been merged.3.4.2).1). A new clause on the “Evaluation of compliance” (see 18.104.22.168. A new requirement has been introduced for the consideration of the hierarchy of controls as part of OH&S planning (see 4.3. in line with ISO 14001:2004.3. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 7 . Management of change is now more explicitly addressed (see 4. New requirements have been introduced for the investigation of incidents (see 4.6).
Version 22 February 2008 Slide 8 .Included Property damage and damage to the workplace environment are no longer part of the scope for OHSAS (also reflected in revised definition of “Hazard”).Scope OHS risks of employees and other interested parties.
Version 22 February 2008 Slide 9 .” Several changes were made to the standard to clarify the intended scope of coverage . product safety. and is not intended to address other health and safety issues such as employee wellbeing/wellness programs. property damage or environmental impacts.Scope As noted in the Scope section of the revised standard. OHSAS 18001 is “intended to address occupational health and safety.most notably in the revision and/or addition of several key definitions.
What are the new definitions? Review the OHSAS 18001:2007 Clause 3.0 & identify the new definitions and changes? Version 22 February 2008 Slide 10 .
“incident and “risk” Mainly editorial changes for the other terms.Definitions 6 new terms : Document. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 11 . “Tolerable risk” replaced by “acceptable risk” in new edition. Preventive Action and OH&S policy New definitions for “ill health” and “workplace”. Corrective Action. Procedure. Record. Revised definitions for “hazard”.
8). adverse physical or mental condition arising from and/or made worse by a work activity and/or work-related situation Version 22 February 2008 Slide 12 . or a combination of these ill health (3. or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health (3. situation.6) Source.Definitions Hazard (3.8) Identifiable.
or could have occurred NOTE 1: An accident is an incident which has given rise to injury. ill health or fatality.7) is a particular type of incident. ill health.Definitions Incident (3. NOTE 2: An incident where no injury.4.8) (regardless of severity) or fatality occurred. “close call” or “dangerous occurrence”. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 13 . NOTE 3: An emergency situation (see 4.9) work-related event (s) in which an injury or ill health (3. or fatality occurs may also be referred to as a “near-miss”. “near-hit”.
NOTE 2 Preventive action is taken to prevent occurrence whereas corrective action (3.4] Version 22 February 2008 Slide 14 . inside or outside the workplace (3. 3.15) of an organization (3. preventive action (3.10) person or group. [ISO 9000:2005.17). concerned with or affected by the OH&S performance (3.4) is taken to prevent recurrence.11) or other undesirable potential situation NOTE 1 There can be more than one cause for a potential nonconformity.18) action to eliminate the cause of a potential nonconformity (3.Definitions interested party (3.6.23).
and deciding whether or not the risk (s) is acceptable Version 22 February 2008 Slide 15 .21) combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or Exposure (s) and the severity of injury or ill health (3.21) arising from a hazard (s).Definitions risk (3.8) that can be caused by the event or exposure (s) risk assessment (3.22) process of evaluating the risk (s) (3. taking into account the adequacy of any existing controls.
working at the premises of a client or customer.17) should take into account the OH&S effects on personnel who are.g. the organization (3. traveling or in transit (e. driving.23) any physical location in which work related activities are performed under the control of the organization NOTE: When giving consideration to what constitutes a workplace. on boats or trains). or working at home Version 22 February 2008 Slide 16 .Definitions workplace (3. for example. flying.
6 & identify the new changes? Version 22 February 2008 Slide 17 .1 to 4.What are the new requirements? Review the OHSAS 18001:2007 Clause 4.
Version 22 February 2008 Slide 18 .4. Need for the organization to define and document the scope for the OHSAS.1 General Requirements OHSAS:2007 more explicit on Continual improvement of the OHSAS.
2 OH&S Policy OHSAS:2007 more explicit on: Communication of policy to “all persons working under the control of the organization” and not only to “employees” as in previous edition.4. Inclusion in b) of a “commitment to prevention of injury and ill health and …”. This substantiates more focus on Health Version 22 February 2008 Slide 19 .
1 Hazard Identification.4. Administrative controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE’s) 22 February 2008 Slide 20 .3. risk assessment and determining controls Process steps clarified : Hazard Identification → Risk assessment → Determination of controls OHSAS:2007 more explicitly addresses “Management of change” A new requirement on hierarchy of controls: Version Elimination Substitution Engineering controls Signage/ warning.
1 Hazard Identification.3.3.1 with those set out in 4. This section now sets out additional details on both the inputs to be considered and the methodology to be used for the hazard identification and risk assessment process.6 (operational control) so it is clear that the controls identified during the OH&S planning process need to be implemented and maintained as an integral part of operational control. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 21 . risk assessment and determining controls Changes align OHSAS 18001 more closely with other OH&S management system standards such as ANSI/AIHA Z10:2005. The standard now clearly links the requirements in 4.4.4.
materials in workplace Changes or proposed changes in organization.Inputs for Hazard Identification. activities. capabilities and other human factors (included in 4. risk assessment Routine & Non-routine activities Activities of all persons at workplace Human behavior.4. or materials (Newaligned with ISO 14001:2004) Modification in OHSAS including temporary changes & their impacts Applicable legal requirements Design of work areas.6) Identified hazards originating outside workplace but have adverse effects (New) Hazards created in the vicinity of workplace by activities Infrastructure.1 from 4.6) Version 22 February 2008 Slide 22 . equipments.3. machinery and ergonomic factors (included in 22.214.171.124 from 4. processes.
(10 minutes) What is Behavioural Safety? Version 22 February 2008 Slide 23 .Buzz groups.
are all unsafe behaviors.Human Behavioral Safety Behavioral safety is the systematic application of psychological research on human behavior to the problems of safety in the workplace. not putting equipment away after completing a job. Example: Ducking under or climbing over assembly lines to reach the controls.. etc. not holding the handrail when ascending/ descending stairs. and therefore can be targeted for improvement via a workforce driven behavioral safety initiative. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 24 . Given that 96 percent of all workplace accidents are triggered by unsafe behavior. most people will be aware that reducing accidents and improving safety performance can only be achieved by systematically focusing upon those unsafe behaviors in the workplace These are in the direct control of the person engaging in them.
Targeting Unsafe Acts/conditions will soon eliminate the accidents historically associated with them. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 25 . Focus on that small proportion of unsafe behaviors that are responsible for the lions share of a company’s accidents/ incidents.Why Behavioral Safety? Fully engages the workforce in safety management. Ensure workforce involvement so that the ownership of. Behavioral safety overcomes traditional Top-down approach towards Safety management & allowing the work force been divorced from the safety improvement process by deliberately adopting a ‘bottom-up’ approach so that those most likely to be hurt are actively engaged in eliminating the occurrences of unsafe behaviors. perhaps for the first time in their working lives. the process does not lack and the initiatives does not fail. and commitment to.
improvement intervention by . Development of Behavioral Safety checklist. observational. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 26 .Planning for Behavioral safety It involves a systematic. Asking the people to volunteer to either become observers or part of the project team or steering committee and are subsequently being trained to carry out their respective duties. Introduction of planned schedule of events that combine to create an overall improvement intervention. Formation of Project Team with Cross Functional approach. Through briefing sessions for all those work areas and departments that will be involved.
with which subsequent performance can be compared. The observation scores are then analyzed & trended so that fine detailed feedback can be given to the workgroups or people concerned on a regular basis so that improvements can be highlighted and praised or corrective actions can be taken thus incorporating the principles of continuous improvement. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 27 .Planning for Behavioral safety Trained observers carry out observations for a certain period of time to establish a baseline (usually four weeks). The observers continue to monitor their colleague’s safety behaviors on a regular basis. Setting improvement targets after based on average baseline scores.
The unsafe or safe behaviors identified from such a process are written onto a checklist of some form.to identify the workplace factors that drive or trigger particular unsafe behaviors and the consequences or rewards to the person for engaging in these unsafe behaviors. Utilizing Applied Behavioral Analytic techniques.Methods to Implement Behavioral Safety These behaviors can be discovered via Pareto analyses or other systematic means of examining a company’s accident / incident records. Identifying associated management system faults so that they can be addressed in order to stop them triggering unsafe behaviors. By monitoring peers safety behavior on a regular basis through trained observers Version 22 February 2008 Slide 28 .
g. Personal Protective Equipment. The golden rule for these behaviors is that they are directly observable: i. Greater the number of observations.. Communicating the trends of unsafe acts over a period of time to all employees under various categories e. As the behavioral safety observation system matures. Housekeeping. Use of Tools. people identify other unsafe behaviors and place these on the checklists as the original unsafe behaviors are eliminated or bought under control.e. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 29 . anybody can see them as they occur. the more reliable the data is. that person will probably change their behavior to that of holding the handrail. etc. for their approval or ‘buy-in’. Example : If someone is descending the stairs without holding the handrail and is seen by a trained observer during an observation ‘tour’. Line of Fire.Monitoring Behavioral Safety Very act of observing and measuring people’s safety behavior alters the behavior of those being observed. and the more likely it is that safety behavior will improve.
Provide the necessary resources and assistance for remedial actions to take place.Help to set up and run regular feedback sessions. . . .Acting on Behavioral safety It requires visible on-going support from managers and front-line supervision: Management’s visible and demonstrable commitment to the process is vital by .Demonstrate their commitment by allowing the observers the time to conduct their observation tours. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 30 . and generally promote the initiative whenever and wherever the opportunity arises.Praise and recognition to those working safely.
Explicit requirements for management of change were added into section 4.Management Of Change Although it is often used as a term of art in the safety field. “management of change” is not a defined term in OHSAS 18001:2007.1 of OHSAS 18001 in the 2007 revision of the standard. vital to an effective OH&S management system.3. management of change is also an explicit requirement for safety management systems implemented to comply with the Seveso II Directive (see Annex III of EU Council Directive 96/82/EC). This addition was an explicit request of the American Industrial Hygiene Association for purposes of aligning OHSAS 18001 with the U. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 31 .S. It is. In addition. Occupational Health and Safety Management System standard – ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005. however.
Buzz groups.(10 minutes) What do you understand by “Management of Change”? Version 22 February 2008 Slide 32 .
4.3. the organization shall identify the OH&S hazards and risks associated with changes in the organization. and their impacts on operations.Management of Change The following requirements related to management of change were added in section 4. In addition. its activities or materials. including temporary changes.…. processes and activities. reference to Management of Change is also included in section 4. For the management of change.6: - - Version 22 February 2008 Slide 33 .1: The procedures for hazard identification and risk assessment shall take into account: . the OH&S management system or its activities. - modifications to the OH&S management system. prior to the introduction of such changes.changes or proposed changes in the organization.
packaging) .g. new chemicals.g.Activity changes (e. personnel or staffing changes) . equipment. infrastructure.Material changes (e. procedures) Version 22 February 2008 Slide 34 .g. changes to processes.g.Changes to the OH&S management system (e. the changes that need to be addressed include: . software) .What is “Change”? For purposes of management of change within an OH&S management system.Organizational changes (e.
“In industry. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB). Please visit CSB web site at http://www. create conditions that may lead to injuries. .S.gov/ for further reference.Refer: U. change often brings progress.” (from CSB press release announcing its 8/28/2001 Safety Bulletin concerning “Management of Change”) Ineffective management of change is one of the major contributing factors in many of the incident investigations. as elsewhere. But it can also increase risks that. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 35 . if not properly managed. property damage or even death.Why “Management of Change”? Why is management of change so important? Ineffective management of change is one of the leading causes of serious incidents.csb.
Implementation of the controls needed to address the hazards and risks associated with the “change” Version 22 February 2008 Slide 36 .Identification of the hazards associated with “change” .Assessment of the risks associated with “change” .Consideration of OH&S hazards and risks prior to the introduction of the “change” .Where to apply “Change” concepts? These new requirements cover four important concepts: .
2 Legal and Other Requirements OHSAS:2007 explicit to require that applicable legal requirements and other requirements to which the organization subscribes are taken into account in establishing.3.4. implementing and maintaining its OH&S management system Communication of relevant information to employees and other interested parties Version 22 February 2008 Slide 37 .
3.4 has been merged into this clause Version 22 February 2008 Slide 38 .3.4.3 Objectives and Programs “at each relevant function …” have been replaced by “at relevant functions …” in OHSAS:2007 Former 4.
1 Resources.4.4. Responsibility. Accountability is a new term! Version 22 February 2008 Slide 39 . Reassuring Commitment from top management on OH&S management. Roles. Accountability and Authority OHSAS:2007 more explicit to require: Assurance by the organisation that persons in the workplace in general take responsibility for aspects of OH&S over which they have control and adheres to applicable OH&S requirements.
5 minutes What is Accountability? Version 22 February 2008 Slide 40 .Buzz groups.
responsibility and accountability in an organization: Authority is the right to make a decision or take an action Responsibility is the obligation to ensure that an action is taken Accountability is to be answerable for a particular activity or action to a particular entity Version 22 February 2008 Slide 41 .What is Accountability? It is worthwhile. to explore the differences between authority. in this context.
Often.Monitoring and assessment of individual performance . Version 22 February 2008 Slide 42 .Accountability There are five key elements of an effective accountability system: .Adequate resources to meet the assigned responsibilities . organizations seek to assign accountability only when they are looking for someone to blame.Appropriate consequences for taking or failing to take action - Consistent and unbiased application It should be noted that accountability is not necessarily the same as blame.Clearly specified standards for authority and responsibility .
Retaining records of relevant training.4. education and experience Version 22 February 2008 Slide 43 .4. training and awareness OHSAS:2007 more explicit on: Addressing awareness training for “persons working under its control” and not limited to employees as in previous edition.2 Competence.
risk assessment and determination of controls and within incident investigation and development of OH&S policies and objectives.4. Participation and Consultation OHSAS:2007 more explicit on: Addressing communication to contractors and other visitors to the workplace with regard to the OH&S hazards and consultation with contractors when there are changes affecting their OH&S Appropriate involvement from workers in hazard identification. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 44 .4.3 Communication.
Consultation One of the major criticisms of the 1999 version of OHSAS 18001 was that it was a “management” standard that ignored “labor” interests. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 45 .3.4.3. this section of the standard is divided into two sub-sections: - 4. First. - 4.2 Participation and Consultation.4.4. is unique to OHSAS 18001 and focused specifically on getting input from workers and contractors.1 Communication for internal and external communication are addressed similar to the communication requirements in ISO 14001.3 of the standard to address these concerns. Significant changes were made in section 4.
Internal communication with Employees & between various departments and functions .Communicating with Visitors to the workplace .Communication and Consultation with Contractors.Communication An organization’s OHSMS communication procedures now need to address communication with several different parties: .Consultation with External Interested Parties.Participation of Workers in OHSAS activities . and . when appropriate Version 22 February 2008 Slide 46 .
In the context of OHSAS 18001. the procedures developed for worker participation now need to address the following: appropriate involvement in hazard identification. risk assessment and determination of controls appropriate involvement in incident investigation involvement in the development and review of OH&S policies and objectives consultation where there are changes that affect a worker’s OH&S representation on OH&S matters informing workers about the arrangements made for their participation and the identity of their representative (s) on OH&S matters It should be noted that this worker participation requirement is not strictly a “labor” (employee-employer) issue. the OHSMS needs to provide for the participation of all persons performing work under the control of the organization. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 47 .Communication In particular.
5 Control of documents OHSAS:2007 explicitly requires control of documents of external origin Version 22 February 2008 Slide 48 .4.4.
4.6 Operational Control OHSAS:2007 explicitly refers that operations and activities related to management of change shall be considered for needed operational controls.4. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 49 .
4. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 50 .1 Performance measurement and monitoring OHSAS:2007 includes new clause c) for monitoring the effectiveness of controls and stating explicitly that this shall be done for health as well as for safety.5.
2 Evaluation of Compliance New clause in OHSAS:2007.5. requirements fully aligned to ISO 14001 Version 22 February 2008 Slide 51 .4.
4. Although partly covered in previous edition more emphasis have been put on this issue.3. Nonconformity. Corrective Action and Preventive Action OHSAS:2007 includes new clause 4. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 52 .5.3 Incident Investigation.1 on Incident investigation.5.
results of internal audits and evaluations of compliance with applicable legal requirements and with other requirements to which the organization subscribes. .status of incident investigations. .recommendations for improvement.the OH&S performance of the organization. .changing circumstances.the results of participation and consultation (see 4. including developments in legal and other requirements related to OH&S. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 53 . Compared to previous edition OHSAS:2007 lists the following required input to Management review: . and . .the extent to which objectives have been met. including complaints.4. . .3) .relevant communication (s) from external interested parties.4.follow-up actions from previous management reviews. corrective actions and preventive actions.6 Management review OHSAS:2007 largely aligned with ISO 14001.
internal audit and management review) are aligned in language as well. When OHSAS 18001 was originally developed in 1999. In addition. it was drafted to be consistent with ISO 14001:1996 in language and structure. record control.Alignment with ISO 14001 One of the major drivers in the revision of OHSAS 18001 was alignment with ISO 14001:2004. OHSAS 18001:2007 has been aligned in overall structure and numbering with ISO 14001:2004. When ISO 14001 was revised in 2004. some of the alignment between the standards was lost. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 54 . many of the core management system elements (document control.
3. Evaluation of Compliance.Alignment with ISO 14001:2004 A significant change in OHSAS 18001 that is based on alignment with ISO 14001:2004 is the addition of new requirements related to identification and evaluation of compliance with OH&S legal and other requirements (Sections 4. is new.2 and 4. This new requirement is more expansive than the requirement in the 1999 standard that organizations provide proactive measures of performance to monitor applicable legislation and regulatory requirements. organizations will need to establish a procedure to periodically evaluate their compliance with applicable OH&S legal and other requirements. Section 4.2. Section 4.5. As in ISO 14001.2). implementing and maintaining their OH&S management systems.5.3.2 now requires that organizations ensure that applicable legal and other requirements are taken into account in establishing. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 55 .
Alignment with ISO 14001:2004 Not all of the language in OHSAS 18001 is aligned with ISO 14001:2004. There are four areas where there are significant differences between the two standards: Identification and evaluation of OH&S hazards and risks (as opposed to the aspect/impact analysis provisions of ISO 14001) Requirements related to worker participation and consultation with other parties such as contractors Selection and implementation of operational controls Specific requirements for incident investigation Version 22 February 2008 Slide 56 .
Implementation The Scope of the system shall be defined Hazard Identification and Risk assessment : The procedure has to incorporate many new inputs as mentioned in 4.3. Damage to property and workplace environment may be excluded.3. Occupational health must occupy the central position Risk Controls: Must follow the hierarchy of controls as per Cl. Relevant output to be made available for communication and consultation Version 22 February 2008 Slide 57 . incident investigation.1.Inputs and Outputs shall be defined. development of policy & objectives Procedure for Evaluation of compliance to Legal requirements Management Review.1 Accountability of employees on key issues shall be defined Procedure for workers’ participation in HIRA.4.
OHSAS 18002:2000 Occupational health and safety management systems Guidelines for the implementation of OHSAS 18001 is recommended. with a target of the end of the 3rd quarter of 2008 for publication of a revised edition. Work will now be starting in the OHSAS Project Group to revise OHSAS 18002:2000.Guidelines for conversion For those organizations that have already achieved certification to OHSAS 18001:1999. For those organizations that are just starting down the path towards seeking certification to OHSAS 18001. Version 22 February 2008 Slide 58 . or are in the final stages of achieving it. a two year “Transition“ Period has been agreed. it does still contain valuable advice on what you need to do to achieve compliance. While the guideline is aligned on a clause by clause basis against OHSAS 18001:1999. The transition period will end on 1st July 2009. and are looking for guidance to assist them. in order to allow them to make the change to using the new standard.
Version 22 February 2008 Slide 59 .