January 2005 .Principle of Busbar Protection Henri GRASSET Marketing Products Lattes.

Principle of Busbar Protection > Principle of Busbar Protection .January 2005 3 .

I3 = 0 > Principle of Busbar Protection .January 2005 4 .I2 .HV Application: Busbar Protection Kirchhoff’s Principle applied to a healthy system Σ I=0 I1 I2 I3 I1 = I2 + I3 I1 .

I3 ≠ 0 = IF > Principle of Busbar Protection .I2 .January 2005 5 .HV Application: Busbar Protection .2 Kirchhoff’s Principle applied to a system with a fault Σ I≠ 0 I1 I2 I3 I1 ≠ I2 + I3 I1 .

Io Simplified Substation Scheme Import Σ Ii S > Principle of Busbar Protection .January 2005 Σ Iin = Σ Ion Export Σ Io 6 .Differential Bubar Protection Principle Ii1 S1 Ii2 S2 Ii3 S3 Io1 Ii =  Σ Iin  Io2 Io3 Io4 Io =  Σ Ion  Ibias = Ii + Io Idiff = Ii .

 It is a simple.January 2005 7 .class X)  The CT knee point voltage needs to be relatively high  Metrosil may be required  The CTs are usually not shared with other protections  The magnetising current can desensitise the scheme  The scheme can be very fast  Isolator contacts are needed to switch the full CT secondary current between the zones  Extending the scheme is quite simple Buswire supervision can be offered with MVTP relays > Principle of Busbar Protection . reliable and circulating current scheme (The CTs must have the same ratio & must be of high accuracy .High Impedance Principle (P122 & P141)  Stability is entirely due to a stabilising resistor in the circuit.

January 2005 8 .  Extending the scheme is simple  Self supervision and breaker fail protection is easier to integrate  Numerical scheme offers many fault. event and recording capabilities > Principle of Busbar Protection .Low Impedance/Biased Principle (MBCZ. P740)  Stability is entirely due to the bias characteristic of the scheme  CTs can have different ratios  Scheme bias characteristic can cater for lesser accuracy CTs (class 5P)  CTs with moderate knee point voltages can be used  Metrosils are never required  It is easier to share the CTs with other protection  Number of // circuits does not affect the primary operating current  Tripping is fast  Isolator contact are not needed to switch heavy currents.

January 2005 Ur 9 .Differential Busbar Protection Merz-Price Principle Busbar P1 P2 I1 S1 S2 I2 S1 S2 I3 S1 S2 I4 Interposing CTs required Ud Rd Flow control Differential elements S1 S2 CTs with different ratios Bias voltage image of the crossing current  Large CTs to avoid saturation & ensure stability  Difficult to apply if the system topology is dynamic > Principle of Busbar Protection .

Conventional Scheme Architecture BB1 BB2 1 or 5 A CT Cabling BB5 BB3 Relay House/ Marshalling Cubicles DC cabling Trip/close order CB and Isolator status etc.January 2005 10 . Relay Room Interposing CT 0 > Principle of Busbar Protection .

Double Busbar Configuration BS Zone 1 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 4 BC1 F1 F2 F3 F4 BC2 1 > Principle of Busbar Protection .January 2005 11 .