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Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements For the technical writing/seminar report work for the Degree of Master of Technology in Structural Engineering.





A. Staff in charge Head of the department Submitted to university practical examination held on……………………………….BALAJI with Reg. During the academic year 2012-2013. External Examiner Internal Examiner .PONNAIYAH RAMAJAYAM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PRIST UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING PUDUCHERRY BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project titled “TRENCHLESS CONSTRUCTION TEQUNIQUES” is a Bonafide Record of work done by Mr.S. No 69122520002 for the technical writing/seminar report for the partial fulfillment of the requirementsfor the Degree of Master of Technology in Structural Engineering of PRIST University puducherry.

SIVAKUMAR for his constant inspiration and support for the successful completion of technical report writing work in time. I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to Asst Prof M.MURUGESANAnd our Pro chancellor Dr. We are elected to place in record our most sincere appreciation and thanks to our honorable Founder-chancellor Dr. puducherry campus and also our Head of department of Civil Engineering Department for his constant encouragement during the Technical writing report. who have always be with me in all my trials and tribulations and encouraging me to complete .ETHIRAJALU We express our profound thanks to our beloved Director Dr. We also wish to express our thanks to our beloved Guide and Coordinator THIRU.MADIVANAN. I would be failing in my duty if I don’t acknowledge the immense help extended by my classmates.DHANAUSHKODI.PSM.P.S.KAILASAM KOUMARAVELOU.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We owe our thanks to the almighty and our beloved parents for their grace in making this Technical writing report work a grand success.S. puducherry campusfor helping us by providing all the facilities for the successful completion of our Technical writing. with in the stipulated time. for his continuous encouragement and disciplined suggestions which helped us to complete our Technical writing report in the stipulated time.S.N. We take this opportunity to express our gratitude and appreciation to all of them.KANNAN and also extend my thanks to our vice chancellor Dr. We acknowledge our grateful thanks to AsstProf. An endeavor over a long period can be successfully only with the advice and support of many well wishers. Associate Dean PRIST University. PRIST University.

1 Pipe jacketing techniques 3.2 Description of Pipe jacking method 3.2 Standard practice for Direct Design Of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction 2.4 Microtunneling techniques 3. 08 08 09 Chapter 3 Trenchless techniques 3.3 Various steps in pipe jacking techniques 3.3 Use of Trenchless Technologies For Comprehensive Asset Management Of Culverts and Drainage Structures.5 description of micro tunneling techniques 3.1 Trenchless technology 03 05 07 Chapter 2 Literature review 2.6 pipes used for micro tunneling 10 10 11 14 14 15 .CONTENT Acknowledgement Abstract Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Trenchless construction Method and implementation support 2.

2. the pipejacking operation is complete.1 various steps in pipe jacking technique 12 Fig 1. View of cutter head assembly from inside of pipe Jacking equipment 13 Fig 1.6 Fig 1. Concrete pipe being jacked into place behind cutter Head assembly.Conclusion Reference 16 17 List of figure Fig 1. Note track leading out of pipe for Spoilbucket removal 13 Fig 1.5 Fig 1. 13 Fig Cutter head on Akkerman pipe jack apparatus polymer concrete reinforced pipe used micro tunneling process 13 15 15 . Emerged cutterhead assemblyAfter jacked Concrete pipe emerges from theReception pit.

if proper precautions are observed.ABSTRACT Trenchless technology offers methods by which underground utilities may be installed without damage to overlying pavement. including the equipment. Traffic is not interrupted. It can reduce environmental damage. Trenchless methods have minimal impact on economic activity in congested areas. and other utilities are minimally affected. dust. and inspectors has not kept pace with developments. and training in the technology for designers. materials. and other environmental impacts. tunneling devices and specialist materials and equipment In addition. Trenchless technologies are also generally safer both for the construction workers and the general public . which minimizes or eliminates the need for surface excavation or reduces environmental damage or reduces the associated costs for underground work. They can reduce noise. processes or procedures. engineers. and methods have advanced faster than the guidelines and specifications for use of the technology. construction vibration. repeated improvements in technology. Trenchless technology covers any techniques. Trenchless methods offer several potential advantages. Social costs and produce in alternative to open trench method of installation. development of all kinds of underground napping techniques. renewal and repair it includes in. machines and materials involved. In the past ten years.

are not current with capabilities and limitations of the newmethods. and underground conditions (containing natural or artificial obstructions. design and operation of these systems.) and new developments in equipment Have increased demand for trenchless technology. new and more stringent safety regulations.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION: 1. high water table. Trenchless technology methods include all methods of installing or renewing underground utility systems with minimum disruption of the surface or subsurface. and impacts on the long-term arrangements of urban utility systems as the techniques are used more extensively. Environmental concerns. construction specifications. have not kept pace with new developments. Most all governmental agencies. improvements in steering and tracking systems. process Inspection. materials testing. etc. difficult types of pipe and other advancements. equipment. with a few notable exceptions. materials. and the training of engineers. The development of these technologies provides new solutions for installing and maintaining urban utility systems but also introduces new issues into the planning. These developments have produced improvement in jacking force capacity and increased drive length. In recent years. Trenchless technology has become Popular for underground utility construction road crossings. availability of new and different . there has been remarkable progress in development of new trenchless technology equipment and methods. Preparation of design guidelines. construction and permit inspectors in contracts and bid documents. social (indirect) costs. impacts on the conduct of site investigations for utility work. These new issues have impacts on the engineers who plan and design the systems.1 TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES Demand for installation of new underground utility systems in congested areas with existing utility lines has increased the necessity for innovative and economical systems to go underneath and alongside inplace facilities.

Brett Gunnink. Field observation and testing of four different types of horizontal boring and four different borings pipe has types led of for a to installed the forthese successful performance Installation how to prevent settlement and heave during highway construction in the future formaintaining pavement integrity.2 Standard practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction Bennett David. industrial wastes. such a s construction pipejacking installation was followed by three separate horizontal bore installations on property of the University of Missouri-Columbia. Center for Underground Infrastructure Research and Education. Director.CHAPTER 2: Comparison of the four types of horizontal boring has led to a better overall understanding ofthe processes involved. Michigan State University. In addition. Department of Civil Engineering Montana State University. Section 734 of the Missouri Standard Specifications for Highway Construction. piping This Standard for the intended conveyance of sewage. longitudinal thrust produced by jacking. shear and racial tension strengths. thrust. MoDOT trenchless addresses construction. P. and requirements for handling and installation.E. and drainage. Department Chairman. Center of Louisiana University Technological development specification new Pipe Standard Practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction covers design and recommended installation procedures for precast concrete pipe for jacking in byHorizontal Boring. P. crack width control.1 Trenchless construction method and implementation support Mohammad Najafi. as well as for utilities and access ways. 2. anew material specification has also been added to the Standard Specifications as a result – Section 1075 –Centrifugally-cast Fiberglass Reinforced Observation Polymer of an Mortar actual Pipe. stormwater. and LITERATURE REVIEW 2. .E. circumferential flexure. One of the horizontal bores installed centrifugally cast fiberglass reinforcedpolymer mortar pipe for the very first time in the world using horizontal directional drilling. The design criteria include: structural aspects.

and while viable. Lacking is a comprehensive multi-scale engineering study that would be conducted for decision making at upper this management project level. As such. budget allocations and resources limitations represent a major barrier to a comprehensive asset Therefore. culverts renovation. and can be applied in certain existing conditions to be effective. Each method has its own capabilities and Highway Bridges. . University of Cincinnati DOT’s and cities in the US are facing severe and rising needs of renewing heavily deteriorated infrastructure. Trenchless drainage infrastructures. However. and can benefit a great deal from an optimal asset management program that incorporates new trenchless technologies. have little field performance history in culverts and transportation systems. If they are used at appropriate application. trenchless technologies are many and some of these methods are new. 2. and and management program.3 Use of Trenchless Technologies for Comprehensive Asset Management of Culverts and Drainage Structures. inspection of renewal. appreciated and addressed. asset management procedures for culverts are a complex issue. Sam Salem. Further challenges geospatial for DOT’s are of the wide limitations. While the challenge is well understood. P. a distribution infrastructure assets and environmental exposure.E. provides comprehensive study and decision making procedures for asset management using trenchless technologies to address the construction. Culverts have the peculiarity of being characterized as both buried pipes in small diameters with no access and worker entry and larger ones with possibility of manual inspection and repair/renewal. they provide a new design life to existing culverts and drainage structures that may double or triple the original design life of these assets.The structural design of concrete pipe is based on a limits state design procedure that accounts for strength and serviceability criteria and is consistent with the procedures in Section 17 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for technologies are not disruptive to transportation systems and provide safer construction operations for both workers and the general public.

Excavation can be accomplished by hand mining or mechanical excavation within a shield or by a tunnel boring othertrenchless technology methods. slurry systems. If there is any possibility of the excavation face collapsing. Dewatering or grouting are common methods of soil stabilization. a minimum pipe diameter of 42-inches is recommended. 3. As the excavation proceeds soil is transported out of the jacked pipe and drive shaft either manually or mechanically. The thrust power of the hydraulic jacks’ forces the pipe forward through the ground as the face is being excavated. Both the excavation and spoil removal processes require workers to be inside the pipe during the jacking operation. the rams of the jacks are retracted machine (TBM). This concept of a jacking system is adopted by manytrenchless technologies. it implies a tunneling operation with the use of thrust boring and pushing pipes with hydraulic jacking force. soil stabilization techniques must be considered.PIPE JACKING: The term pipejacking can be used to describe a specific installation technique as well as a process applicable to so that another pipe segment can be placed in position for the jacking cycle to begin again. However. auger systems. The design of the drive shaft is critical to the success of the project.2 DESCRIPTION OF PIPEJACKING METHOD: Pipe Jacking is a method for installing a prefabricated pipe through the ground from a drive shaft to a reception shaft. and vacuum extraction systems. Chain conveyors. for the purposes of this researchreport. The pipe is moved by jacks located in the drive shaft. After each pipe segment has been installed. belt. The soil conveyance systems include wheeled carts or skips. pipe jacking is regarded as an installation technique. When referred to as a process. For personnel health and safety. including auger boring and micro tunneling.1. The excavation method selection is based on soil conditions.CHAPTER 3: VARIOUS TRENCHLESS TECHNIQUES: 3. The shaft floor and thrust reaction structure must be designed to withstand the large jacking forces required to push the pipe through the .

external grouting is usually required. Pipe jacking equipment that has a pipe lubrication system can decrease the jacking forces necessary by 20-30 percent. The primary concern is the the pipe invert. conditions that would require different equipment to excavate. if overexcavation occurs or voids develop. Unanticipated ground conditions require corrective measures that cause cost overruns and delays. Other concerns include proper design of the shaft to withstand the large jacking thrust and that jacking thrust is uniformly transferred through a properly designed joint material. The required working space must provide adequate space for storage and handling of the pipe and spoil and space for the shaft.ground and withstand the weight of heavy pipe segments being placed on them repeatedly. With the use of the proper excavation methods many types of ground conditions can be overcome. prediction of subsurface soil behavior. the working space should be from 4 feet to 10 feet wider than the diameter of the pipe and from 10 feet to 25 feet longer than the length of pipe sections being installed. Typically. such as unanticipated and obstructions changed soil boulders. The over excavation above or ahead of the pipe is to be avoided. Sandy clay is the most favorable soil condition if the water table is not above . Major factors to be considered are the presence of groundwater. Shaft size will vary depending on the type of jacking and excavation equipment used.


Note track leading out of pipe forspoil bucket removal Figure 1.2. the pipejacking operation is complete .5.3. Figure 1.Figure 1.Cutterhead on Akkerman pipe After jacked concrete pipe emerges from the jack apparatus Reception pit. .Concrete pipe being jacked into place behind cutterhead assembly.4. View of cutterheadassembly from inside of pipe jacking equipment Figure 1. Emerged cutterhead assembly.

• Jacking or propulsion system.01 percent of the drive length depending on many factors. Line and grade can be maintained to 0. Five Working space typically would range from 20 feet to 40 feet wide and 75 feet to 150 feet long. Typically. Unanticipated ground conditions require corrective measures that cause cost overruns and delays. 3. Major factors to be considered are the presence of groundwater. A wide variety of MTBM cutter heads are available that provide the capability to handle a range of soil conditions. • Spoil removal system. • Pipe lubrication system.5 DESCRIPTION OF MICROTUNNELING TECHNIQUES • Microtunnel boring machine. It can be used in a wide range of soil conditions while keeping close tolerances to line and grade. unanticipated obstructions such as boulders. The primary concern is the prediction of subsurface soil behavior. Microtunneling is very accurate. including boulders and solid rock. Spoils are removed by either a pumped slurry or by mechanical auger. and changed soil conditions that would require different equipment to excavate. • Laser guidance and remote control system. Wet sand for slurry MT and stable sandy clay for auger MT are the most favorable soil conditions for each. length and equipment dimensions.4MICROTUNNELINGTECHNI QUES Micro tunneling (MT) is a method using a remotely controlled. independent systems are incorporated into Microtunneling systems. the drive shaft would range from 16 feet to 50 feet wide and from 35 feet to 100 feet long depending on pipe diameter. the most important being the skill of the machine operator. guided pipe jacking process that provides continuous support to the excavation face. .3. The required working space must provided adequate space for storage and handling of the pipe and spoil and space for the shaft.

1 MICROTUNNELING PROCESS . reinforced concrete. glass reinforced plastic and asbestos-cement pipes of all diameters are used for trenchless laying of the communications with microtunneling. For linkage of pipes special pump buckets are used in order to eliminate water entry through connection joints.3. FIG 2.6 PIPES USED FORMICROTUNNELING Polymer-concrete. ceramic.

2) American Society of Civil Engineers. ASCE Standard 28-00. The low wage economy that is prevalent in India. As a society. Trenchless technology is yet another extension of this same idea. Standard Practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Box Sections for Jacking in Trenchless global trenchless service achieve the market networking. there is need for more trenchless service providers and specialists. 106. 52pp. 52pp. All that metal that we are replacing means that traditional excavation is not only inconvenient but wasteful. One must Construction. therefore consider expanding in the Indian markets for a better future. 2004. Standard practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction. ASCE Standard 27-00. turning it into a form for a new Cast-In-Place Pipe as well as structural reinforcement and a bonding surface. Further. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. as the magnitude of projects available in the Indian markets is substantially large. Other positive points are the stable currency and the democratic governance systems. with the project owners realizing that these techniques are useful and. in certain cases. In addition to these presence of INDSTT for the last eight years has lent substantial support to providers presence the to and REFERENCES 1) American Society of Civil Engineers. 2000. as the demands for such services are rapidly growing today. presents a challenge for the global stakeholders but the opening markets have somewhat mitigated such risks to certain extent. need to take notice of this market. Horizontal Auger Boring Projects.CONCLUSION: The Indian trenchless market is now on the path of growth and expansion. Globaltrenchless service providers conservation. Its always a good policy to repurpose and reuse. 2000. By relining (or by replacing smaller sections for water pipes). 3) American Society of Civil Engineers. we are reusing the old pipe. they are the only way to get the projects done. we are looking more towards renewable resources and . however. 51 pp.

Prepared by ERES Consultants. Iseley. Vermont. Grant. 1999 Trenchless and Soil Engineering Research And Development Center. J. prepared for the United States ArmyCorps of Engineers 6) and Iseley. Report No. Ariaratnam. Mohammed.4) Bennett. Samuel. Carolyn A. 1997. M. 1985. Trenchless TechnologyCenter of Louisiana Technological University Technical Report #2001-04.. James. Manual for 7) Najafi.. Construction Methods CompatibilityManual. Raymond L. Final Report for the Street Excavation Impact Assessment for the City ofBurlington. David. Beneath Roadways – a Synthesis ofHighway Practice.. Najafi... Jadranka. 2001. and Gokhale. 9) Simicevic. Patricia K.Y. Highway Trenchless Technology – Pipeline and Utility Design. 1985. TechnologyCenter Technological University Technical Report #2001-03. Controlling and Reducing theFrequency of Pavement Utility Cuts. 2001. 11) Simicevic. 102pp. and Sterling. June 12. W. 23pp. and Crovetti. Tom. 19pp. Raj. Jadranka. Champaign. Mohammad.Sanjiv B. National Research Council of Transportation Research Board.. and Nelson. Raymond L. Casey. IL. 173 pp. Guidelines for Impact . 489pp. 2001. HDD Consortium Horizontal Good PracticesGuidelines. Construction. prepared for the United States ArmyCorps of Engineers Engineering 5) Trenchless Installation of Conduits Research And Development Center. of Trenchless Louisiana and Como. and Sterling. National Cooperative Highway Research Program NCHRP Synthesis 242. 2004. Tanwani. 8) Shahin. 3rd ed. and Renewal. McGraw-Hill.. 76pp. 10) Moiling. United States Department of TransportationFederal Administration. 12) Wilde. Guidelines for Pipe Ramming. 2002. FHWAIF-02-064.A. Tom.