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# Republic of Iraq Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research University of Technology Department of Computer Engineering and information

Technology

First Class

Year 2010-2011

Fundamentals of Electronic Circuit Design
Contents 1- Structure of an Atom 1.1 Material Photo effective 2- Material types (Conductor, and Semiconductor, Insulator) 3- Intrinsic semiconductor 3.1 Extrinsic semiconductor (P-type and N-type) 4- P-N Junction (Diode) 4.1 Diode Equivalent cct. 4.2 Diode DC analysis 5- Diode AC applications 5.1 Rectifier 5.2 Clipper circuits 5.3 Clamper circuits 6- Zener Diode 7- Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) 8- Field Effect Transistor FET 8.1 Junction Field Effect Transistor ( JFET) 8.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Reference 1-Thomas L .Floyd “Electronsic Devices” 2005. 2-U.A Bakshi “ Electronics Engineering “ First Edition ,2008 3-Jacob Millman”Microelectronics “ second Edition 1987

1.Structure of an Atom
Dr.Ekbal Hussian Ali

While the atomic weight is approximately equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.1 The nature of the Atom The atom consists of a central nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons .Ekbal Hussian Ali . 1-2 The Number of Electron in Each orbit(or shell) Dr.1.as shown in the Fig. The fource of the the attraction between electron and proton follows by Columb's Law.1 The nucleus consists of positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutron.1 Atom structure Orbital The charge of proton ( inside the nucleus) equal to the electrons charge.The number of protons in an atom is called as its atomic number . The basic particles of negative charege are called electrons In a normal atom the number of protons is equal to the number electrons . Electron + Nucleus Fig.

(2) Bohr Atom (H v : velocity of electron (m/sec) r : radius of the orbit (m) The condition for equilibrium the two force is equal.The electrons are arranged in the different orbits at an orbit can contain maximum number of electrons (Ne)can be calculated by the formula Ne= 2n 2 .859 *10-12 F/m )+Fig.Ekbal Hussian Ali .The first orbit can occupy electrons ( 2 ×12 =2) The maximum number of electrons that can exist in the second shell is Ne=2 (2) 2 =8 The maximum number of electrons that can exist in the third shell Ne=2 (3) 2 =8 All shells in a given atom must be completely filled with electrons except the outer (Valence )shell 1-3 Bohr Atom The hydrogen contain one electron in his orbital call (Bohr Atom).n is the number of orbil. There are two attractive Forces FP : Potential Force FK : Kinetic Force.The electrons which are revolving round the nucleus . that lead to Dr.11*10-31 Kg ε0 : permittivity of air = 8. FP = FK = q2 4πε0 r 2 (1) FK FP r + m v2 r (2) where q: electron Charge = 1.602 *10-19 C m : electron mass = 9.do not move in same orbit .

the angular momentum of electron in this state be integral multiple of nh 2π h /( 2π ) as mvr= (4) where h : Plank'c constant = 6. (3) by Eq.sec n : orbital number nh 2π m r v = (5) by using Eq. iPotential Energy EP of electron at distance from the nucleus Dr.(3) with Eq. (5) the result is h 2ε r = 0 π m q2 n2 (6) by using Eq.Ekbal Hussian Ali .(6) the r by q2 v = 1 2 h ε0 n (7) 1-4Atomic Energy There are two types of energy at the atom.q2 4πε0 r 2 v2 = = m v2 r (3) q 2 4πε0 m r The stationary state is determined by the condition.626 * 10-34 J.

h 2 in equation (10) for electron inhydrogenatom . Kinetic Energy EK for the electron moving around the nucleus m v2 2 EK = (9) therefore the total Energy are ET = Ek+Ep ET = Ek + Ep = ET = − q4 8πε 0 r = − q2 m v2 + 2 4πε 0 r 2 2 2 − m q4 1 8h ε 0 n (Joule) (10) Putting values of m .q.EP = − q2 4πε 0 r (8 ii.6 (ev) n2 For the First energy level n=1 Dr. Example Determine the first three allowed electron energies in the hydrogen atom and draw the energy level diagram ET = −13.we have ET = − 13.6 (ev) n2 ev : the electron volt unit. εo .Ekbal Hussian Ali .

The Energy levels of Bohr atom (H 1-5 Atomic Energy Levels The energy level of shell one is lowermost while the energy level of valence shell is highest .0E= T 3= n ve 65.6 22 (ev) = −3.G) 1=n ) ve 6.The concept of energy level is shown in the Fig.Ekbal Hussian Ali .Nucl (Ground Level ) (+Fig.More energy level indicates that the electrons of that shell are loosely bound to the nucleus as having highest energy level .51ev (n = ∞ (Ionization Level ET = 0 ev 4= n ve 78.1E= T 2=n ve 14.(3) Energy level increases from first shell to valence shell as the distance from the nucleus the increases Dr.6 12 (ev) = −13.39ev For the third energy level n=3 ET = − 13.ET = − 13.6 32 (ev) = −1.3E= T S.6ev For the second energy level n=2 ET = − 13.31ET = .

More the number of free electrons . if the photon transfer from upper state to lower state radiate photons this case call photon emission. The atom by ionize is absorbed energy equal to the level energy.Ekbal Hussian Ali .(3) Concept of energy level The Ionization level is the level of number n =∝ . The photon Energy EPh calculated by hC EPh = h f = λ (11) where f : Photon frequency (Hz) λ : Photon wavelength (m) C=3*108 (m/sec) Hint: Angistrom (A0) = 10-10 m Dr.Lowest energy level Valence shell highest energy level Fig.better is the conductivity of the metal 1.6Photo Affective The electron in ground state (G.S) absorbed an light (Photon) then transfer to upper state this case call photon absorbsion. An electron which is not subjected to the force of attraction of the the nucleus is called a free electron .

Fig.(5) Photo Ionization E1 b- Emission In this case the electron loss the amount of energy as photon (Light).(13) E2 EPh E1 Fig.(4). The Photon energy calculated by E 2 − E1 = hf …. the atom in this case call Ionize and this phenomena call Photo ionization see Fig. this phenomena called (Emission). =n EPh >=E1 Fig. (5)..It jump from higher energy level to lower energy .a- Absorbsion The electron absorb energy when it excite from lower energy level to higher energy level .(4) Absorbsion If photon Energy greater or equal to the Energy level then the electron transfer to level n= Inf. The energy of final orbital can calculate his energy by E 1 − E 2 = hf (12) E2 EPh E1 Fig.(6) Emission Dr.Ekbal Hussian Ali .

The electron in C.B). Energy Gap (E. the energy gap between valance band and conduction band small.2 Material Types There are three type of material : i. for that the semiconductor is transfer case between conducted and insolated material. ii. Conductor is excellent conducting material the energy gap between valance band and conduction band very small. Valance Band (V.EV ….B) and Conduction Band (C. Semiconductors and insulators (on the basic of band diagram) The different electrical behavior of materials can be explained qualitatively in terms of their energy band diagrams because each solid has its own Ec characteristics energy band structure as shownband in Fig(7). its know as group of orbital have the same performance. Insulator is very poor conducting material the energy gap between valance band and conduction band very high.().1 Metals. There are two type of Bands. As shown Fig. (14) 2. iii.G). Semiconductor is subtended material between conductor and Insolate material. The energy gap is Eg =EC . Conduction Conduction band Eg Valence band E ev Ev Dr.B call free electrons.Ekbal Hussian Ali E E(ev) ev Forbidden gap Valence band Valence Eg >=3ev band Ec x x Metals Semicoducors Conductors Ev Conduction band Insulators Forbidden gap . this electrons cause conducing in material. it’s the region separates between valence band and conduction band.(two types intrinsic and Extrinsic semiconductor) Energy Band.

Fig.Ekbal Hussian Ali . semiconductor and insulator Dr.(7) Band diagram for conductor.