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............8 CONSTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS..............................15 SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SPECIFICATION...................................5 OPERATION CHARACTERISTICS.......................................................................11 CONSTRUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS........................6 EXCITATION TYPES...........................................................................12 INSULATION SYSTEM...................................13 SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SELECTION.................Synchronous Motors TABLE OF CONTENTS Motores Síncronos INTRODUCTION...16 ..........................................................................................................13 TESTS......................14 APPLICATIONS........................9 ACCESSORIES..........3 ADVANTAGES...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................

also between them by a 120º angle. as they are proportional to the respective currents. currents I1. Due to the fact the synchronous motors are fitted with special operating characteristics.Synchronous Motors INTRODUCTION The word “SYNCHRONOUS” is originated from Greek. I2 and I3 will create at the same time their own magnetic fields H1. 3. Figure 3 03 . Cycle Stator and stator winding (armature) of Weg synchronous motors are identical to components of three phase induction motors. If the winding is powered by a three-phase system. these motors also feature high torque.When the current goes through the coil. Identical to induction motors. 5 and 6 of figure 1. figure 2 shows that field H1 is on maximum stage and that fields H2 and H3 are negative and with same value which is equal to half of H1. along with low maintenance cost allowing major economical and operational advantages to end users. they will be de-phased in time. The resulting field (graphic sum) is shown on the bottom part of figure 3. The 3 fields represented on figure 3 (upper part) take into consideration that the negative field is represented by an arrow pointed to the opposite direction in comparison to what would be normal. H2 e H3 on that point. 4. will be equal to the graphic sum of the 3 magnetic fields H1. Figure 3 shows this graphic sum for 6 successive points. The prefix “SYN” means “with” and “CHRONOS” means “time”. Figure 1 shows a waveform of a balanced three phase system consisting of 3 sets of coils placed symmetrically on the area resulting in a 120º angle. industries are more and more using such motors. Included in the main reasons for the industries to specify SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS to drive a wide range of applications are the high efficiency and the fact they are suitable to operate as synchronous compensating machines for power supply factor correction. at each point. constant speed under load variation. Besides that. Repeating the construction for points 2. Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 2 represents a three phase motor winding. its direction will “rotate” until completing a turn at the end of the cycle. position (1). Stator rotating field . In addition to that. the current that goes through the stator winding generates a rotating magnetic flow that circulates around the air gap. A synchronous motor literally operates “in time with” or “in synchronism with” the power supply system. However. the resulting H field presents “constant” intensity. a magnetic field is generated which is based on coil axis and is proportional to the current value. H2 e H3. having the same direction of phase 1 winding. Operation Principle Time On point (1). The resulting H field. These fields are spaced between them by a 120º angle as well.

Considering the winding has poles or pair of poles. The field excitation is done through a DC system. When going through the field winding. The stator winding can consist of one or more pairs of poles that are distributed alternatively (one “north” and another “south”) along the magnetic core outer side. f p rpm = The synchronous motor rotor is built with a number of poles corresponding to the stator winding number of poles. the poles are polarized magnetically becoming alternatively north pole and then south pole. that is. Under normal operation. there is no induction of electric voltage into the rotor by the mutual flow and then there is no excitation originated from the AC power supply.Synchronous Motors Synchronous Speed . Depending on the type of rotor used (cylindrical or salient pole). The DC excitation can be applied to the field through the brushholders and slip rings. or through a brushless system and through electronic control (brushless). The rotating field goes through a pair of poles (p) at each cycle. the pole coils can be built with insulated copper wire turns or with copper bars. As a result. there is no relative movement between rotor poles and stator magnetic flow. the field speed will then be: 60 .The motor synchronous speed (rpm) is defined by the rotating field speed that depends on the motor pair of poles (p) and on the power supply frequency (f). they are in perfect synchronism. 04 .

Included in the economical advantages of using synchronous motors are: . PF=1. a synchronous motor with PF=1. These penalties (fines) occur due to the fact that the low power factor results in increase of required reactive power (kVAr) and. Except for those cases where high torque is required. the low stator winding losses allow a synchronous motor with PF=1. power factor can be increased without generating reactive power (motor with PF=1.0).0) or generate required reactive power (motor with PF=0. Hence. Such loads require considerable portion of reactive power(kVAr) as magnetization current. Other than applying bank of capacitors to supply the power supply with reactive power. there will be lower field winding loss I²R. a synchronous motor can supply the required power with substantial power reduction on the whole system. This way. On those cases. Power Factor Correction Electric power systems are based not only on the generated active power supply in kW. synchronous motors are normally used for such purpose. an increase of the power supply transmission and generation equipment capacity. inductive reactive load are predominant. where just the efficiency aspect is taken into account when specifying a motor. These are usually low size or low speed induction motors.Synchronous Motors ADVANTAGES Due to their special operating characteristics. as a consequence. So depending on the application. synchronous motor efficiencies with PF=1.8 of equal power rating. On industries.Constant speed under load variation . Once the required field current is the minimum applicable. further gains resulting from low operational cost should be also considered.Special starting characteristics .0 is usually the solution.High efficiency . When the reactive power (kVAr) is not required and only the actual power (kW) is applicable.8.0 to be designed in lower size if compared to a synchronous motor with PF=0.Power factor correction In addition to that.Reduced maintenance cost High Efficiency Associated to the initial purchasing cost of a synchronous motor.0 are normally higher than induction motor efficiencies of equal power rating.0 and induction motors. synchronous motor applications usually result in economical and operational advantages to end users. Power factor of synchronous motors can be easily controlled as they are fitted with an independent excitation source. the current is minimized resulting in lower stator winding loss I²R. the consumer may be subject to penalties. Comparison between efficiency levels of synchronous motors with PF= 0. but also on the power factor on which it is generated Whenever the load power factor is below the specified values. Efficiency (%) Induction Motor Power Rating (kW) 05 . there are other specific operational advantages of using synchronous motors as follows: .

although. maintenance. in addition to following pull-out torque limitations. On certain applications such as on pulp and paper mills. Starting the motor with reduced voltage is also an alternative applied so as to have the current reduced. This way. The time period the motor takes to accelerate causes amortisseur winding overheating. that is. this motor must be designed in such a way to meet the starting conditions. cement plants and compressors are few examples of applications that required high starting torque (150 to 200 % of the rated torque). and the starting current is proportional to the applied voltage. the constant speed results in superior uniformity and quality of the supplied product. it is the load starting torque. synchronous motor speed is kept constant either on overload variations or on voltage drop cases. where the excitation field application will take the motor to the synchronism (pull-in torque). with torque reduction. OPERATION CHARACTERISTICS TORQUES A synchronous motor must be always designed taking into account driven load characteristics. 06 . low starting currents (locked rotor) are usually required. Starting current reduction can be usually achieved with a special design of stator and amortisseur winding. Starting The amortisseur winding. that operates as a squirrel cage of an induction motor. is intended to guarantee synchronous motor starting and acceleration. exactly as on induction motors. Constant Speed Independently of load variations and as long as the load is maintained within the motor pull-out torque limitation. a) Starting torque It is the torque that the motor must supply to drive the standstill load resistant torque. Then. This occurs due to the fact that the rotor poles remain locked in relation to the rotating magnetic field that is generated by the stator winding. in addition to torque’s and inertia. BRUSHLESS synchronous motors are not manufactured with brushes nor with slip rings. A combination of high torque with low starting current can be better achieved with the application of synchronous motors without affecting operating characteristics. Hence. the synchronous motor average speed is kept constant. associated with motor and load torque analysis are quite important allowing this motor to meet starting and acceleration conditions. synchronous motors are designed in larger frame sizes so as to meet acceleration conditions. Therefore.Synchronous Motors Special Starting Characteristics Large ball mills for iron mines. inspection and cleaning on these components are not required. Reduce Maintenance Cost Since they do not require slip electric contacts for their operation. c) Pull-out Torque It is the torque that the motor must supply to keep the motor under synchronism in case of momentary overloads with reted excitation. b) Pull-in Torque It is the torque that the motor must supply to reach the correct speed. The correct load inertia definition. Due to power supply system limitations. Inertia When driving high inertia loads. starting and pull-in torque’s vary with the square of the applied voltage.

Synchronous Motors Starting characteristic curve of a synchronous motor at full voltage A synchronous motor starts exactly like an induction motor and then it accelerates the load up to the point where the motor torque becomes the same as the load resistant torque. this motor can not supply this torque at 98% of the synchronous speed and then such motor will not synchronize. the excitation voltage is applied to the motor. with a slight slip in reference to the rotating field. Through asynchronous starting. On high resistant torque loads. This electronic circuit and the field application relay are intended to manage the synchronous motor starting sequence. and the rotor synchronizes. On brush-supplied machines. Asynchronous Starting The main starting method applied on synchronous motor starting is the asynchronous starting through a squirrel cage with the short-circuited winding rotor or connected to a resistance. and on this condition. On this point. Based on the synchronous motor starting characteristic curve. If the specified motor torque. 07 . since the rotor short circuits up to the field current application. Driven load characteristics will determine acceleration and synchronism conditions. a direct current is applied to the rotor winding and then taking the motor to synchronism. This way. On load applications with resistant torque parabolic curve and considering that at 98% of the synchronous speed. a field application relay is used. it will accelerate the combined rotor and motor inertia plus the load inertia up to precise synchronous speed. that is. starting torque decreases as it gets close to the synchronous speed. while on brushless motors a electronic control circuit is applied. at 95% of the synchronous speed is equal to the load pull-out torque. Usually this point occurs with 95% of the synchronous speed or above that. the motor is required to supply a torque equal or higher than the load torque on this point. usually called starting resistance or discharge resistance. the rotor accelerates at a speed very close to the synchronous speed. which is installed attached to a rotating rectifier disc. the value of such torque is equal to the load rated torque. The proper amortisseur winding design requires precise knowledge of the load resistant torque. the amortisseur winding must make the motor and load torque accelerate at a time period higher than that for a shorter resistant torque. careful analysis of the starting torque curve along with load resistant torque curve must be carried out. to ensure motor starting and synchronism.

This three phase winding is connected to rectifier bridge. 08 . Brushless exciter Synchronous motors with brushless excitation system are fitted with a rotating exciter.Synchronous Motors Starting Current On Brushless synchronous motor starting. the field winding is short-circuited through the elechome circuit. Synchronous motors require a DC power supply to power the field winding (rotor winding). Static exciter (with brushes) Synchronous motors supplied with static exciter are fitted with slip rings and brushes that allow current powering of the rotor poles through slip contacts. which is usually done through slip rings and brushes (static exciter) or through a brushless rotating exciter. The DC power supply for the poles must come from an AC/DC converter and static controller. and the field current frequency will remain around 3Hz. motor speed must be close to synchronism speed (around 95% of the synchronism speed). 1. the field current frequency is initially equal to power supply frequency (60Hz for power supply of 60Hz) and reduces as the motor speed increases. The stator current also varies on the starting and then it becomes stable after motor synchronism. The current generated on the rotor is rectified and intended to power the motor field winding. Since they are not built with slip electric contacts. Synchronous motors with brushless excitation require low maintenance cost once they are not fitted with bushes. Stator current (Is) and rotor current (Ie) performance on asynchronous starting 1) Starting point 2) Rotor frequency decreases as the speed increases Is Stator Current Is Ie Ie 3) Point when the field is switchedon and the motor synchronizes Is Stator Current 4) Rotor and stator current stability Is Stator Current Ie Ie EXCITATION TYPES 2. synchronous brushless excitation motors are recommended for explosive atmosphere applications. The amplitude of such field current can be controlled through the rectifiers that power the exciter stator field. While motor remains on standstill. The rotor is fitted with a three phase winding and the stator consists of alternating poles (north and south) and powered by an independent DC source. avoiding sparking. The exciter operates as an AC generator with the rotor attached to the motor shaft. normally installed on the non-drive end of the motor. When the excitation is switched-on.

It is mainly intended to support and protect the lamination core and stator winding. rectifer bridge and discharge circuit. The frame inner part consists of bars for lamination core fastening to the winding. and then making the motor suitable for the most severe applications. Usually the frame is based on a metallic rigid base (steel plate) and this part. The whole frame construction is duly treated for stress release caused by welding process. stator. Wound stator Consisting of static magnetic parts. This construction results in an excellent structural piece so as to withstand mechanical strengths originated from eventual short-circuits and vibrations. Tthe static exciter consists of slip ring and brushes and depends on an external source to power the motor field. It is manufactured with steel plates and welded with MIG welding resulting in a solid and rugged structural construction. The rotating active parts include rotor ring. polar ring and poles. is based on a concrete foundation. rotor can be built with cylindrical or salient poles.Consisting of silicon steel lamination of low losses. The brushless exciter consists of rotor. The metallic base is fastened to the concrete base through studs. The synchronous motor rotor fitted with salient poles consists of shaft. The field coils are constructed with enameled copper wires or flat copper bars. the wound stator includes the silicon lamination core and the stator winding. pressed. 09 . field winding and amortisseur winding. and the set is fastened through metallic bars or a bar-designed system. Frame . ROTOR Depending on motor constructive characteristics and on the application.Synchronous Motors CONSTRUCTIVE COMPONENTS STATOR Lamination core . The last one operates as AC power supply to generate the rotating magnetic field. The field poles are magnetized through the exciter direct current or directly through slip rings and brushes. they gear themselves magnetically by the air gap and rotate in synchronism with the stator rotating field. in its turn. The frame can be constructed in horizontal or vertical mounting configurations and with degree of protection that meets application characteristics. The poles are built with laminated steel plates that are fixed with steel bar and Salient pole rotor welded on the ends. EXCITER It is intended to supply magnetizing current to the motor field winding.

The lubricating oil circulates around the bearing through an independent oil circulation system and. Cylindrical pole rotor Shaft . 10 . Sleeve bearings can be naturally lubricated (self lubricated) or with a forced lubrication system (independent lubrication system). BEARINGS Based on the application. lamination core and pole winding. it is built with copper bars or other material. along with ensuring speed stability under sudden load variations. synchronous motors can be supplied with grease-lubricated ball or roller bearings or oil lubricated sleeve bearings. The winding is installed in the rotor slots forming the poles. This system is required when the natural bearing lubrication coming from the internal oil ring is not enough due to the specific speed required or due to high friction losses. Ball or roller bearings Depending on the speed and thrusts they are submitted to. depending on the motor design. The synchronous motor rotor of cylindrical poles consists of shaft. The amortisseur winding is fitted in the poles and.Synchronous Motors Once they have been wound and impregnated. the ambient temperature must be informed when specifying a motor so as to ensure natural cooling. However. the complete rotor is balanced dynamically at 2 planes. the lubricating oil is spread out by the internal oil ring and transferred directly to the shaft surface creating a layer of oil between the shaft and the bearing liner surface.This is fitted in the slots placed at the polar shoes of the salient pole rotor or an external surface of the cylindrical pole rotor. On certain specific applications. Amortisseur winding . The amortisseur winding operates on synchronous motor starting. After final assembly and impregnation.The shafts are constructed of forged or laminated-steel and machined exactly as per specifications. these grease lubricated bearings can be supplied either with ball or cylindrical rollers. special bearings can be also supplied.When the rotor turns. Forced Lubrication . if required. or connected through dov tail. Consisting of bars that go through the slots and are short-circuited at the ends and then forming a squirrel cage. The friction heating is dissipated just by radiation or convection. poles are fixed to the shaft or to the polar ring with the application of bolts from top or bottom part of the pole. it is cooled down through an independent hydraulic system. The shaft end is usually cylindrical or flanged. Naturally lubricated sleeve bearings .

Vibration detectors .Stator winding temperature detectors PT-100 .Synchronous Motors ACCESSORIES Weg synchronous motors are supplied with standard accessories required for correct operation and monitoring of the main components.Anchorage plate Bearing PT .Water thermometer (heat exchanger) . When specifying a motor.Air thermometer (Cooling) .Hydraulic unit for bearing lubrication .Brake .Water flow valve .Frame lifting device Optional Accessories . Accessories (supplied as standard) .100 Thermometer 11 .Oil injecting system under pressure for motor starting and stop(Hydrostatic Jacking) . the end user must inform the required accessories that should be included in the design and motor manufacture.Temperature detectors for air inlet and outlet .Bearing temperature detectors .Oil flow sight .Oil thermometer (bearings) .Encoder .Oil flowmeter .Water flowmeter .Water flow sight .Brake disc .Space heaters Special Accessories .

. Sleeve bearings can be mounted on pedestals attached to the endshields which make part of the motor.Enclosed motors with air-water heat exchanger. Degree of Protection IP23.Synchronous Motors CONSTRUCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS CONSTRUCTION Weg synchronous motors are manufactured in B3. While low speed motors are usually built with relatively short rotor core if compared to its diameter. Synchronous motor Mounting configuration: D6 Pedestal bearings Besides the cooling methods mentioned above. High speed motors are usually built with relatively long core length if compared to its diameter. always meeting installation environment and application characteristics.Enclosed motors with air-air heat exchanger. Degree of Protection IP54 to IPW65. Synchronous motor Mounting configuration: B3 Enshield bearings COOLING SYSTEMS The cooling systems most commonly used are: . D5 or D6 mounting configurations and with grease lubricated ball or roller bearings or oil lubricated sleeve bearings.Open self-ventilated motors. . Degree of Protection IP54 to IPW65. Open motors Enclosed motors Mounting Configuration: D6 Mounting Configuration: D6 Mounting configuration: B3 Mounting configuration: B3 12 . motors can be supplied with forced ventilation. air inlet and outlet by ducts. and other cooling methods.

This process is called polymerization and provides motor extended life time. with full computerized and high precision monitoring. upon cure. superior resistance to weathering which is typical for environments where electric rotating machines operate. the wound stator is vacuum and pressure impregnated by applying class H solvent-free epoxy resin. Besides routine tests. Coils are fitted in the stator slots.Synchronous Motors INSULATION SYSTEM On High Voltage Motors . ensuring excellent electric. Special tests are performed only upon customer request. Epoxy resins are ideal for impregnation once they offer.Coils are pre-fabricated with rectangular shape copper wire. mechanical properties to Weg insulation system. insulated from the stator lamination core with class “F” (155°C) insulating material and fastened by fiber glass or magnetic wedges. they can ensure major homogeneity and prevent from occurring insulation bobbles after polymerization and final cure. medium and high voltage motors in output ratings up to 10. Considering they are 100% solid resins. Routine Tests Visual inspection test Air gap checking and bearing tolerances Winding Ohmic resistance Insulation resistance. type tests are normally performed randomly or under customer request. They are then heated up and cured resulting in high winding mechanical strength. Temperature and space heater inspection Bearing and rotation direction marking Vibration checking No load test Short-circuit curve Hi-pot test Excitation system test Type tests Temperature rise test No load curve (V curve) Overspeed Loss and efficiency test Waveform measurement Polarization index Synchronous motor starting Special tests Noise level test Instantaneous short-circuit Shaft voltage check Starting current 13 . connections and coil heads tied. The stator is then submitted to hi-pot test and short-circuit between turns : . in addition to providing weathering resistance.000V. TESTES Weg synchronous motors are tested in accordance with IEC34 Standard in its modern testing laboratory for low. solvent free composition. Tests are grouped in three categories: routine. type and special tests. slots closed. Impregnation .Surge Test before and after the impregnation.Once coils have been inserted. The copper wires that form the coils are insulated with appropriate class “H” (180°C) enamel. Routine tests are performed on all motors produced.000kVA and voltage range up to 15. coated with mica tape and epoxy resin impregnated. that means.

synchronous motors are built in larger frame sizes so as to meet acceleration conditions. This curve must be always defined based on load resistant torque curve. while service duty is important for correct thermal design. 14 . pump). this required power factor must be specified previously. Theoretically. that is. Resistant torque curve and load inertia have direct influence on motor starting characteristics. it is not correct to say that a synchronous Resistant torque and load inertia When specifying synchronous motors it is quite relevant to know driven load data. Service Duty The correct specification of a synchronous motor rated power must consider the motor service duty with overload frequency existing on such duty. Power factor and excitation type are also important aspects to take into account for motor specification. Considering that a synchronous motor starts through its squirrel cage (same as on induction motors) and with rotor winding short-circuited (or closed in a resistance). can be used on another different application (ex.Synchronous Motors SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SELECTION Synchronous motors must be specified based on their application. exhauster). load inertia will have a great influence on starting time and on the heat to be dissipated by the bars. In reference to this aspect. The last two aspects are essential items for motor starting analysis. Environment type defines the motor degree of protection. This means that a motor designed to operate with unit power factor can not supply the same rated output power under lower power factor. Explosive atmosphere application motors require brushless excitation. based on their service duty. Besides ensuring the starting through the squirrel cage generated torque. resistant torque curve and inertia curve. Environment type defines the Degree of Protection and motor cooling method. Environment characteristics The environment where the motor will be installed must be analyzed before specifying such motor. Ambient temperature and altitude considered when specifying a motor are 40ºC and 1000m above sea level. it is important to reconsider new data when specifying this motor. To drive high inertia loads. If motor operation environment presents values above those mentioned above. motor used on certain application (ex. the correct material used on dump bar (usually built with copper or copper alloys) and their geometry are essential to define motor starting characteristic curve. Power factor Whenever power factor correction is required on a synchronous motor application. the dump bars must be also designed in such a way to allow heat dissipation generated during motor starting.

fans. compressors) Pulp and paper (extruders. we recommend to supply complete application data. along with reduction on mechanical thrusts resulting from motor winding. This brings positive reduction on motor starting current. low speed and wide speed adjusting range. mills. Depending on load and environment characteristics. chippers. conveyor belts and others) Steel plants (laminating machines. On several cases. reduced size and higher output rating capacity. compressors. synchronous motors can replace DC motors on high performance applications. mills. exhausters) Cement (Crushers. fans. motor construction for such applications can be supplied with or without brushes.. They are used on all types of industry including: Mining (crushers. Due to their higher efficiency level. mills. mixers) Fixed speed Synchronous motor applications with fixed speed are recommended due to low operational cost once they offer high efficiency and can be used as synchronous compensating machines for power factor correction. resulting in less electric system troubles on starting. Weg synchronous motors are manufactured specifically to meet every application requirements. conveyor belts) Rubber (extruders.Synchronous Motors APPLICATIONS Variable speed Synchronous motors with variable speed are recommended for applications with high torque. Recommended motors for this application are those with brushless excitation. 15 . debarkers. pumps. a motor with lower torque values compared to standard values can be actually applied. grinders) Sewage systems (pumps) Chemical and Petrochemical (compressors. For a correct design and application of Weg synchronous motors.

IP55] Cooling:______________ [air-air heat exchanger..Synchronous Motors SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR SPECIFICATION (CHECK LIST) Quantity:__________ Application (driven machine):_________________________ Output rating (kW):_________ Voltage (V):________ Speed (rpm)__________ Frequency (Hz):______[60] Altitude (m):_______[1000] Amb.0] Mounting:____[B3E] Installation: __________[inside or outside] Excitation:__________[brushless or with brushes] Excitation voltage (V)_____ Starting: Full voltage [ ] Reduced voltage [ ] ______ % Operating conditions: [ ] Continuous frequency and voltage [ ] Drive .GA: ________ Key width .. E: ______ Key diameter .1 per bearing Notes: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16 ... A:_______ Distance between feet hole and shaft shoulder ... (ºC)_______[40] Power factor:_____[0. air-water heat exchanger ..] Starting:___________[1 hot/2 cold] Starting torque:_______[40%] Synchronization torque (pull-in)____[30%] Synchronization pull-out torque (Pull out):_________[150%] Load inertia J (kgm2): __________ (Supply torque curve x load speed) Rotation direction:_______________[CW. B:______ Distance between feet holes (transversal) .. ØD:_____ length ..IP23S or enclosed ..F: _________ Main terminal box Lead inlet: _________ [bottom] Cable gland _________________ [yes no] Number of terminals___________ [3 or 6] Accessory terminal box:___________ [ Yes or no ] Accessories [ ] Space heater Voltage (V) ____________ [ ] Winding temperature detectors [PT100 with 3 wires . Temp. C:____ Shaft .Diameter .from _______ to ______Hz Bearings:_____________[pedestal or on the endshield] Continuous or momentary thrust on bearings:___________ Degree of Protection:__________ [Open .1 per phase] [ ] Bearing temperature detectors [PT100 with 3 wires .0] Service factor: _____[1.8 or 1. CCW or both] Coupling (type):_______________ WEG supply [ ] Yes [ ] No Main motor dimensions Shaft height . H:_______ Total height: HD: _____________ Distance between feet holes(longitudinal) .

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