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Shear Force and Bending Moment - Materials - Engineering Reference with Worked Examples

Engineering › Materials ›

**Shear Force and Bending Moment
**

An introduction to Shear Force and Bending Moments in Beams.

Introduction

Shear Forces occurs when two parallel forces act out of alignment with each other. For example, in a large boiler made from sections of sheet metal plate riveted together, there is an equal and opposite force exerted on the rivets, owing to the expansion and contraction of the plates. Bending Moments are rotational forces within the beam that cause bending. At any point within a beam, the Bending Moment is the sum of: each external force multiplied by the distance that is perpendicular to the direction of the force.

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Shearing Force 3. Bending Moments 4. Types Of Load 5. Types Of Support 6. The Relationship Between W, F, M. 7. Concentrated Loads 8. Uniformly Distributed Loads 9. Combined Loads. 10. Varying Distributed Loads. 11. Graphical Solutions 12. Appendix 13. Page Comments

Shearing Force

The shearing force (SF) at any section of a beam represents the tendency for the portion of the beam on one side of the section to slide or shear laterally relative to the other portion. The diagram shows a beam carrying loads . It is simply supported at two points where the reactions are . Assume that the beam is divided into two parts by a section XX. The resultant of the loads and reaction acting on the left of AA is F vertically upwards, and since the whole beam is in equilibrium, the resultant force to the right of AA must be F downwards. F is called the Shearing Force at the section AA. It may be defined as follows:The shearing force at any section of a beam is the algebraic sum of the lateral components of the forces acting on either side of the section. Where forces are neither in the lateral or axial direction they must be resolved in the usual way and only the lateral components are used to calculate the shear force.

Bending Moments

In a similar manner it can be seen that if the Bending moments (BM) of the forces to the left of AA are clockwise, then the bending moment of the forces to the right of AA must be anticlockwise. Bending Moment at AA is defined as the algebraic sum of the moments about the section of all forces acting on either side of the section. Bending moments are considered positive when the moment on the left portion is clock wise and on the right anticlock wise. This is referred to as a sagging bending moment as it tends to make the beam concave upwards at AA. A negative bending moment is termed hogging.

T ypes Of Load

A beam is normally horizontal and the loads vertical. Other cases which occur are considered to be exceptions. A Concentrated load is one which can be considered to act at a point, although in practice it must be distributed over a small area. A Distributed load is one which is spread in some manner over the length, or a significant length, of the beam. It is usually quoted at a weight per unit length of beam. It may either be uniform or vary from point to point.

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Similarly. it is not always sufficient to investigate the points of zero shearing force when determining the maximum bending moment.Materials . It is normal to assume that the reaction acts at a point. The effect is to fix the direction of the beam at the support. In order to do this the support must exert a "fixing" moment M and a reaction R on the beam. In practice. it is safer to assume that the beam is freely supported.php 2/10 . F.Engineering Reference with Worked Examples T ypes Of Support A Simple or free support is one on which the beam is rested and which exerts a reaction on the beam. It can be seen from the examples that "peaks" in the bending moment diagram frequently occur at concentrated loads or reactions. it is not usually possible to obtain perfect fixing and the fixing moment applied will be related to the angular movement of the support. and . T he Relationship Between W. acting approximately (exactly if uniformly distributed) through the centre C. M. If both ends are fixed in this way the reactions are not statically determinate.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment. The element must be in equilibrium under the action of these forces and couples and the following equations can be obtained:Taking Moments about C: (1) Neglecting the product in the limit: (2) Resolving vertically: (3) (4) (5) From equation (2) it can be seen that if M is varying continuously.codecogs. the bending moment is M at x.2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment . although they may in fact represent the greatest bending moment on the beam. and these are not given by . When in doubt about the rigidity. If w is the mean rate of loading of the length . A beam which is fixed at one end in this way is called a Cantilever. then the total load is . In the following diagram is the length of a small slice of a loaded beam at a distance x from the origin O Let the shearing force at the section x be F and at . www. although it may in fact act act over a short length of beam. zero shearing force corresponds to either maximum or minimum bending moment. Consequently. A Built-in or encastre' support is frequently met .

W and is constant along the whole cantilever i. at the fixed end. The shearing force suffers sudden changes when passing through a load point. Workings Consider the forces to the left of a section at a distance x from the free end. The change is equal to the load. for all values of x Taking Moments about the section gives M = .Example 1 Problem [imperial] Example: 1 2 A Cantilever of length l carries a concentrated load W at its free end. Similarly integrating equation (4) (7) equals the area under the load distribution diagram. the bending moment must be zero. Then F = . www. and this is called a point of inflection or contraflexure. Draw the Shear Force (SF) and Bending Moment (BM) diagrams. The bending Moment diagram is a series of straight lines between loads.Materials .e.codecogs. Hence the SF and BM diagrams are as follows: The following general conclusions can be drawn when only concentrated loads and reactions are involved. Concentrated Loads Example .e. Integrating equation (5) gives: (8) These relations can be very valuable when the rate of loading cannot be expressed in an algebraic form as they provide a means of graphical solution.2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment . (1) From equilibrium considerations it can be seen that the fixing moment applied at the built in end is WL and the reaction is W. By integrating equation (2) between the x = a and x = b then: (6) Which shows that the increase in bending moment between two sections is the area under the shearing force diagram.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment.php 3/10 . The slope of the lines is equal to the shearing force between the loading points.Engineering Reference with Worked Examples At a point on the beam where the type of bending is changing from sagging to hogging.W x so that the maximum Bending Moment occurs when x = l i.

Engineering Reference with Worked Examples Uniformly Distributed Loads Example . From Equation (2) (5) Putting x = l/2 www.php 4/10 .2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment .codecogs. The maximum is at the center and corresponds to zero shear force.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment. Workings The Total Load carried is wl and by symmetry the reactions at both end supports are each wl/2 If x is the distance of the section measured from the left-hand support then: (2) This give a straight line graph equal to the rate of loading. The end values of Shearing Force are The Bending Moment at the section is found by assuming that the distributed load acts through its center of gravity which is x/2 from the section. (3) (4) This is a parabolic curve having a value of zero at each end.Example 3 Problem [imperial] Example: 1 Draw the SF and BM diagrams for a Simply supported beam of length l carrying a uniformly distributed load w per unit length which occurs across the whole Beam.Materials .

long is supported at A and B and is loaded as shown. Example .) (8) (9) The Shearing Force Starting at A F = 7.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment. Similarly there is an increase at B of 7. Workings Taking Moments about B (7) (The distributed load is taken as acting at its centre of gravity.e.Engineering Reference with Worked Examples (6) Combined Loads. F is constant ( There is no load on Ed) and at D it suffers a sudden decrease of 2 tons ( the load at D) .php 5/10 .codecogs.Example 4 Problem [imperial] Example: 1 2 3 A Beam 25 ft. This results in a value of F = 3 tons at B which remains constant between B and C. Sketch the SF and BM diagrams and find (a) the position and magnitude of the maximum Bending Moment and (b) the position of the point of contra flexure.2.2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment . from A www. Bending Moment From A to E: (10) This is a parabola which can be sketched by taking several values of x. As the section moves away from A F decreases at a uniform rate of w per unit length ( i.25 . Beyond E the value of x for the distributed load remains constant at 5 ft.wx) and reaches a value of .25.75 tons ( the reaction at B). Note this value agrees with the load at C.75 at E.Materials . Between E and D. f = 7.

The diagram consists in straight lines between these values.L.) The Total Load on the beam ( i. Workings Draw the Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams and calculate the position and magnitude of the maximum B. At D (12) At B (13) This last value was calculated for the portion BC We were required to find the position and magnitude of the maximum BM. the load plus the mean rate of loading of 1/2 tons/ft) is given by: www.Example 7 Problem [imperial] Example: 1 A Beam ABC.M. However it is only necessary to evaluate M at the points D and B since M is zero at C. Example .com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment. long.e.php 6/10 .codecogs.e. Similar equations apply for sections DB and BC. from A together with a distributed load whose intensity varies in linear fashion from zero at A and C to 1ton/ft. This occurs where the shearing force is zero. at B. 27 ft. i.Materials . (U.at 7.2/19/13 Between E and D Shear Force and Bending Moment . is simply supported at A and B 18 ft.25 ft. across and carries a load of 2 tons at 6 ft. from A (14) The point of contraflexure occurs when the bending moment is zero and this is between D and B at: (15) Varying Distributed Loads.Engineering Reference with Worked Examples (11) This produces a straight line between E and D.

Engineering Reference with Worked Examples The Total distribute load on centres of gravity. These are and on from A and each of which act through their from C in the other case. (20) (21) At x = 6 ft.2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment . (Note ..codecogs. For 0<x<6 (19) At x = 6 ft. (22) 6< x <18 (23) (24) www.php 7/10 . The Total distributed load on this length is: (18) The centre of gravity of this load is from A.Materials .com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment. These are the centroids of the triangles which represent the load distribution) Taking Moments about B (16) (17) At a distance x (<18)from A the loading is x/18 tons/ft.

Now take any point "O" to the draw pq parallel to Oa in the space "A" .Engineering Reference with Worked Examples (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) The maximum Bending Moment occurs at zero s earing force 1.e. qr parallel to Ob in the space "B" and . It can e seen that for a uniformly varying distributed load. M being proportional to is represented by ab and acts through the point q. being equivalent to eO along ut and Of along pu. d. Hence.codecogs. D. and e.x = 7. be replaced by forces represented by bO along rq and Oc along rs. st. Similarly. and these two forces must be in equilibrium with . can All of these forces cancel each other out except aO along qp and Od along te. Also. b. C. Draw Of parallel to pu. This integration can be carried out by means of a funicular polygon. Letter the spaces between the loads and reactions A. It will now be shown that fa represents the vertical ordinates. Suppose that the loads carried on a simply supported beam are the supports. B. from which it follows that the curves produced will be of a successively "higher order" in x ( See equations (6) and(7)) Graphical Solutions Note This method may appear complicated but whilst the proof and explanation is fairly detailed. (30) The section BC can be more easily calculated by using a variable X measured from C. are the reactions at . and F.58 ft. www. it can be replaced by forces aO along qp and Ob along qr.php 8/10 . and tu. by cO along sr and Od along st etc.2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment . is represented by fa and by ef. Then by a similar argument:- (31) (32) (33) (34) The complete diagrams are shown.Materials . Earlier it was shown that the change of Bending Moment is given by the double Integral of the rate of loading. the application is simple and straight forward. See diagram. E. the Shearing Force diagram consists of a series of parabolic curves and the Bending Moment diagram is made up of "cubic" discontinuities occurring at concentrated loads or reactions. Draw to scale a vertical line such that left of the line and join O to a. This is called The Polar Diagram Commencing at any point p on the line of action of similarly rs. This can only be so if is equivalent to a force Oa along pq and fO along up. pqrstu is the Bending Moment diagram drawn on a base pu.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment. c. It has been shown that Shearing Forces can be obtained by integrating the loading function and Bending Moment by integrating the Shearing Force.

d.Engineering Reference with Worked Examples triangles pqv and Oaf are similar and hence: (9) (10) Where But Hence for a given position of the pole O. b. and the Bending (14) But. is the distance from from the left-hand end of the beam. (15) (16) If a base on the same level as f is drawn and the points a. then the triangle qry is similar to Obf and: to a certain scale.com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment. the scale being determined as follows: If the load scale of the Polar Diagram is Moment scale required is as shown above then the length scale along the beam is . then the length .codecogs.php 9/10 . www. (11) (12) (13) Which is the Bending Moment at . c. then the Shearing Force diagram is obtained. the ordinates at the other load points give the Bending Moments at those points. qv represents the B>M> at If qy is drawn parallel tp pu. and e are projected across from the Polar Diagram.Materials .2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment . and h is the length of the perpendicular from O on to ae. Similarly.

php 10/10 . if the Pole O is taken on the same horizontal level as the point a.Engineering Reference with Worked Examples This method can be equally well used for distributed loads by dividing the loading diagram into strips and taking the load on a strip to act as if it were concentrated at its centre of gravity. Appendix Shearing Force F (17) Mending Moment M Rate of loading w (18) Last Modified: 2011-12-08 07:39:48 Page Rendered: 2013-02-18 11:45:41 Page Comments www. For cantilevers.codecogs. then the base of the Bending Moment will be horizontal.2/19/13 Shear Force and Bending Moment .com/reference/engineering/materials/shear_force_and_bending_moment.Materials .

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