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Economics Assignment

Money and Banking, & Commercial Banks

Nishanth Johnson Roll No : 213 Civil B S4

what we use to pay for things is called money. To a layman. high degree of substitutability and feasibility of measuring statistical variation. any thing which performed the following three function: According to modern economist or empiricists. Definition of Money Traditionally. thus. distinct from pure money which refers to cash and chequable deposits with commercial banks. Thus. To them. time deposits of banks and equity shares which serve as a store of value. but also includes a host of financial assets such as bonds. In terms of financial assets it is termed as stability of the demand function. in India. money has been defined on the basis of its general acceptability and its functional aspects. Some economists categories these financial assets as near money. the rupee is the money. money is what money does. in England the pound is the money.MONEY y is an important and indispensable element of modern civilization. however the crucial function of money is that it serves as a store of value. government securities. . In ordinary usage. It thus includes not only currencies and demand deposits of banks.

In a money economy. employment. Standard of deferred payment: Money is a unit in term of which debts and future transactions can be settled. . Households save and firms invest. Saved money thus can be channelised into any productive investment. consumption and consequently economic welfare of the community at large. transformation of savings into investment: In a modern economy. different people tend to specialize in the different goods and through the marketing process.Functions of Money Static Sense a unit of account: Money is a common measure or common denominator of value. savings and investment are done by two different sets of people-households and firms. these goods are bought and sold for the satisfaction of multiple wants. In dynamic sense economic trends: Money directs idle resources into productive channels and there by affects output.

The basic distinction between narrow money (M1) and broad money ( M3) is in the treatment of time deposits with banks. This classification was in vogue till recently. Narrow money excludes time deposits of the public with the banking system which broad money includes it.1979 the RBI classified money stock in India in the following four categories. of the public known as narrow money. borrowings of the banking system. The RBI working group has now redefined its parameters for measuring money supply. Redefined Money Stock in India deposits issued by banks + Term Deposits maturing within a year excluding FCNR (B) deposits. . deposits of the public with bank called broad money. Not much significance is attached to M2 and M4 by the RBI.

. helps to increase the aggregate rate of investment in the economy. for production and investment to entrepreneurs in various sector of the economy. Banks offer factilies to encourage savings. he user of capital and those who save but cannot use the funds themselves. The ideal resources is converted in to productive use Role of Commercial Bank tempo of economic development.Commercial Banks Their main features are: helps to mobilize the savings of the community case of need. But the economic development depends on rate of savings.

Collection of dividends. loan and advances or discounting of bills of exchange.banks helps in maximum social return and this ensure optimum utilization of savings and social welfare to help desirable sector such as agriculture. interest premiums Purchase and sales of shares and securities Acting as trustee Making regular payment such as insurance premium. Function of a Bank fixed deposit or time deposit. promissory notes and cheques. cash credit. and weaker section of society all this done after the nationalization of banks in 1969. small scale industry. Collection of bills. Interest rate vary according to amount and period. overdrafts. .

Circular notes. In 1993 two more banks were merged.Issue of letters of credit. project report etc. . bank draft. travellers cheques. Comercial Banking in India In July 1969 14 major commercial banks is nationalized. in 1980 6 more commercial banks is nationalized. Causes for Nationalisation ownership of commercial banks and concentration of economic power -bias of priority sector. Safe keeping of valuable in safe deposit vaults Supplying trade information and statistics conducting economic survey Preparation of feasibility studies. At present there are 19 nationalized banks are in India.

increase to 11. omotion of new Entrepreneurship: Through IRDP. JRY. up to 67% of deposit has been increased over this year.090 crore in 2005. Thus there were population per bank office reduced to 55.846 crores. . office in rural areas as of now it is increased to 47% in 2005.500 in 2005. Progress of Commercial Bank after nationalization of Branch: The branch office has increased from 8262 in 1969 to 68. the total deposit mobilisation was 4. Therefore.000 in 2005.57. TRYSEM.Objectives of Nationalization and small scale industry Provision of adequate training and as well as terms of services to bank staff.665 crore But in 2005 it was increased to 17.000 in 1969 to 16. and NRY.69.

The .Drawback of Commercial Bank Solve the Drawback vities in remote areas the performance of rural/semi-urban branches Meaning and Functions of RBI central bank is one which constitutes the apex of the monetary and banking structure of a country and which performs. in the national economic interest.

direction and cost of credit. buys and sells government securities. It issues notes. the central bank is not so.RBI was set up in April 1935. Function of RBI urrency foreign exchange reserves Commercial Banks Vs Central Bank titutions. manage foreign exchange and supports institutions financing different sectors. 1934 as a private shareholder's bank with some subscription from the government to enable those nominated by the government to be directors. . (RBI) is the central arch of the Indian Money Market. regulates the volume. under the Reserve Bank of India Act. with its central office at Calcutta.

cost and use of money and credit with the help of monetary measures in order to achieve specific goals. Quantitative measures consist of (a) .bank have largely public dealings. the central bank’s dealing are with governments. They are used for changing the total volume of credit in the economy. central and state banks and other financial institutions. Indian Monetary policy policy is usually defined as the Central bank's policy pertaining to the control of the availability. growth so as to maintain a reasonable degree of price stability and encourage the flow of credit into certain desired channels including priority and the hitherto neglected sectors. and introduce measures for strengthening the banking system and creating institutions for filling credit gaps Monetary Instrument Quantitative or General Measures weapons have a general effect on credit regulation.

it raises the bank rate. 2. Variable reserve ratio anks are generally required to maintain 1. Bank rate Policy commercial banks. Open market operation and bills in the market by the central bank on its own initiative to control the volume of credit. On the other hand. open market purchase of securities by the central bank lead to an expansion of credit made possible by strengthening the cash reserves of the banks. it will decrease the bank rate. Increased bank rate increases the cost of borrowings of the commercial banks who in turn charge a higher rate of interest from their borrowers.When the central bank wishes to control credit and inflation in the economy. On the other hand. if the central bank wishes to boost production and investment activities in the economy.Statutory liquidity ration. the cash reserves of the commercial banks decrease to the extent that they purchases these securities. This means the price of credit will increase. .Bank rate policy (b) Open market operations and (c) Variable reserve requirements. Cash reserve ratio refers to that portion of total deposits which a commercial bank has to keep with the central bank in the form of cash reserves. When the central bank sells securities in the open market other things being equal. Cash reserve ratio.

gold or approved government securities. These directives are usually in the form of oral or written statements. limiting the availability of credit in other productive fields. The central bank generally use the following forms of credit control. Raising of margin curbs the borrowing capacity of the security holder.Statutory liquidity ratio refers to that portion of total deposits which a commercial bank has to keep with itself in the form of liquid assets viz. . or warning. Issue of directives commercial banks. at the same time. for specific purposes. payments and maximum maturities of installment credit for the purchase of specified durable consumer goods. particularly to curb individual credit structure and to restrain the aggregate volume of loans. Securing loan regulation by fixation of margin requirements amount which the purchaser of securities may borrow against those securities.cash. appeals. Raising the required down payment limits and shortening of maximum period tend to reduce the demand for such loans and thereby check consumer credit. This is a very effective selective control device to control credit in the speculative sphere without.

By making frequent changes in monetary policy. Moral suasion is a psychological means of controlling credit. . or it may charge a penal rate of interest over and above the bank rate. The central bank may also persuade or request commercial banks not to apply for further accommodation from it or not to finance speculative or non-essential activities. and give excess credit. Direct Action may refuse to rediscount their papers. for the credit demanded beyond a prescribed limit.Rationing of credit r controlling and regulating the purpose for which credit is granted or allocated by commercial banks. it ensures that the monetary system in the economy functions according to the nation’s needs and goals. Moral Suasion commercial banks to co-operate with the general monetary policy of the former. it is a purely informal and milder form of selective credit control.