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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgment has been made in the text.

Signature Name Roll No. Date

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Project Report entitled “Password Secured GSM Jammer” which is submitted by Eti Sharma, Deeksha Goel, Akriti Ahlawat in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree B. Tech. in Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering of U. P. Technical University, is a record of the candidate own work carried out by him under my/our supervision. The matter embodied in this thesis is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree.

Date:

Supervisor

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Acknowledgment is not a ritual but is certainly an important thing for the successful completion of the project. At the time when we were made to know about the project, it was really very tough to proceed further as we were to develop the same on a platform, which was new to us. More so, the coding part seemed so tricky that it seemed to be impossible for us to complete the work within the given duration. We really feel indebted in acknowledging the organizational support and encouragement received from the management of our college. The task of developing this system would not have been possible without the constant help of our mentors. We take this opportunity to express our profound sense of gratitude and respect to those who helped us throughout the duration of this project. We express our gratitude to Mr.Bhupendra Singh (H.O.D of ECE) .We would again like to thank all of them for giving their valuable time to us in developing this project.

Dated: Place:Bijnor

Ms.Eti Sharma Ms.Deeksha Goel Ms.Akriti Ahlawat

and the conclusions of the study. single-spaced type.ABSTRACT The abstract is to be in fully-justified italicized text. tables. the main findings. All manuscripts must be in English. The reason is that the Abstract should be understandable in itself to be suitable for storage in textual information retrieval systems. Do not include artwork. elaborate equations or references to other parts of the paper or to the reference listing at the end. . and may be up to 3 in. in 12-point Times. Use the word “Abstract” as the title. it should succinctly summarize the reason for the work.62 cm) long. (7. The abstract is to be in 10-point. An Abstract is required for every paper. boldface type. Leave two blank lines after the abstract. below the author information. at the top of the left-hand column as it is here. centered relative to the column. initially capitalized. then begin the main text. The abstract should be no longer than 250 words.

.........................TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ii iii iv v vii DECLARATION ........................................................................................... HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS………………………………………..1............2........................................................................... AIM OF THE PROJECT...................... DENIAL OF SERVICE............................................... x HARDWARE REQUIREMENT............. LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................1.....1.................. 17 19 20 15 ............... CHAPTER1 (INTRODUCTION... 5 1...................... DESIGN PARAMETERS )……......... LIST OF TABLES.............. CHAPTER 2 (JAMMING TECHNIQUES...............................1............................. 3.........................................................2................................................ ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ...... CERTIFICATE ....................... SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT.. 8 1.......................3....................... SHIELDING ATTACKS............................1 JAMMING TECHNIQUES.4 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS………………………………………............. 3... 1................... ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............... 1 1.................................. viii LIST OF SYMBOLS .............3............................................................ AIM OF THE PROJECT... INTRODUCTION........................................................... SPOOFING.. 3.)........................................................................... 3.............................................................................1................................................................... ABSTRACT .....

............2............................................................ THE FREQUENCY BANDS............................................................... 47 REFERENCES.......2...........4......... DISTANCE TO BE JAMMED............................................................... ...........2..... JAMMING TO SIGNAL RATIO………………………….................................................................5.....................................2. 36 39 CHAPTER 5 (CONCLUSIONS) .......................................................................................... POWER CALCULATIONS……………………………............................2..... 3..... FREE SPACE LOSS………………………… 3..............3............ 49 .... 3. 40 APPENDIX A ...................... 30 4...............3.2...............................1........ 45 APPENDIX B ........................ .............................................. ................................................................................2.........1........ 3....................... 4..... 23 CHAPTER 4 (OTHER MAIN HEADING) ........ 22 21 3............................ DESIGN PARAMETERS....2...........................

Introduction .

and tested. In this project. This interest comes from the fundamental objective of denying the successful transport of information from the sender (tactical commanders) to the receiver (the army personnel). law courts.CHAPTER 1 1. or offer for sale. make them obsolete.1 INTRODUCTION Communication jamming devices were first developed and used by military. the jammer effectively disables cellular phones. These devices can be . which results in a "no network available" display on the cell phone screen. All phones within the effective radius of the jammer are silenced. According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the USA: "The manufacture. However. which is basically some kind of electronic countermeasure device. We should mention that this project.. One way to stop these disrupting ringings is to install a device in such places which will inhibit the use of mobiles. of devices designed to block or jam wireless transmissions is prohibited". This could happen in some places like conference rooms.e. lecture rooms and mosques. A GSM Jammer is an instrument used to prevent mobile phones from receiving signals from base station. Needless to say. The technology behind cell phone jamming is very simple. built. there has been an increasing demand for portable cell phone jammers. The jamming device broadcasts an RF signal in the frequency range reserved for cell phones that interferes with the cell phone signal. It should be mentioned that cell phone jammers are illegal devices in most countries. importation. sale. a device that will jam both GSM 900 and GSM 1800 services will be designed. mobile (or cell) phones are becoming essential tools in our daily life. Nowadays. libraries.When used. presented in this report. is solely done for educational purposes. recently. i. the wide use of mobile phones could create some problems as the sound of ringing becomes annoying or disrupting. and vice-versa. Such a device is known as cell phone jammer or "GSM jammer".

This causes enough interference with the communication between cell phones and towers to render the phones unusable. Jammers can work by either disrupting phone to tower frequencies or tower to phone frequencies.used in practically any location. one of the devices that have popped. for those that are tired of hearing endless cell phone conversations or constantly being interrupted by incessant cell phone ring tones.1: Typical sign used in places where mobile phone are not allowed As with other radio jamming. However. but are found primarily in places where a phone call would be particularly disruptive because silence is expected. Older jammers sometimes were limited to working on phones using only analoge or older digital mobile phone principles. Most cell phones use different bands to send and receive communications from towers. Figure 1. cell phone jammers block cell phone use by sending out radio waves along the same frequencies that cellular phones operate on. a cell phone jammer seems like the perfect device. while larger more costly models may interfere directly with the tower. Small devices tend to use the former method. On most retail phones. Few handheld models block all bands from 800MHz to 1900MHz within a 30-foot range (9 meters). New models such as the double and triple band jammers can block all widely used GSM Networks and are even very effective against new phones which hop to different frequencies and systems when interfered with. As the dominant network technology .With so many people using cell phones these days.up on the market are cell phone jammers. the network would simply appear out of range. The radius of cell phone jammers can range from a dozen feet for pocket models to kilometres for more dedicated units.

North America or Asia.and frequencies used for mobile phones vary worldwide. some work only in specific regions such as Europe. Aim of the Project .

It should be mentioned that cell phone jammers are illegal devices in most countries. These devices can be used in practically any location. In this project.up on the market are cell phone jammers. one of the devices that have popped.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT The aim of the project is that to stop these disrupting ringings is to install a device in such places which will inhibit the use of mobiles. but are found primarily in places where a phone call would be particularly disruptive because silence is expected. and tested. .With so many people using cell phones these days.e. Such a device is known as cell phone jammer or "GSM jammer". built. When used.. which is basically some kind of electronic countermeasure device.1. the jammer effectively disables cellular phones. a device that will jam both GSM 900 and GSM 1800 services will be designed. make them obsolete. i.

4 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 1) Assembler of ATMEL microcontroller series 2) PADS for PCB designing .1.3 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 1) Microcontroller AT89C51 2) LM7805 Regulator 3) Power Supply 4) Resistors 5) Capacitors 6) Transistors 7) LEDs 8) Diode 9) Connectors 10) Relays 11) Jammer device 1.

1 JAMMING TECHNIQUES There are several ways to jam an RF device. This area can be as large as buildings.1.1. Denial of Service . This kind requires closing an area in a faraday cage so that any device inside this cage can not transmit or receive RF signal from outside of the cage.1. for example.1.2. the device forces the mobile to turn off itself. 2.3.CHAPTER 2 2. The three most common techniques can be categorized as follows: 2. Shielding Attacks This is known as TEMPEST or EMF shielding. Spoofing In this kind of jamming. Some types of this technique can detect if a nearby mobile phone is there and sends a message to tell the user to switch the phone to the silent mode (Intelligent Beacon Disablers). then the device sends the signal to disable the mobile phone. This type is very difficult to be implemented since the jamming device first detects any mobile phone in a specific area. 2.

Our device is of this type. the device transmits a noise signal at the same operating frequency of the mobile phone in order to decrease the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the mobile under its minimum value. This kind of jamming technique is the simplest one since the device is always on.This technique is referred to DOS. In this technique. .

Later on we will see the relationship between the output power and the distance D.2. since the amount of the output power of the jammer depends on the area that we need to jam. Usually a successful jamming attack requires that the jammer power is roughly equal to signal power at the receiver end (mobile device). 2. In digital communications.2.3 Jamming–to-signal ratio {J/S} Downlink Frequency 925-960MHz 1805-1880MHz Jamming is successful when the mobile set stops communication with rest of the network. Our design is established upon D=10 meters for DCS 1800 band and D=20 meters for GSM 900 band. We focused on some design parameters to establish the device specifications.1 The distance to be jammed (D) This parameter is very important in our design.8 GHz (known also as DCS 1800 band).2. and GSM 1.2 The frequency bands Frequency Bands GSM 900 GSM 1800 Uplink Frequency 890-915 MHz 1710-1785MHz Table 1: Operating frequency bands. the usability is denied when the error rate of the transmission can not be compensated by error correction.2.2 DESIGN PARAMETERS Based on the above. our device which is related to the DOS technique is transmitting noise on the same frequencies of the two bands GSM 900 MHz. The general equation of the jamming-to-signal ratio is given as follows: J/S=(Pj Gjr Grj Rtr Rtr Lr Br)/(Pt Gtr Grt Rjr Rjr Lj Bj) . These parameters are as follows: 2. 2.

Using the GSM downlink with resonant frequency (947. referred to as the SNR. To ensure jamming of these devices.2. This path loss is for free space only. This means that the jamming radius will be less than the 10m used to calculate this value. This is called the SNR handling capability of the device. although it is highly unlikely.Where. Path Loss(dB)=32.5MHz) and a jamming radius of 10m. Every device working on radio communication principles can only tolerate noise in a signal up to a particular level.4 Free Space Loss {F} By using the following equation we can get the free path loses. 2. A very good device might have a value of 9dB. Most cellular devices have a SNR handling capability of around 12dB. Pj = jammer power Pt = transmitter power Gjr = antenna gain from jammer to receiver Grj = antenna gain from receiver to Jammer Gtr = antenna gain from transmitter to receiver Grt = antenna gain from receiver to transmitter Br = communications receiver bandwidth Bj = jamming transmitter bandwidth Rtr = range between communications transmitter and receiver Rjt = range between jammer and communications receiver Lj = jammer signal loss (including polarization mismatch) Lr = communication signal loss To successfully jam a particular region. we need to consider a very important parameter the signal to noise ratio. we get the value of path 58dBm. and the path losses in air will be much greater. . we need to reduce the SNR up to 9dB. and d the distance in kilometres.44+2log d(km)+20log f(MHz) Here f is the frequency in MHz.

From the above considerations. So we need to have jamming signal strength of -24dBm at the mobile device’s reception to effectively jam it. as follows: Using SNR=9 dB and the maximum power signal for mobile receiver= -15 dBm.F(dB)=32. SNR=S/N We Know S=-15 & SNR=9 J=N=-15/9 J=N=-15-9 J = -24dBm.2. our transmitted signal will undergo some attenuation while transmitting through antenna of the jammer and in open air. To have resultant output power we will add the value of J with the value of free path loss.01+2log 1880 F=58dB 2. we can find the required output power from the device. we need to calculate power transmitted to jam any cell phone within a distance of around 10 meters for GSM.5 Power calculations Here. This path loss can be calculated using the simple free space path loss approximation. However.44+20log 0. Output power=-24dBm+58dB = 34dBm .

Circuit Analysis .

1 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS There are two main sections of our circuit that is. Noise generator. After this we generate a noise and amplify it in two stages. Assume the reset input (pin 4) is at +VCC and inactive. • • 4. Triangle wave generator. The operation of the 555 timer revolves around the three resistors that form a voltage divider across the power supply. 4.1. II. In the end of this IF-section we use a summer to add noise with triangular wave and then a clamper to give DC offset to bring wave completely in positive half. Mixer summer.1 Triangle wave generator As our project required a chip which can generate continuous signal frequency of 10Khz. and the two comparators connected to this voltage divider. The control voltage input (pin 5) .4. Therefore main parts of this section are: I.1. As we need continuous signal to tune VCO so we use a 555 timer which generates a sequence of pulses. The IC is inactive as long as the trigger input (pin 2) remains at +VCC and the threshold input (pin 6) is at ground. 555 timer is the best option that we got which is easily available and easy to implement. We convert these pulses to desire triangular wave by using a combination of resistors and capacitor which will be explained in next section. III.1 shows the internal detail of 555 timer.1 IF section RF section THE IF-SECTION In this section we design a tuning circuit for Voltage Controlled Oscillator. now we will explain the working of 555 timer in detail.1. Fig 5.

The trigger input can now return to +VCC it will not affect the state of the IC.1 The three resistors in the voltage divider all have the same value (5K in the bipolar version of this IC). The control voltage input at pin 5 can directly affect this relationship although most of the time this pin is unused. We can use capacitor for noise immunity on pin 5. Under these conditions the output (pin 3) is at ground and the discharge transistor (pin 7) is turned on.is also unconnected. so the comparator reference voltages will be 1/3 and 2/3 of the supply voltage.1.[4] . FIGURE 5. When this occurs. T The internal flip-flop changes state when the trigger input at pin 2 is pulled down below +VCC/3. the output (pin 3) changes state to +VCC and the discharge transistor (pin 7) is turned off.

However, if the threshold input (pin 6) is now raised above (2/3) +VCC, the output will return to ground and the discharge transistor will be turned on again. When the threshold input returns to ground, the IC will remain in this state, which was the original state when we started this analysis. The easiest way to allow the threshold voltage (pin 6) to gradually rise to (2/3) +VCC is to connect it to a capacitor being allowed to charge through a resistor. In this way we can adjust the R and C values for almost any time interval we might want. This was the discretion of what is happening inside the chip now we will tell you the external circuit required to make this IC useful for our project. First thing to explain is that there are three mode in which 555 timer chip is being used which are: Monostable Astable Bistable Mostly used configurations are Monostable and Astable, As in our project will used the Astable mode of this ship we will describe this in detail and will give a overviews about other two states. In Monostable mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce free switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc. In Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the discharge pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce free latched switches etc. In Astable free running mode the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc. As we have to generate a clock which will generate the frequency of 10Khz and voltage of 0 to 5V, Astable configuration is the best way to produce this frequency as in our project we simply need a clock generator. The circuit configuration for Astable mode is given in figure.

. Figure The key external component of the Astable mode 555 timer is the capacitor. The Astable function can be distilled into charging a capacitor and discharge a capacitor, repeat indefinitely. How is this charging / discharging accomplished? Through resistors connected either to VCC or GND.

Figure

Figure

Now, we need a method to switch between the charging and discharging modes.

Figure Where S1 is a diode which is used as a switch. The charging time for the capacitor can be found as follows: Tc=.693(Ra+Rb)C For discharging time, Because while discharging the voltage will only flow in Rb and in C (capacitor), the following equation can be used : TD=.693RbC As frequency is inversely proportional to time so the output frequency can be calculated as follows: F= 1/(Tc+Td) By putting values of TC and TD we get: F =1.44/(Ra+2Rb)C In our project, we used Ra = Rb = 750 Ω with C=0.1 µF, then the output frequency is 10 KHz Since we use +12 V (Vcc), the output signal will be bounded from 4 V (Vcc/3) to 8Volts (2Vcc/3).The output of the 555 timer is shown in the figure below:

. There are different type of noises which can corrupt our data in a signal in communication systems.2. As we are designing mobile services denial device which corrupts data and signal coming from BTS tower to our mobile. OR A diode that conducts when reverse voltage reaches a predetermined value. which corrupt our data in our desire signal by changing its amplitude. phase or frequency. For that we need noise which can be generated by thermal oriented technique by using zener diodes as it have different characteristics from regular diodes. A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current in the forward direction like a normal diode. but also in the reverse direction if the voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage" or “Zener voltage”. Noise generation When we talk about noise in general the first thing which comes to our mind is the mixture of voices with different tunes and pitches but when we talk about noise in communication system then it will be signals of different frequencies. But here we only consider a thermal noise means the noise due to the temperature of our system.1. Noise which is the mixture of different frequencies.Figure 4.1.

an ionization process will result whereby valence electron absorb sufficient energy to leave the parent atom. the velocity of the minority carriers responsible for the reverse saturation current Is will also increase. It sounds like a hiss. much like tuning between FM stations. To generate noise we use zener and apply reversed bias voltage to establish avalanche breakdown region. it has very low amplitude which will be of no worthy if we use it directly to mix with our carrier signal therefore to make it effective we will have to amplify it up to an effective level where the noise has significant effect at our carrier. As Pink noise generated through avalanche effect of zener diode as shown below in figure 5. Eventually.2. their velocity and associated kinetic energy will be sufficient to release to additional carriers through collusions with other stable atomic structure. That is. For a theoretically infinite spectrum it is called white noise.000 Hz for audio. When this happens it generates pink noise. such as 20-20. Pink noise is random noise where the power is spread uniformly over a specific spectrum of frequencies. .1. These additional carriers help the ionization process to the point where a high avalanche current is established avalanche breakdown region determined.Figure We use the avalanche effect characteristics of zener in which the voltage across the diode increases in the reverse bias region.

.We amplify our noise signal in two stages in first stage we simply use NPN transistor in feedback configuration although the Q-point is also not completely independent of beta but the sensitivity to changes in beta or temperature variation is less than encountered for others. In this stage we use LM 386 power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value up to 200. In the second stage we use operational amplifier. This amplifier has 180 degree phase shift between input and output. The result of this stage is shown in following figure. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low. as op-amp has high input impedance very high voltage gain with low output impedance.As we need maximum gain we place a capacitor between pin 1 and 8.

This is the reason of using two stage amplification in noise generator section. Its input voltage should not be less than 0.We put pin 3 which is available for +ve input at ground an pin 7 leave empty as it is of no use.4v therefore we use transistor oriented amplifier before the opamp which increase the voltage up to this level. Our final output comes from pin 5 of the op-amp LM 386. Although the input at pin 2 gives the phase shift of 180 degree but gives a stable output while output from pin 3 is not much stable. . We put our input at pin 2 which is use for –ve input.

multiplication and differentiation thus the term operational. The standard op-amp symbol is shown in figure. The input signal is applied through a series resistor Ri to the inverting(-) input . The summing amplifier has two or more inputs and its output voltage is proportional to the negative of the . subtraction. Today’s opamp are linear integrated circuits that are relatively low dc supply and reliable and inexpensive.4. These early devices were constructed with vacuum tubes and works with high voltages. The typical op-amp operates with two dc voltages one positive and other negative end shown in figure.Also the output is feed back through Rf to the same input. As summing amplifier is an application of inverting op-amp configuration.1. As there are two inputs of op-amp Inverting input Non-inverting input An op-amp connected as an inverting amplifier with a controlled amount of voltage gain is shown in fig. Operational –Amplifier:Each operational amplifier (op-amp) were used primarily to perform mathematical operations such as addition. The non-inverting (+) input is grounded.3 Mixer As we are using LM741(op-amp) for the summing of outputs that comes from 555 timer and LM386 so firstly we know what is op-amp.1.

Its input voltage should not be less than 0.3 We put pin 3 which is available for +ve input at ground an pin 7 leave empty as it is of no use.algebraic sum of its input voltages. As Voutput = (-Rf/R1)V1+(-Rf/R2)V2 Voutput=-(V1+2V2) Using Rnoise = 1kΩ.We are using there LM741 as a summer Pin configuration of LM741 is as follows: 1 Offset null 2 Inverted input 3 Non–inverted input 4 (-V) 5 Offset null 6 Output 7 (+V) 8 N/C +12v is given to the pin 7 and -12v is given to the pin 4. We amplify the noise signal by 2.2. Although the input at pin 2 gives the phase shift of 180 degree but gives a stable output while output from pin 3 is not much stable. Pin 3 is grounded and the output that comes from 555 timer (triangular wave) and LM386 (noise) both given to pin 2 in order to add noise and triangular wave.1. the ration of noise to sweep signal is 2:1. . We put our input at pin 2 which is use for –ve input. In this case.4v therefore we use transistor oriented amplifier before the opamp which increase the voltage up to this level. Figure 5.

2 The RF-SECTION . The clamper consists of a resistor and diode connected in parallel as we need positive clamping so diode is in reverse bias as shown in figure Figure 5.3.This is the reason of using two stage amplification in noise generator section. Our final output comes from pin 5 of the op-amp LM 386. So. the ration of noise to sweep signal is 2:1. In this case.5 Circuit diagram of IF-section 4.1. Clamper:The input of the VCO must be bounded from 0 to 5V to get the needed frequency range. we need to add a clamper to achieve our goal. We amplify the noise signal by 2.1.

Tanks Circuit .Radio frequency is the most important part of jammer. The RF-section consists of voltage control oscillator and antenna. the transistor part of circuit. the output of this section is interfere with the mobile. leakage resistor circuit. The circuit diagram of complete RF section is show below Figure This circuit consist of LC circuit which is also known as tank circuit. regulated circuit which is behind the transistor. Now we will explain every section one by one.

A tank circuit is typically a combination of 'capacitive' and 'inductive' circuits that exchange 'energy' back and forth. An inductor stores energy as a magnetic field, wheras a capacitor stores energy as a charge across plates. Ideally, the exchange between them would go on forever however, a slight refilling signal is needed practically. By selecting the proper values of components, the rate or frequency of exchange can be determined.\

Figure Figure 5.2.2 is tanks circuit which we have used. And the DC 12V is for refilling and can be said as refilling signal for continues oscillation. A capacitor stores energy in electric field between its plates, depending on the voltage across it, and an inductor stores energy in magnetic field, depending on the current flowing through it. If a charged capacitor is connected across an inductor charge will start to flow through the inductor generating a magnetic field around it, and reducing the voltage on the capacitor. Eventually all the charge on the capacitor will be gone. However the current will continue because inductors resist changes in current and energy will be extracted from the magnetic field to keep it flowing. The current will begin to charge the capacitor with a voltage of opposite polarity to its original charge. When the magnetic field is completely dissipated the current will stop and the charge will again restored in the capacitor (with the opposite polarity) and the cycle will begin again with the current in the opposite direction.

Resonance effect:The resonance effect occurs when inductive and capacitive reactances are equal in absolute value. (Notice that the LC circuit does not resonate by itself resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate at larger amplitude at some frequencies than at others. These are known as the system's resonant frequencies resonant frequentcy of the LC circuit is ω=√(1/LC) Where L is the inductance in henries C is the capacitance in farads is the angular frequency in radians per second. The equivalent frequency in units of hertz is π F=1/2 Here L= 4mH and C=1uF+(Variable capcitor) Here varialbe capcitor is used because we want to send frequencies which are in our required band from 925Mhz to 970Mhz. Damping is any effect, either deliberately engendered or inherent to a system that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations of an oscillatory system. In real oscillators friction, or damping, slows the motion of the system. In many vibrating systems the frictional force Ff can be modeled as being proportional to the velocity v of the object: Ff = −CV, where c is the viscous damping coefficient, given in units of Newton-seconds per meter. The value of the damping ratio ς critically determines the behaviour of the damped system. Leakage Resistors:-

Figure These resistors are used in order to prevent leakage current. Leakage refers to a gradual loss of energy from a charged capacitor. It is primarily caused by electronic devices attached to the capacitors, such as transistors or diodes, which conduct a small amount of current even when they are turned off. Even though this off current is an order of magnitude less than the current through the device when it is on, the current still slowly discharges the capacitor. Another contributor to leakage from a capacitor is from the undesired imperfection of some dielectric materials used in capacitors, also known as dielectric leakage. It is a result of the dielectric material not being a perfect insulator and having some non-zero conductivity, allowing a leakage current to flow, slowly discharging the capacitor. Here if we don’t use these resistors then this current will affect our output of the circuit and can affect the output frequency. Behind the transistor is the regulated circuit which is to make the input according to in input of transistor. As the signal coming from IF section is input of RF section this regulated circuit will make that input according to transistor.

Impedance matching
Impedance matching is the electronics design practice of setting the input impedance (ZL) of an electrical load equal to the fixed output impedance (ZS) of the signal source to which it is ultimately connected, usually in order to maximize the power transfer and minimize reflections from the load. This only applies when both are linear devices.

with 50 Ω input impedance so that the antennas are matched to the system. we used two 1/4 wavelength monopole antennas. Antenna is necessary for every wireless system and our jammer is also transmitting frequencies in air that is why we also need a antenna for this reason. wireless LAN. Antennas usually work in air or outer space. radar. antennas convert electromagnetic waves into electrical currents and vice versa. point-to-point radio communication. In order to have optimal power transfer. and space exploration. the antenna system must be matched to the transmission system.The concept of impedance matching was originally developed for electrical power. We used monopole antenna since the radiation pattern is Omni-directional[4] Specifications:• • • Frequency: 850-1GHz Length=234/fr Input impedance 50Ω . Antenna An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic waves. Antennas are used in systems such as radio and television broadcasting. In other words. but can be applied to any other field where a form of energy is transferred between a source and a load. but can also be operated under water or even through soil and rock at certain frequencies for short distances. In this project. Figure :-(Matching is obtained when ZL = ZS*). A proper antenna is necessary to transmit the jamming signal successfully.

It is expected that as the distance between the cell phone and the base station increases. This is due to the fact that the amount of power reaching the cell phone from the base station decreases as the cell phone moves farther from the base station. This is more than what it will design for. It can be clearly seen that the signal is "ON" when the jammer is "OFF". . the effective jamming distance will increase. The Figure shows the results.• VSWR<2 Future plan of work:The device will be able to jam all the networks. The reason is that in our calculations. while the signal disappears when the jammer is "ON". we considered the worst case of having the cell phone close to the base station. The effective jamming range will be around 10 meters.

Components List .

)Diodes (6.)LM7805 Regulators (10.)Relays (8.)Jammer Device .Components Used :(1.)Transisters (4.)Power Supply (9.)Connecters (7.)Resisters (2.)LEDs (5.)Micro controller AT89C51 (11.)Capacitors (3.

Circuit Description 5 .

Capacitor :-It is an electrolytic capacitor of rating 1000M/35V used to remove the ripples. 2. Capacitor is the component used to pass the ac and block the dc. MICROCONTROLLER SECTION:Requires three connections to be successfully done for it’s operation to begin. . RLMT Connector:.It is a full wave rectifier used to convert ac into dc . Regulator:-LM7805 is used to give a fixed 5v regulated supply. Capacitor :-It is again an electrolytic capacitor 10M/65v used for filtering to give pure dc. 4. So the output of supply section is 5v regulated dc. 6. Capacitor :-It is an ceramic capacitor used to remove the spikes generated when frequency is high(spikes). Bridge Rectifier :.POWER SUPPLY SECTION: 1. 5.It is a connector used to connect the step down transformer to the bridge rectifier. 9-15v ac made by transformer is converted into dc with the help of rectifier. 3.

The clock generated is used to determine the processing speed of the controller. This section is used to reset the controller connected at pin no. +5v supply: This +5v supply is required for the controller to get start which is provided from the power supply section. Base of the transistor is connected with the I/O pin of the microcontroller.1. In any case when more than 5v comes then pull up resistance sinks the excess . Crystal Oscillator: A crystal oscillator of 12 MHz is connected at pin no. 3. The reverse action of it takes place when high is sensed at the pin of microcontroller. A 2k2 resistance is used as pull up. RELAY SECTION: Relay is an isolator and an electrical switch.x1 and pin no. Base resistance of 1k5 is connected at the base of the transistor.18.x2 to generate the frequency for the controller. 2. This section also consists of pull up & pull down resistance. As it is recommended in the book to connect two ceramic capacitor of 20 pf—40pf to stabilize the clock generated. The crystal oscillator works on piezoelectric effect. The relay used is 12V-5A.9 of AT89c51. Two capacitors are also connected one end with the oscillator while the other end is connected with the ground. Reset section: It consists of an rc network consisting of 10M/35V capacitor and one resistance of 1k. Whenever low is sensed at the pin of microcontroller transistor gets off and the output of the collector becomes high and the relay which is connected at the output of the collector becomes off.19.To control the operation of relay an NPN transistor BC547 has been used. This supply is provided at pin no. Whenever high signal comes at the base of NPN transistor it is switched on and whenever low arrives it is switched off.31and 40 of the 89c51 controller.

If pull up is not used then the 12v of relay can damage the processor when the transistor BC547 is on. A pull down resistor of value 2k2 is also used. PCB Layout .voltage & maintains 5v.

Steps For Making PCB .

• • Switch on the machine by pressing the push button for 5 sec. . • • Now clean the film by placing it in the tray containing water for 1 min. dip the film in the fixer solution for 1 min.• • • Prepare the layout of the circuit (positive). • • Now wash it under the flowing water. After this. Make sure that the bromide (dark) side of the film is in contact with the layout. Dry the negative in the photocure machine. Dip the film in the solution prepared (developer) by mixing the chemicals A & B in equal quantities in water. now the negative of the Circuit is ready. Cut the photofilm (slightly bigger) of the size of the layout. Place the layout in the photoprinter machine with the photofilm above it.

After this. . wipe it a dry cloth softly. set the timer for about 2. and the PCB is ready. drying for approximate 10-12 minute. Now clip the PCB next to the negative in the photo cure machine.• Take the PCB board of the size of the layout and clean it with steel wool to make the surface smooth. • Now place the negative on the top of the PCB in the UV machine. Finally rub the PCB with a steel wool. with the help of dip coat machine. • • After etching. • • • Take the LPR developer in a container and rigorously move the PCB in it. • Now clamp the PCB in the etching machine that contains ferric chloride solution for about 10 minutes.5 minute and switch on the UV light at the top. • • Now dip the PCB in the liquid photoresist. wash it with water very gently. wash the PCB with water. Then apply LPR dye on it with the help of a dropper so that it is completely covered by it.

Programming .

mainlp p1.3 p1.5.0.2.mainlp p1.mainlp p1.mc main: mainlp: JB CPL la11: JNB JNB JNB JNB JB CPL la12: JNB JNB JNB JNB p1.la12 .5.la11 p3.0.4.mainlp p1.mainlp p3.3.mainlp p1.4.mainlp p1.3.3 JB p1.mainlp p1.1.mainlp p1.INCLUDE 89c51.2.

7.#1ah MOV display_buf+1.#1fh MOV display_buf+3.0 SETB p3.2.#1bh MOV display_buf+2.mainlp p1.mainlp p1.mainlp p1.4.mainlp p1.0.mainlp p3.1.0 CLR bit_1 MOV display_buf.mainlp p1.3 p1.CPL la13: JNB JNB JNB JNB JB CPL la14: JNB JNB JNB JNB JB CPL p3.#10h JMP mainlp .3 p1.0.la14 p2.mainlp p1.3.1.mainlp p1.6.5.la13 p3.

8 98h.M abh.A 83h.0 f9h.i e1h.d 86h.k c7h.c c6h.C a1h.o c0h.O addr 00h addr 01h addr 02h addr 03h addr 04h addr 05h addr 06h addr 07h addr 08h addr 09h addr 0ah addr 0bh addr 0ch addr 0dh addr 0eh addr 0fh addr 10h addr 11h addr 12h addr 13h addr 14h addr 15h addr 16h addr 17h addr 18h addr 1ah addr 1bh addr 1ch bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd 10001000 10000011 10000000 10100111 11000110 10100001 10000110 10001110 11000010 10001011 11111011 11100001 10001111 11000111 bcd 11001000 10101011 10100011 11000000 bcd 11111111 addr 19h .G 8bh.blank 88h.h fbh.E 8eh.b 80h.5 82h.4 92h.F c2h.table: DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB c0h.2 b0h.3 99h.6 f8h.j 8fh.9 ffh.B a7h.n a3h.L c8h.1 a4h.7 80h.

U e3h.t c1h.S 87h.y a4h.q afh.P 98h.Z addr 1dh addr 1eh addr 1fh addr 20h addr 21h addr 22h addr 23h addr 24h addr 25h addr 26h bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd bcd 10001100 10011000 10101111 10010010 10000111 11000001 11100011 10001001 10010001 10100100 .r 92h.X 91h.vw 89h.DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB DB 8ch.

Sensing Unit Description .

For high level modulation. The modulating signal is filtered so as to occupy the correct bandwidth of 10KHz after modulation. The modulating signal culminates in the modulator amplifier. The modulating signal is then amplified by audio-amplifier and power audio frequency amplifier. Then the carrier signal is subsequently amplified using a Class-C hf amplifier. The HF oscillator invariably makes use of a crystal controlled oscillator to ensure high accuracy of the carrier frequency as recommended by the FCC. It is followed by a Class-A HF buffer amplifier which provides a high impedance load for the oscillator to minimize drift.High frequency Transmitter :This transmitter can be either high level or low level. In the block diagram. A RF Crystal Oscillator Class-A RF Buffer A ClassA RF A ClassC RF Modulat or AF Class B Class-B RF Linear Power AF Processi ng and Modulating Filtering The An AF Pream pli-fier AF Class B Power . The modulating signal is processed before it is applied at the final stage. The difference between high level and low level modulation depends upon the point at which modulation is done at some stage before the final stage. an class-B HF linear amplifier before transmitting antenna has been shown in figure. which is the highest power audio amplifier. the final stage is another class-C HF output amplifier at which the modulating signal is amplified.

The best way of justifying the existence and overwhelming popularity of the superheterodyne receiver is by showing the shortcomings of the HF type. are its simplicity and high sensitivity.the tuned radio-frequency (TRF) receiver and the superheterodyne receiver. were employed to select and amplify the incoming frequency and simultaneously to reject all others.000 of the output of last stage to find itself back at the input of the first stage. only two have any real practical or commercial significance. Such condition is almost unavoidable at high frequencies . all tuning together. but they presented difficulties at higher frequencies. A person with just a little knowledge of communication would probably expect all radio receivers to have this form the virtues of this type. It must also be on the types used previously–mainly crystal. Such receivers were simple to design and align at broadcast frequencies. Two or perhaps three HF amplifiers. and oscillation will occur. regenerative and superregenerative receivers. but it is convenient to explain the operation of the hf receiver first since it is the simpler of the two.Signal Fig: Block Diagram of HF Transmitter HF Receiver :Of the various forms of receivers proposed at one time or another. it was demodulated and fed to loudspeaker after being paused through the appropriate audio amplifying stages. Only the second of these is used to a large extent today. If such an amplifier has a gain of 40. TRF RECEIVER :The HF receiver is a simple “logical” receiver. at the frequency at which the polarity of this spurious feedback is positive. This was mainly because of the instability associated with high gain being achieved at one frequency by a multistage amplifier.000 all that is needed is 1/40. which is now used except as a fixed-frequency receiver in special applications. After the signal was amplified to a suitable level.

. This was due to the fact that all such amplifiers had to be tunable. It was not possible to use double tuned RF amplifiers in this receiver. and the difficulties of making several double-tuned amplifiers tune in unison were too great. Micro controller can turn the RF transmission on and off.and is certainly not conducive to good receiver operation. although it was realized that they would naturally yield better selectivity. From HF Transmitter 1 st RF Amplifier RF Rx/Tx –Section 2 nd RF Amplifier Detector Audio Amplifier Fig:-The HF receiver RF Transmitter :- RF transmitter is used to transmit the RADIO FREQ.HF receiver suffered from a variation in bandwidth over the tuning range. This transmitter sends MHz carrier under the control of micro controller. It enforced use of single-tuned circuits.

Design circuit:- RF Receiver :- This is also called “RF ICS” Design circuit:- .

000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 256 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines •Three 16-bit Timer/Counters • Eight Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial Channel • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes .6 7 8 9 Features MICROCONTROLLER AT89C51 • Compatible with MCS-51™ Products • 8K Bytes of In-System Re programmable Flash Memory • Endurance: 1.

disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. timer/counters. on-chip oscillator. the Atmel AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer that provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control application. a full-duplex serial port.1 Description :- The AT89C52 is a low-power. a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture. In addition. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a Conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. three 16-bit timer/counters. The Idle Mode tops the CPU while allowing the RAM. and interrupt system to continue functioning. . and clock circuitry. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. The AT89C52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer 8Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). 256 bytes of RAM.1. the AT89C52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. serial port. The device is manufactured using Atmel ’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard 80C51 and 80C52 instruction set and pin out.9. 32 I/O lines. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but Freezes the oscillator.

Pin Diagram of Microcontroller :- .

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As inputs. External pull-ups are required during program verification. 10.10 Pin Description of Microcontroller :10. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs.VCC :- Supply voltage. P1.2 3.1. In addition. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during .1.1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.Port 0 :Port 0 is an 8-bit drain bi-directional I/O port.1.1/T2EX).Port 1:- Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups.1 1. In this mode. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. P0 has internal pull-ups .1. as shown in the following table.0 and P1.1.1. the pins can be used as high impedance inputs Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during program verification.2 2. As an output port.GND :- Ground. 10.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs.1. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins.1. respectively. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. 11 4.

The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins.Port 3:- Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register.Port Pin P1. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. 12 6. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins.Port 2:Port 2 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-ups.0 P1. Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming. In this application. Clock Out T2EX (Timer/Counter2 Caputer/Relode Trigger and Direction Control) 5. As inputs. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. As inputs. . Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. as shown in the following table.1 Alternate Function T2 (External count input toTimer/Counter 2). Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51. they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.

1 P3.Port Pin P3.4 P3.0 P3.2 P3.5 P3.6 P3.3 P3.7 Alternate Function RXD ( serial input port) TXD (serial output port) INT0 (external interrupt 0) INT1(external interrupt1) T0(timer 0 external input) T1(timer1 external input) WR (external data memory write strobe) RD (external data memory read strobe) .

PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. 13. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the micro controller is in external execution mode.1 10.Reset input. .1. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction.7. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.2 8. that if lock bit 1 is programmed. With the bit set. Otherwise. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming when 12-volt programming is selected. that one ALE pulse is skipped during each access to external data memory. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory.1.RST:. Note. Note.EA/VPP:- External Access Enable. In normal operation. If desired. however. 13 9. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH.ALE/PROG:Address Latch Enable is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. When the AT89C52 is executing code from external program memory. however. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. the pin is weakly pulled high. EA will be internally latched on reset. 12.1.1 12.PSEN:- Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory.

1.1. and unoccupied addresses may not be implemented on the chip. 16 17 Special Function Registers :A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space.1. Note that not all of the addresses are occupied. the following indirect .- Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Interrupt Registers :The individual interrupt enable bits are in the IE register.1. Instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128 bytes of RAM.1.XTAL1. For example. The register pair (RCAP2H.1 Timer 2 Registers Control and status bits are contained in registers T2CON (shown in Table 2) and T2MOD (shown in Table 4) for Timer 2. Two priorities can be set for each of the six interrupt sources in the IP register. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data. RCAP2L) are the Capture/Reload registers for Timer 2 in 16-bit capture mode or 16-bit auto-reload mode. since they may be used in future prod new features. and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect. In that case.14 11. User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations.1.XTAL2:- Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier . 17. the reset or inactive values of the new bits will always be 0. 15 12.

MOV @R0. . so the upper 128 bytes of data RAM are avail available as stack space. where R0 contains 0A0H. #data Note that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing. rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H). accesses the data byte at address 0A0H.addressing instruction.

18 Timer 0 and 1 :Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the AT89C52 operate the same way as Timer 0 and Timer 1 in the T89C51. .

auto-reload (up or down counting).19 20 21 Timer 2 :Timer 2 is a 16-bit Timer/Counter that can operate as either a timer or an event counter. as shown in Table 3. Table3. the level should be held for at least one full machine cycle.Timer 2 consists of two 8-bit registers. To ensure that a given level is sampled at least once before it changes. the count rate is 1/12 of the oscillator input pin. The type of operation is selected by bit C/T2 in the SFR T2CON (shown in Table 2). the count is incremented. the external input is sampled during S5P2 of every machine cycle. T2. Since a machine cycle consists of 12 oscillator periods. The new count value appears in the register during S3P1 of the cycle following the one in which the transition was detected. . When the samples show a high in one cycle and a low in the next cycle. and baud rate generator. Since two machine cycles (24 oscillator periods) are required to recognize a 1-to-0 transition.the register is incremented in response to a 1-to-0 transition at its corresponding external. the maximum count rate is 1/24 of the oscillator frequency. Timer 2 Operating Mode RCLK+TCLK 0 0 1 X CP/RL2 0 1 X X TR2 1 1 1 0 MODE 16-bit Auto-reload 16 –bit Capture Baud Rate Generator (Off) In the Counter function. The modes are selected by bits in T2CON. the TL2 register is incremented every machine cycle. In the Timer function. In this function.Timer 2 has three operating modes: capture. TH2 and TL2.

but a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX also causes the current value in TH2 and TL2 to be captured into CAP2H and RCAP2L. Timer 2 is a 16-bit timer or counter which upon overflow sets bit TF2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 0. two options are selected by bit EXEN2 in T2CON. If EXEN2 = 1. respectively.This bit can then be used to generate an interrupt. can generate an interrupt. like TF2.22 Capture Mode :In the capture mode. Auto-reload (Up or Down Counter) :- . In addition. the transition at T2EX causes bit EXF2 in T2CON to be set. The capture mode is illustrated in Figure 1. The EXF2 bit. Timer 2 performs the same operation.

If EXEN2 = 0. EXF2 does not flag an interrupt. This feature is invoked by theDCEN (Down Counter Enable) bit located in the SFR T2MOD (see Table 4). the T2EX pin controls the direction of the count. In this mode. Upon reset. Both the TF2 and EXF2 bits can generate an interrupt if enabled. The underflow sets the TF2 bit and causes 0FFFFH to be reloaded into the timer Registers. This overflow also causes the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L to be reloaded into the timer registers. two options are selected by bitEXEN2 in T2CON. A Logic 0 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count down. If EXEN2 = 1. This transition also sets the EXF2 bit. TH2 and TL2. Timer 2 can count up or down. respectively. The overflow also causes the timer registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in RCAP2H and RCAP2L.Timer 2 can be programmed to count up or down when configured in its 16-bit autoreload mode. Figure 2 shows Timer 2 automatically counting up when DCEN = 0. The timer will overflow at 0FFFFH and set the TF2 bit. depending on the value of the T2EX pin. as shown in Figure 3. Timer 2 counts up to 0FFFFH and then sets the TF2 bit upon overflow. In this operating mode. The timer underflows when TH2 and TL2 equal the values stored in RCAP2H and RCAP2L. Setting the DCEN bit enables Timer 2 to count up or down. When DCEN is set. The EXF2 bit toggles whenever Timer 2 overflows or underflows and can be used as a 17th bit of resolution. the DCEN bit is set to 0 so that timer 2 will default to count up. a 16-bit reload can be triggered either by an overflow or by a 1-to-0 transition at external input T2EX. . In this mode. The values in Timer in Capture ModeRCAP2H and RCAP2L are preset by software. A logic 1 at T2EX makes Timer 2 count up.

Table 4.Timer2 Mode Control Register . T2MOD.

reserved for future Timer 2 output Enable bit When set this bit allows Timer 2 to be configured as an up/down counter. .T2MOD Address=0C9H Value=XXXX XX00B Not Bit Addressable 7 6 5 4 Bit 3 2 1 Reset 0 Symbol T20E DCEN Function Not implemented.

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Setting RCLK and/or TCLK puts Timer 2 into its baud rate generator mode. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set TF2 and will not generate an interrupt. Normally. The timer operation is different for Timer 2 when it is used as a baud rate generator. it increments every state time (at 1/2 the oscillator frequency). as shown in Figure4. Note too. however. As a baud rate generator.RCAP2L)] where (RCAP2H. Modes 1 and 3 Baud Rates = Timer 2 Overflow Rate/16 The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation. as a timer. The baud rate generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode. a 1-to-0 transition . which are preset by software. RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L taken as a 16-bit unsigned integer. Modes 1 and 3/Baud Rate = Oscilltor Frequency/32 * [65536-(RCAP2H. In most applications.23 Baud Rate Generator Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON (Table 2). it is configured for timer operation (CP/T2 = 0). in that a rollover in TH2 causes the Timer 2 registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in registers RCAP2H and RCAP2L. The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer2’s overflow rate according to the following equation. Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in Figure 4. The baud rate formula is given below. Note that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if Timer 2 is used for the receiver or transmitter and Timer 1 is used for the other function. that if EXEN2 is set. it increments every machine cycle (at 1/12 the oscillator frequency). This figure is valid only if RCLK or TCLK = 1 in T2CON.

RCAP2L) to (TH2.0. T2EX can be used as an extra external interrupt. This pin. It can be .in T2EX will set EXF2 but will not cause a reload from (RCAP2H. TL2). Thus when Timer 2 is in use as a baud rate generator. The RCAP2 registers may be read but should not be written to. TH2 or TL2 should not be read from or written to. because a write might overlap a reload and cause write and/or reload errors. the Timer is incremented every state time. as shown in Figure 5. and the results of a read or write may not be accurate. Under these conditions. has two alternate functions. Note that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator mode. 24 Programmable Clock Out :A 50% duty cycle clock can be programmed to come out on P1. The timer should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the Timer 2 or RCAP2 registers. besides being a regular I/O pin.

that the baudrate and clock-out Frequencies cannot be determined independently from one another since they both use RCAP2H and RCAP2L. EA. and 2). three timer interrupts (Timers 0. 1. and the serial port interrupt. 25 26 UART :The UART in the AT89C52 operates the same way as the UART in the AT89C51. however. Clock-Out Frequency= Oscillator Frequency/4*[65536-(RCAP2H. User software should not write 1s to these bit positions. which disables all interrupts at once. These interrupts are all shown in Figure 6. Timer 2 interrupt is generated by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON. IE also contains a global disable bit. This behavior is similar to when Timer 2 is used as a baud-rate generator. Note that Table shows that bit position IE. Bit TR2 (T2CON.programmed to input the external clock for Timer/Counter 2 or to output a 50% duty cycle clock ranging from 61 Hz to 4 MHz at a 16 MHz operating frequency. The clockout frequency depends on the oscillator frequency and the reload value of Timer 2 capture registers (RCAP2H. RCAP2L). since they may be used in future AT89 products. 27 Interrupts :The AT89C52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1).5 is also unimplemented. bit C/T2 (T2CON. bit position IE.6 is unimplemented.RCAP2L)] In the clock-out mode.1) must be cleared and bit T2OE (T2MOD. It is possible to use Timer 2 as a baud-rate generator and a clock generator simultaneously. In the AT89C51. Timer 2 roll-overs will not generate an interrupt. Note. Neither of these flags is .Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit in Special Function Register IE. as shown in the following equation.2) starts and stops the timer. To configure the Timer/Counter 2 as a clock generator.1) must be set.

In fact. . TF0 and TF1. is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which the timer overflows. TF2. are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the timers overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle. the service routine may have to determine whether it was TF2 or EXF2 that generated the interrupt. However. the Timer 2 flag.cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. and that bit will have to be cleared in software. The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags.

27.1.There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal. as shown in Figure 7. of an inverting amplifier that can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. as shown in Figure 8. To drive the device from an external clock source. Un connected while XTAL1 is driven. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special . respectively. since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop. the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.1 Idle Mode :- In idle mode.Oscillator Characteristics :XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output. XTAL2 should be left.1.

On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event. Reset redefines the SFR s but does not change the onchip RAM. up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset. the instruction following the one that invokes idle mode should not write to a port pin or to external memory. . but access to the port pins is not inhibited. the oscillator is stopped. The only exit from power-down is a hardware reset.functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. 28 Power-down Mode :In the power-down mode. the device normally resumes program execution from where it left off. and the instruction that invokes power-down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the power-down mode is terminated. Note that when idle mode is terminated by a hardware reset. The reset should not be cultivated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when idle mode is terminated by a reset.

Status Of External Pins During Idle and Power – down Modes Mode Idle Idle Powerdown Powerdown Program Internal External Internal External ALE 1 1 0 0 PSEN 1 1 0 0 PORT0 Data Float Data Float PORT1 Data Data Data Data PORT2 Data Address Data Data PORT3 Data Data Data Data .

Absolute Maximum RatingsOperating Temperature………………………-55ºC to +125ºC Storage Temperature……………………….6V DC Output Current……………………………………………15.0V to +7.0V Maximum Operating Voltage ……………………………6.0mA .-65ºC to + 125ºC Voltage on Any Pin With Respect to Ground………………………-1...

1 AC Characteristics :- Under operating conditions.1. .1. ALE/PROG.28. load capacitance for all other outputs = 80 pF. and PSEN = 100 pF.1.1. load capacitance for Port 0.1.

Serial Port Timing : Shift Resister Mode Test Conditions The value in this table are valid for Vcc=5.0 20% and Load Capacitance=80pF Parameter Symbol Min Serial Port Clock tXLXL Cycle Time Output Data Setup to tQVXM Clock Rating Edge Output Data Hold tXHQX After Clock Rating Edge Input Data Hold tXHDX After Clock Rating Edge Clock Rating Edge tXHDV to Input Data Valid 700 10tCLCL-133 ns 0 0 ns 50 700 2tCLCL-117 ns 10tCLCL ns 1.0 Max Min 12 tcLCL Max µs 12 MHzOsc Variable Oscilator Units

Note:- 1. AC Inputs during testing are driven at VCC - 0.5V for a logic 1 and 0.45V for a logic 0. Timing measurements are made at VIH min. for a logic 1 and VIL max. for a logic 0.

Float Waveforms(1) :Note:-1. For timing purposes, a port pin is no longer floating when a 100 mV change from load voltage occurs. A port pin begins to float when a 100 mV change from the loaded VOH/VOL level occurs.

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Component .

Description .

This varying flux induces a voltage in the other windings. . thus transforming the voltage by stepping it up or down between circuits.Transformer :A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling without requiring relative motion between its parts. Varying the relative number of turns between primary and secondary windings determines the ratio of the input and output voltages. in most cases. It usually comprises two or more coupled windings. The MMF drives flux around the magnetic circuit of the core. A voltage applied to the primary winding causes a current. Basic principle:The principles of the transformer are illustrated by consideration of a hypothetical ideal transformer consisting of two windings of zero resistance around a core of negligible reluctance. which develops a magnetomotive force (MMF) in the core. which creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core. and. The current required to create the MMF is termed the magnetising current. in the ideal transformer it is considered to be negligible. A transformer operates from the application of an alternating voltage to one winding. a core to concentrate magnetic flux.

they are proportional to the rate of change of flux: Vp=Np dΦp/dt and vs=Ns dΦs/dt Equation 7: EMF induced in primary and secondary windings where: and are the induced EMFs across primary and secondary windings. and so follows: . The windings in the ideal transformer have no resistance and so the EMFs are equal in magnitude to the measured terminal voltages. and are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary windings.The ideal transformer as a circuit element An electromotive force (EMF) is induced across each winding. are the time derivatives of the flux linking the primary and secondary In the ideal transformer. from which the well-known transformer equation . all flux produced by the primary winding also links the secondary. an effect known as mutual inductance.Fig. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction. and windings.:.

Vp/Vs = Np/Ns Equation :.A bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. alternatively. that the volts-per-turn is the same in both windings. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage.Conditon for STEP UP Ns < Np Equation 10:. it is known as a bridge rectifier. The bridge rectifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. The conditions that determine Transformer working in STEP UP or STEP DOWN mode are: Ns > Np Equation 9:.Conditon for STEP DOWN Rectifier . When used in its most common application. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output.Transformer Equation The ratio of primary to secondary voltage is therefore the same as the ratio of the number of turns. .

and returns to the input supply via the lower one.Figure :. the polarity of the output is constant.Schematic of a bridge rectifier The essential feature of this arrangement is that for both polarities of the voltage at the bridge input. When the right hand corner is positive relative to the left hand corner. current flows along the upper colored path and returns to the supply via the lower colored path. current flows to the right along the upper colored path to the output. . Basic Operation :When the input connected at the left corner of the diamond is positive with respect to the one connected at the right hand corner.

AC. . the upper right output remains positive with respect to the lower right one. Since this is true whether the input is AC or DC.Figure :. half-wave and full wave rectified signals In each case. That is. it permits normal functioning when batteries are installed backwards or DC input-power supply wiring "has its wires crossed" (and protects the circuitry it powers against damage that might occur without this circuit in place). this circuit not only produces DC power when supplied with AC power: it also can provide what is sometimes called "reverse polarity protection".

any drop in the output voltage and current of the bridge tends to be cancelled by loss of charge in the capacitor. the addition of a capacitor may be important because the bridge alone supplies an output voltage of fixed polarity but pulsating magnitude. This charge flows out as additional current through the load.Prior to availability of integrated electronics. such a bridge rectifier was always constructed from discrete components. One explanation of 'smoothing' is that the capacitor provides a low impedance path to the AC component of the output.Bridge Rectifier with smoothen output The function of this capacitor. Thus the change of load current and voltage is reduced relative to what would occur without the capacitor. especially with single phase AC where the full-wave bridge serves to convert an AC input into a DC output. Figure:. Increases of . the resistive load. known as a 'smoothing capacitor' (see also filter capacitor) is to lessen the variation in (or 'smooth') the raw output voltage waveform from the bridge. reducing the AC voltage across. Output Smoothing :For many applications. a single four-terminal component containing the four diodes connected in the bridge configuration became a standard commercial component and is now available with various voltage and current ratings. In less technical terms. Since about 1950. and AC current through.

often done only for sub-supplies to critical high-gain circuits that tend to be sensitive to supply voltage noise. The capacitor and the load resistance have a typical time constant τ = RC where C and R are the capacitance and load resistance respectively. the above configuration will produce a well smoothed DC voltage across the load resistance. In this way. This forms a negative feedback servo control loop. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element. The control loop must be carefully designed to produce the desired tradeoff between stability and speed of response. As long as the load resistor is large enough so that this time constant is much longer than the time of one ripple cycle. LM317 (3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator) Description :The LM317 is an adjustable three-terminal positive-voltage regulator capable of supplying more than 1. all voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. If the output voltage is too low. the output voltage is held roughly constant. For some regulators if the output voltage is too high. the regulation element is commanded to produce a higher voltage.voltage correspondingly store excess charge in the capacitor. however. many just stop sourcing current and depend on the current draw of whatever it is driving to pull the voltage back down. It may use an electromechanical mechanism.2 V to 37 V.5 A over an output-voltage range of 1. or passive or active electronic components. Voltage Regulators :A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. The smoothing can then be improved by adding additional stages of capacitor–resistor pairs. With the exception of shunt regulators. the regulation element is commanded to produce a lower voltage. In some designs. a series resistor at the load side of the capacitor is added. it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. thus moderating the change in output voltage / current. It is . Depending on the design.

Figure :. this device includes on-chip current limiting. . which are difficult to achieve with standard three-terminal regulators. including uses in programmable output regulation and local on-card regulation. An optional output capacitor can be added to improve transient response. by connecting a fixed resistor between the ADJUST and OUTPUT terminals. thermal overload protection. All overload protection remains fully functional. Or. even if the ADJUST terminal is disconnected. both line and load regulation are better than standard fixed regulators. the LM317 can function as a precision current regulator. which are easy to handle and use. and safe-operating-area protection. The LM317 is packaged in the KC (TO-220AB) and KTE packages.exceptionally easy to use and requires only two external resistors to set the output voltage. The ADJUST terminal can be bypassed to achieve very high ripple-rejection ratios.TOP IC view of LM 317 The LM317 is versatile in its applications. The LM317 is characterized for operation over the virtual junction temperature range of 0°C to 125°C. Furthermore. In addition to having higher performance than fixed regulators.

Fig. making them useful in a wide range of applications. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators. Co improves transient response. Vout is calculated as: Vout = Vref(1+R2/R1)+(IAdj*R2) Since IAdj is typically 50µA. . :.but is not needed for stability. Cin is not required if the regulator is closed enough to the power-supply filter. LM7805 (3-Terminal Fixed Voltage Regulator) The MC78XX/LM78XX/MC78XXA series of three terminal positive regulators are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages. thermal shut down and safe operating area protection. B. these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. making it essentially indestructible. they can deliver over 1A output current. If adequate heat sinking is provided.Adjustable Voltage Regulator NOTES: A.it is negligible in most application. Each type employs internal current limiting.

:. 6.Fixed Output Regulator Features :• Output Current up to 1A • Output Voltages of 5. 24V • Thermal Overload Protection . 8.Fig. 9. 18.Internal block Diagram Fig. 15. :. 10. 12.

• Short Circuit Protection • Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection 28.2Relays:Circuit relay symbol for a Relays .1.

For further information about switch contacts and the terms used to describe them please see the page on switches. but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches.A relay is an electrically operated switch. Relay coils produce brief high voltage . Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit that can be completely separate from the first. The coil will be obvious and it may be connected either way round. which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. typically 30mA for a 12V relay. the link is magnetic and mechanical. Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts. The supplier's catalogue should show you the relay's connections. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current.

You should find this information in the supplier's catalogue. The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM. Many relays have a coil rated for a 12V supply but 5V and 24V relays are also readily available. COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.'spikes' when they are switched off and this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. • 28. Connect to COM and NO if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is on. making the relay DPDT. it is the moving part of the switch. NO = Normally Open. This lever moves the switch contacts.Coil voltage The relay's coil voltage rating and resistance must suit the circuit powering the relay coil. COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. . Some relays operate perfectly well with a supply voltage which is a little lower than their rated value. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. 2. Connect to COM and NC if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is off. NC = Normally Closed. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them.3Choosing a relay:You need to consider several features when choosing a relay: 1.Physical size and pin arrangement If you are choosing a relay for an existing PCB you will need to ensure that its dimensions and pin arrangement are suitable. To prevent damage you must connect a protection diode across the relay coil. always connect to this.1. The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch contacts. NC and NO: • • • • COM = Common.

transistors cannot. You can use Ohm's law to calculate the current: Relay coil current = Supply voltage Coil resistance passes a current of For example: A 12V supply relay with a coil resistance of 400 30mA.Coil resistance The circuit must be able to supply the current required by the relay coil. COMPARISON BETWEEN TRANSISTORS & RELAYS Advantages of relays :1. 3. transistors can only switch DC.Relays cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays).Relays can switch high voltages.Relays are a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A). Switch ratings (voltage and current) The relay's switch contacts must be suitable for the circuit they are to control. 2. This is OK for a 555 timer IC (maximum output current 200mA).3. 2. 2. Note that the voltage rating is usually higher for AC. transistors can switch many times per .Relays can switch AC and DC. for example: "5A at 24V DC or 125V AC". You will need to check the voltage and current ratings.Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents. DPDT etc) Most relays are SPDT or DPDT which are often described as "single pole changeover" (SPCO) or "double pole changeover" (DPCO).Relays can switch many contacts at once. Switch contact arrangement (SPDT. Disadvantages of relays:1. 3. 1. 4. but it is too much for most ICs and they will require a transistor to amplify the current.

about 100 to 1000 Hz at 1 MHz. or even better (. Ordinary L-C oscillators using conventional inductors and capacitors can achieve typically 0. This is OK for AM and FM broadcast receiver applications and in other low-end analog receivers not requiring high tuning accuracy. This might not sound like much.01 to 0. which may be from 530 to 1710 kHz. By careful design and component selection.second.1 percent frequency stability.4Crystal Oscillator :- It is often required to produce a signal whose frequency or pulse rate is very stable and exactly known. An ordinary quartz watch must have an oscillator accurate to better than a few parts per million. which would be about 3 minutes a year. 4. 28. This is important in any application where anything to do with time or exact measurement is crucial.Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil. 3. At 440 MHz. and more often if you are the punctual type. so a low power transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil. A programmed VCR with a clock this far off could miss the recording of part of a TV show. Narrow band SSB communications at VHF and UHF frequencies still need 50 Hz frequency accuracy. . and with rugged mechanical construction. this is slightly more than 0.Relays require more current than many chips can provide. and within 10 Hz for best results. Some digital modes used in weak signal communication may require frequency stability of less than 1 Hz within a period of several minutes. SSB radio systems used in the HF range (2-30 MHz) must be within 50 Hz of channel frequency for acceptable voice quality. One part per million will result in an error of slightly less than one half second a day. The carrier frequency must be known to fractions of a hertz in some cases.01 to 0. AM radio stations must have a carrier frequency accurate within 10Hz of its assigned frequency.001%. but an error of 10 parts per million would result in an error of about a half an hour per year. It is relatively simple to make an oscillator that produces some sort of a signal.1. A clock such as this would need resetting about once a month.0005%) .1 part per million. but another matter to produce one of relatively precise frequency and stability.

29 CAPACITOR :A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). together with environmental control (good ventilation and ambient temperature regulation) and “battleship” mechanical construction. and the total phaseshift at this frequency is zero. before the widespread use of digital frequency synthesis. When a potential difference (voltage) exists across the conductors. or square wave. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. and shortwave receivers employing crystal controlled digital frequency synthesis will do as well or better from a frequency stability standpoint. large. This is usually a sine wave. hence capacitor conductors are often called plates. Many modern consumer grade AM. or other waveforms can be produced. This has been done in some communications receivers used by the military and commercial HF communication receivers built in the 1950-1965 era. but triangles. . an electric field is present in the dielectric. or some multiple of 360 degrees. several different waveforms often are simultaneously produced by the same circuit. But these receivers were extremely expensive. the loop gain is unity or more. at different points. The better figures will undoubtedly employ temperature compensation components and regulated power supplies. It is also possible to have several frequencies produced as well. and the circuit will produce a periodic waveform of this frequency. In fact. FM. at a particular frequency. and heavy. When. impulses. the condition for oscillation is satisfied. although this is generally undesirable.stability can be achieved. An oscillator is basically an amplifier and a frequency selective feedback network (Fig 1). The effect is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor.

which is measured in farads. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. to smooth the output of power supplies.1 Theory of operation :- 32 Main article: Capacitance .30 An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value. 31 Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. and for many other purposes. to filter out interference. In practice. the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage. capacitance. They are used in resonant circuits in radio frequency equipment to select particular frequencies from a signal with many frequencies. 31.

defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them C=Q/V Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor. The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces. In this case. although this may also mean a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. causing the capacitance to vary.Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes: C=dq/dv In SI units. . a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor 33 A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region. and the dielectric contains an electric field. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C. A dielectric (orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.The non-conductive substance is called the dielectric medium. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated. with no net electric charge and no influence from an external electric field.

a constant of integration is added to represent the initial voltage v (t0).1. the charge separation persists and energy is stored in the electric field. is given by: W= 2 34. .1.33. V(t)= Taking the derivative of this. and hence the amount of energy stored. and multiplying by C. as well as being proportional to the voltage (as discussed above).1 Energy storage :34 Work must be done by an external influence to move charge between the conductors in a capacitor. i(t)=dq(t)/dt=Cdv(t)/dt . the energy is released. As with any antiderivative. one leaves the positive plate. When the external influence is removed.. yields the derivative form. Physical charges cannot pass through the dielectric layer of a capacitor. This is the integral form of the capacitor equation.1 35 Current-voltage relation :- The current i(t) through a component in an electric circuit is defined as the rate of change of the charge q(t) that has passed through it. If charge is later allowed to return to its equilibrium position. Thus the accumulated charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of the current. The work done in establishing the electric field. but rather build up in equal and opposite quantities on the electrodes: as each electron accumulates on the negative plate.

With this assumption. The initial current is then i (0) =V0 /R.1. Its current-voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and voltage in the capacitor equations and replacing C with the inductance L. gives a first-order differential equation. a switch and a constant DC source of voltage V0 is known as a charging circuit.36 The dual of the capacitor is the inductor. If the capacitor is initially uncharged while the switch is open. 36. a capacitor. RCdi(t)/dt+i(t)=0 At t = 0. the differential equation yields i(t)= v(t)=V0(1- ) . The voltage across the capacitor is zero and the voltage across the resistor is V0. it follows from Kirchhoff's voltage law that V0 = vresistor(t) + vcapacitor(t) = i(t)R + 38 39 Taking the derivative and multiplying by C. 37 A series circuit containing only a resistor.1 DC circuits A simple resistor-capacitor circuit demonstrates charging of a capacitor. which stores energy in the magnetic field rather than the electric field. and the switch is closed at t = 0.

the voltage across the resistor and the current through the entire circuit decay exponentially. Resistors are broadly classified as (1) (2) Fixed Resistors Variable Resistors Fixed Resistors :The most common of low wattage. The resistive material is of carbon clay composition. Resistors offer opposition to the flow of current. The relative size of all fixed resistors changes with the wattage rating. Resistors of this type are readily available in value ranging from few ohms to about 20MΩ. ceramic or other insulating core. since it can be obtained with an accuracy of ±1%. It is made by deposition a homogeneous film of pure carbon over a glass. having a tolerance range of 5 to 20%. Lead Tinned Copper Material Colour Coding Molded Carbon Clay Composition . fixed type resistors is the molded-carbon composition resistor. Resister :Resistors are used to limit the value of current in a circuit. Another variety of carbon composition resistors is the metalized type. The case of discharging a charged capacitor likewise demonstrates exponential decay. They are quite inexpensive. This type of film-resistor is sometimes called the precision type. They are expressed in ohms for which the symbol is ‘ Ω’. but with the initial capacitor voltage replacing V0 and the final voltage being zero. As the capacitor reaches equilibrium with the source voltage. The leads are made of tinned copper.where τ0 = RC is the time constant of the system.

This coating is very smooth and gives mechanical protection to winding. This wire is wounded on to a round hollow porcelain core. The third band is for the number of zeros that follow the second digit. In case the third band is gold or silver. it represents a multiplying factor of 0. 0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white 39.1.1. of the resistance value. such as nichrome. Commonly available wire wound resistors have resistance values ranging from 1Ω to 100KΩ.1.1 Resister Colour Chart3 :. The ends of the winding are attached to these metal pieces inserted in the core.1.1 1 brown 1 brown 1 brown 2 red 2 red 2 red 3 orange 3 orange 39. Tinned copper wire leads are attached to these metal pieces. Therefore. However there are some resistors that are too small in size to have numbers printed on them. This assembly is coated with an enamel coating powdered glass. and wattage rating up to about 200W. The first and second band represents the first and second significant digits. Coding Of Resistor :Some resistors are large enough in size to have their resistance printed on the body. The colour bands are always read left to right from the end that has the bands closest to it. For fixed. a system of colour coding is used to indicate their values.Fig:-Fixed Resistor A Wire Wound Resistor :It uses a length of resistance wire.01.1.1. moulded composition resistor four colour bands are printed on one end of the outer casing.orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white 4 yellow 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white .1.1to 0 fourth black 0 manufacture’s black 0 black 0. The band represents the tolerance.

35KΏ Most resistors have 4 bands :• • • • The first band gives the first digit. violet=7.1. if a resistor has a colour band sequence: yellow. orange and gold 39.1. orange=10³.1. This resistor has red (2).2 Then its range will beYellow=4. The third band indicates the number of zeros. violet (7). . The fourth band is used to show the tolerance (precision) of the resistor. violet.1. yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands. The second band gives the second digit.1. So its value is 270000 = 270 k . gold=±5% =47KΏ ±5% =2.5 green For example.

01. silver bands represent 56 × 0. code gold is ±5%. fourth band brown tolerance: ±1%. the brightness of a television picture etc. green.39 = 351 colour silver ±10%. sometimes it becomes necessary to adjust the values of currents and voltages. Tolerance is the precision of the resistor and it is given as a percentage. For n example it is often desired to change the volume of sound. To read the code: replace the letter with a . Instead the letters R. used for red the ±2%.56 The fourth band of the colour code shows the tolerance of a resistor.1 = 2. Although the variable resistors are usually called rheostats in other applications. If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is ±20%. resistor with a tolerance of ±10% will have a value within 10% of 390 . Such adjustments can be done by using variable resistors.7 blue. K and M are used in place of the decimal point. which means × 0.1 and silver which means × 0.01 = 0. gold bands represent 27 × 0.The standard colour code cannot show values of less than 10 . The first and second bands represent the digits as normal. violet.2Resistor shorthand :Resistor values are often written on circuit diagrams using a code system which avoids using a decimal point because it is easy to miss the small dot. 39. Variable Resister :In electronic circuits.1. For example:red. For example a 390 and 390 + 39 = 429 A special (39 is 10% of 390). To show these small values two special colours are used for the third band: gold. between 390 . the smaller variable resistors commonly used in electronic circuits are called potentiometers.

1.0 M = 1000 k 39.3 . The letter R means multiply by 1. then multiply the value by 1000 if the letter was K.decimal point. For example: 560R means 560 2K7 39K 1M0 means 2.7 k means 39 k = 2700 means 1. or 1000000 if the letter was M.

these will be circuits using low value resistors (less than about 300 ) or high voltages (more than 15V). Usually the effect is negligible.5W are suitable. The resistor must be able to withstand the heating effect and resistors have power ratings to show this.25W resistor would be suitable. I = current through the resistor in amps (A) R = resistance of the resistor in ohms ( ) V = voltage across the resistor in volts (V) In this case a standard 0. needs a power rating P = V²/R = 10²/27 = 3. needs a power rating P = V²/R = 10²/470 = 0. 2.4 Power Ratings of Resistors :- Electrical energy is converted to heat when current flows through a resistor.21W. Power ratings of resistors are rarely quoted in parts lists because for most circuits the standard power ratings of 0. A high power resistor with a rating of 5W would be suitable. . P.7W. but if the resistance is low (or the voltage across the resistor high) a large current may pass making the resistor become noticeably warm. developed in a resistor is given by: P = I² × R where: P = power developed in the resistor in watts (W) or P = V² / R Examples:1.High power resistors (5W top.A 470 resistor with 10V across it.A 27 resistor with 10V across it. 25W bottom) 39.1. For the rare cases where a higher power is required it should be clearly specified in the parts list.25W or 0. The power.

There are two types of transistor: 1.n-p-n transistor 2. Therefore a transistor transfers a signal from a low resistance to high resistance. The middle section is base. The section on one side is emitter and section on the opposite side is collector. It consists of two PN junctions formed by sandwiching either p-type or n-type semiconductor between a pair of opposite types.t. However a p-n-p type semiconductor is formed by two p-sections separated by a thin section of n-type. .Transistor :A transistor is an active device. Emitter:-The section on one side that supplies charge carriers is called emitter. The forward junction has a low resistance path whereas a reverse biased junction has a high resistance path. The weak signal is introduced in the low resistance circuit and output is taken from the high resistance circuit. Transistor has three sections of doped semiconductors. Transistor has two pn junctions one junction is forward biased and other is reversed biased.p-n-p transistor An n-p-n transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors separated by a thin section of p-type. base. The emitter is always forward biased w.r.

Thus a weak signal applied in the input appears in the amplified form in the collector circuit. Heat sinks are needed for power transistors because they pass large currents. The collector current flowing through a high load resistance Rc produces a large voltage across it. A transistor raises the strength of a weak signal and thus acts as an amplifier. Heat sink :- Waste heat is produced in transistors due to the current flowing through them. The collector is always reversed biased. The weak signal is applied between emitter-base junction and output is taken across the load Rc connected in the collector circuit.Collector :The section on the other side that collects the charge is called collector. Base :The middle section which forms two pn-junctions between the emitter and collector is called base. . If you find that a transistor is becoming too hot to touch it certainly needs a heat sink! The heat sink helps to dissipate (remove) the heat by transferring it to the surrounding air.

Seven types of microwave coaxial connectors are as follows: 1.Type N LED (Light Emitting Diode) :A junction diode. In radiative transition. The one. There are two types of connectors they are male and female. These connectors are having bus wires with them for connection. which is made possibly by emission of a photon.Connectors :Connectors are basically used for interface between two. in order to reduce multimodal propagation and eliminate erratic reflection coefficients. and signal distortion. can emit light or exhibit electro luminescence. Here we use connectors for having interface between PCB and 8051 Microprocessor Kit.SMC 6.APC-7 3.SMA 5. power losses. is female and other is male. What is required is that electrons should make a transition from higher energy level to lower energy level releasing photon of wavelength corresponding to the energy difference associated with this transition. there is a transition of electron from the conduction band to the valence band.TNC 7. Electro luminescence is obtained by injecting minority carriers into the region of a pn junction where radiative transition takes place. The standardization of coaxial connectors during World War II was mandatory for microwave operation to maintain a low reflection coefficient or a low voltage standing wave ratio.APC-3.BNC 4.5 2. which is with pins inside. such as LED. Thus. For high frequency operation the average circumference of a coaxial cable must be limited to about one wavelength. In LED the supply of high-energy electron is . emitted light comes from the hole electron recombination.

Under reverse bias no carrier injection takes place and consequently no photon is emitted.provided by forward biasing the diode. it exhibits very high probability of direct transition of electron from conduction band to valence band. GaP and GaAsP are higher band gap materials. is usually proportional to the carrier injection rate and hence to the total current flowing. that take place. every electron does not take part in radiative recombination and hence. In practice. GaAs has E= 1. i. Gallium Arsenide Phosphide is a tertiary alloy. In LED.e.1 LED Materials :- One of the first materials used for LED is GaAs.1. thus injecting electrons into the n-region and holes into p-region. . For direct transition from conduction band to valence band the emission wavelength. The number of radiative recombination. This material has a special feature in that it changes from being direct band gap material.1.4. The pn junction of LED is made from heavily doped material. Gallium phosphide is an indirect band gap semiconductor and has poor efficiency because band to band transitions are not normally observed..1. These excess minority carrier diffuse away from the junction and recombine with majority carriers. The wide band gap materials such as GaN are one of the most promising LEDs for blue and green emission. This is termed as minority injection. Infrared LEDs are suitable for optical coupler applications.1. 39.1. This works in the infrared region. majority carriers from both sides of the junction cross the potential barrier and enter the opposite side where they are then minority carrier and cause local minority carrier population to be larger than normal. On forward bias condition. Blue LEDs are of recent origin. every injected electron takes part in a radiative recombination and hence gives rise to an emitted photon. This is a direct band gap material.44 eV. the efficiency of the device may be described in terms of the quantum efficiency which is defined as the rate of emission of photons divided by the rate of supply of electrons.

and power consumption makes Leds compatible with electronic drive circuits. without surge currents or the prior “warmup”.LEDs have low inherent noise levels and also high immunity to externally generated noise.The rugged.LEDs exhibit linearity of radiant power output with forward current over a wide range.Theoretical overall efficiency is not achieved except in special cooled or pulsed conditions.Circuit response of LEDs is fast and stable.Advantages of LED :1. and green-provides the designer with added versatility. 3. sealed packages developed for LEDs exhibit high resistance to mechanical shock and vibration and allow LEDs to be used in severe environmental conditions where other light sources would fail. LEDs have certain limitations such as:- 1.Temperature dependence of radiant output power and wave length. Buzzer :- . 7. 4. 5. 6.Sensitivity to damages by over voltage or over current. 2. current. thereby improving overall reliability and lowering maintenance costs of the equipment in which they are installed.Low operating voltage. 2.LED fabrication from solid-state materials ensures a longer operating lifetime.The range of available LED colours-from red to orange. period required by filament light sources. 3. This also makes easier interfacing as compared to filament incandescent and electric discharge lamps. yellow.

They are generally equipped with sensors or switches connected to a control unit and the control unit illuminates a light on the appropriate button or control panel. operated from stepped-down AC line voltage at 50 or 60 cycles. and sound a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound. (i) Electric buzzers – A basic model of electric buzzer usually consists of simple circuit components such as resistors. electronic buzzers. where N is an integer. a capacitor and 555 timer IC or an integrated circuit with a range of timer and multi-vibrator functions.It is an electronic signaling device which produces buzzing sound. magnetic buzzers. Types of Buzzers :The different types of buzzers are electric buzzers. so that the vibrator emits an audible buzzing sound. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarms. It is commonly used in automobiles. mechanical buzzers. piezoelectric buzzers and piezo buzzers. Buzzers work in the same manner as an alarm works. phone alarm systems and household appliances. The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that buzzers made when they were electromechanical devices. (ii) Electronic buzzers – An electronic buzzer comprises an acoustic vibrator comprised of a circular metal plate having its entire periphery rigidly secured to a support. and a piezoelectric element adhered to one face of the metal plate. timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke. A driving circuit applies electric driving signals to the vibrator to vibrationally drive it at a 1/N multiple of its natural frequency. The metal plate is . electromechanical. It works through small bits of electricity vibrating together which causes sound.

a drive coil and a magnetic transducer. The drive circuit includes an inductor connected in a closed loop with the vibrator. they push on one conductor and pull on the other. Piezo buzzers are small electronic devices that emit sounds when driven by low voltages and currents. and the circuit applies signals at a selectively variable frequency to the closed loop to accordingly vary the inductance of the inductor to thereby vary the period of oscillation of the acoustic vibrator and the resultant frequency of the buzzing sound. With the application of voltage. (v) Magnetic Buzzers – Magnetic buzzers are magnetic audible signal devices with built-in oscillating circuits. which functions as a capacitor. They usually have two electrodes and a diaphragm. (iii) Mechanical Buzzer :-A joy buzzer is an example of a purely mechanical buzzer. The result of this push and pull is a sound wave. The diaphragm is made from a metal plate and piezoelectric material such as a ceramic plate. When a voltage is applied to these crystals.preferably mounted to undergo vibration in a natural vibration mode having only one nodal circle. The process can also be reversed to use as a guitar pickup. The construction combines an oscillation circuit unit with a detection coil. they create an electric signal that is passed on to an audio amplifier. current . diodes and other small devices act as circuit devices for driving sound generators. like signaling when a period of time is up or making a sound when a particular button has been pushed. They are also called piezoelectric buzzers. These buzzers can be used for many things. When a sound wave is passed. (iv) Piezo Buzzers/ Piezoelectric Buzzers – A piezo buzzer is made from two conductors that are separated by Piezo crystals. resistors. Transistors.

flows to the drive coil on primary side and to the detection coil on the secondary side. Basically it generates the signal to indicate that car has entered in the parking space. The oscillation from the intermittent magnetization prompts the vibration diaphragm to vibrate up and down. In this project. Circuit of buzzer – Role of buzzer in this project :Buzzer in this system gives the beep when car moves inside cutting the infrared light. This AC magnetic field magnetizes the yoke comprising the magnetic circuit. I used in this project only function diode. . including the transistor and the feedback circuit. these component description are described as bellow. a magnetic buzzer has been used. The oscillation current excites the coil and the unit generates an AC magnetic field corresponding to an oscillation frequency. The amplification circuit. Diode :Active Components :Active components are those component for not any other component are used its operation. generating buzzer sounds through the resonator. causes vibration.

A crystal diode has two terminal when it is connected in a circuit one thing is decide is weather a diode is forward or reversed biased. the diode is forward biased. One the other hand if the conventional current is trying is trying to flow opposite the error head. called break down voltage. 4. 1. There is a easy rule to ascertain it.T bar .R.T Bar of the symbol. the diode is the reverse bias. If the external CKT is trying to push the conventional current in the direction of error.g oa80 crystal diode. the diode is reversed biased putting in simple words.The arrowhead of diode symbol is negative W. 2.. If the diode is heavily doped depletion layer will be thin and consequently the break down of he junction will occur at a lower reverse . Red mark do not arrow where’s blue mark indicates bar e . Zener Diode :-It has been already discussed that when the reverse bias on a crystal diode is increased a critical voltage.Some manufactures actually point the symbol on the body of the diode e.Sometimes red and blue marks are on the body of the crystal diode. The break down or zener voltage depends upon the amount of doping. 3.R. So following method are available.Semiconductor Diode :A PN junctions is known as a semiconductor or crystal diode.If arrowhead of diode symbol is positive W. the diode is forward biased. g By127 by 11 4 crystal diode manufacture by b e b. When we used crystal diode it is often necessary to know that which end is arrowhead and which end is bar.

A properly doped crystal diode. it was learning experience through which we gained invaluable on hand practical knowledge with project enlightened us on the vastness and unique application of micro controller . CONCLUSION :The project was completed successfully with in the given time duration. is known as a zenor diode.voltage. which forms the basic framework of our project. This project gave us the deep understanding of the controller and described us how to use the controller in different ways as well as provided us the clarity about the different sensors . a lightly doped diode has a higher break down voltage. On the other hand. This is embedded based project as embedded is the combination of both the software as well as the hardware so this system helped us to clear all our doubts related to basic electronic components. which has a sharped break down voltage. . it is called zener diode.

. 1ST Edition 2. Penram International Publishing. The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems.Mazedi.References :1. 2nd Edition .1996.Kenneth J. The 8051 Microcontroller. Prentice Hall. Ayala.