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TRENCHLESS CONSTRUCTION TECHIQUES

Submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements For the technical writing/seminar report work for the Degree of Master of Technology in Structural Engineering.

SUBMITTED BY Mr.A.S.BALAJI (REG NO: 69122520002)

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF THIRU.S.MADIVANAN.M.Tech. ASST., PROF/CIVIL ENGINEEING

PONNAIYAH RAMAJAYAM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

PRIST UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING PUDUCHERRY APRIL 2013

External Examiner Internal Examiner . During the academic year 2012-2013.BALAJI with Reg. No 69122520002 for the technical writing/seminar report for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Technology in Structural Engineering of PRIST University puducherry.A.S.PONNAIYAH RAMAJAYAM INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PRIST UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING PUDUCHERRY BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project titled “TRENCHLESS CONSTRUCTION TEQUNIQUES” is a Bonafide Record of work done by Mr. Staff in charge Head of the department Submitted to university practical examination held on……………………………….

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We owe our thanks to the almighty and our beloved parents for their grace in making this Technical writing report work a grand success. We take this opportunity to express our gratitude and appreciation to all of them.MADIVANAN. who have always be with me in all my trials and tribulations and encouraging me to complete . I would be failing in my duty if I don’t acknowledge the immense help extended by my classmates. We also wish to express our thanks to our beloved Guide and Coordinator THIRU. We acknowledge our grateful thanks to Asst Prof. An endeavor over a long period can be successfully only with the advice and support of many well wishers.DHANAUSHKODI. Associate Dean PRIST University. puducherry campus and also our Head of department of Civil Engineering Department for his constant encouragement during the Technical writing report. for his continuous encouragement and disciplined suggestions which helped us to complete our Technical writing report in the stipulated time. We are elected to place in record our most sincere appreciation and thanks to our honorable Founder-chancellor Dr.KAILASAM KOUMARAVELOU.P.N.PSM.MURUGESAN And our Pro chancellor Dr. PRIST University.S.S. puducherry campus for helping us by providing all the facilities for the successful completion of our Technical writing.ETHIRAJALU We express our profound thanks to our beloved Director Dr. with in the stipulated time.KANNAN and also extend my thanks to our vice chancellor Dr.

2 Description of Pipe jacking method 3.1 Pipe jacketing techniques 3.5 description of micro tunneling techniques 3.4 Micro tunneling techniques 3.2 Standard practice for Direct Design Of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction 2. 08 08 09 Chapter 3 Trenchless techniques 3.3 Use of Trenchless Technologies For Comprehensive Asset Management Of Culverts and Drainage Structures.3 Various steps in pipe jacking techniques 3.CONTENT Acknowledgement Abstract Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Trenchless technology 03 05 07 Chapter 2 Literature review 2.1 Trenchless construction Method and implementation support 2.6 pipes used for micro tunneling 10 10 11 14 14 15 16 17 Conclusion Reference .

Note track leading out of pipe for Spoil bucket removal 13 Fig 1.6 Fig 1.7 Cutter head on Akkerman pipe jack apparatus polymer concrete reinforced pipe used micro tunneling process 13 15 15 .2.5 Fig 1. View of cutter head assembly from inside of pipe Jacking equipment 13 Fig 1.1 various steps in pipe jacking technique 12 Fig 1.3. 13 Fig 1.List of figure Fig 1.4. Concrete pipe being jacked into place behind cutter Head assembly. Emerged cutter head assembly After jacked Concrete pipe emerges from the Reception pit. the pipe jacking operation is complete.

and training in the technology for designers. They can reduce noise. dust. processes or procedures. and other utilities are minimally affected. tunneling devices and specialist materials and equipment In addition. Trenchless methods offer several potential advantages. machines and materials involved. construction vibration. which minimizes or eliminates the need for surface excavation or reduces environmental damage or reduces the associated costs for underground work. Trenchless technology covers any techniques. if proper precautions are observed. Trenchless technologies are also generally safer both for the construction workers and the general public . It can reduce environmental damage. engineers. development of all kinds of underground napping techniques. Social costs and produce in alternative to open trench method of installation. and methods have advanced faster than the guidelines and specifications for use of the technology. repeated improvements in technology. and inspectors has not kept pace with developments. Trenchless methods have minimal impact on economic activity in congested areas. materials. Traffic is not interrupted. renewal and repair it includes in. and other environmental impacts.ABSTRACT Trenchless technology offers methods by which underground utilities may be installed without damage to overlying pavement. In the past ten years. including the equipment.

Trenchless technology has become Popular for underground utility construction road crossings. construction specifications. new and more stringent safety regulations. are not current with capabilities and limitations of the new methods. high water table. Most all governmental agencies. Preparation of design guidelines. design and operation of these systems. there has been remarkable progress in development of new trenchless technology equipment and methods. Environmental concerns. availability of new and different . and the training of engineers. process Inspection. In recent years.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION: 1. materials testing. equipment.) and new developments in equipment Have increased demand for trenchless technology. impacts on the conduct of site investigations for utility work. etc. difficult types of pipe and other advancements. with a few notable exceptions. social (indirect) costs. Trenchless technology methods include all methods of installing or renewing underground utility systems with minimum disruption of the surface or subsurface. improvements in steering and tracking systems. These developments have produced improvement in jacking force capacity and increased drive length. construction and permit inspectors in contracts and bid documents. materials. The development of these technologies provides new solutions for installing and maintaining urban utility systems but also introduces new issues into the planning. and underground conditions (containing natural or artificial obstructions. have not kept pace with new developments. These new issues have impacts on the engineers who plan and design the systems.1 TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES Demand for installation of new underground utility systems in congested areas with existing utility lines has increased the necessity for innovative and economical systems to go underneath and alongside inplace facilities. and impacts on the long-term arrangements of urban utility systems as the techniques are used more extensively.

longitudinal thrust produced by jacking. 2.1 Trenchless construction method and implementation support Mohammad Najafi. and LITERATURE REVIEW 2. a new material specification has also been added to the Standard Specifications as a result – Section 1075 – Centrifugally-cast Fiberglass Reinforced Observation Polymer of an Mortar actual Pipe. MoDOT trenchless addresses construction. Section 734 of the Missouri Standard Specifications for Highway Construction. P. and drainage. Brett Gunnink.CHAPTER 2: Comparison of the four types of horizontal boring has led to a better overall understanding of the processes involved. Director. industrial wastes. Department Chairman.E. circumferential flexure. stormwater. P. and requirements for handling and installation.E. such a s construction pipe jacking installation was followed by three separate horizontal bore installations on property of the University of Missouri-Columbia. crack width control. as well as for utilities and access ways. thrust. Department of Civil Engineering Montana State University. Center of Louisiana University Technological development specification new Standard Practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction covers design and recommended installation procedures for precast concrete pipe for jacking in Pipe Installation Horizontal Boring. Field observation and testing of four different types of horizontal boring and four different borings pipe has types led of for a to installed the forthese successful performance by how to prevent settlement and heave during highway construction in the future for maintaining pavement integrity. . Center for Underground Infrastructure Research and Education. piping This Standard for the intended conveyance of sewage. One of the horizontal bores installed centrifugally cast fiberglass reinforced polymer mortar pipe for the very first time in the world using horizontal directional drilling. The design criteria include: structural aspects.2 Standard practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction Bennett David. In addition. shear and racial tension strengths. Michigan State University.

Culverts have the peculiarity of being characterized as both buried pipes in small diameters with no access and worker entry and larger ones with possibility of manual inspection and repair/renewal. As such. Further challenges geospatial for DOT’s are of the wide limitations. have little field performance history in culverts and transportation systems. inspection of renewal. Each method has its own capabilities and Highway Bridges. provides comprehensive study and decision making procedures for asset management using trenchless technologies to address the construction. If they are used at appropriate application. 2. and while viable. and and management program. University of Cincinnati DOT’s and cities in the US are facing severe and rising needs of renewing heavily deteriorated infrastructure. appreciated and addressed. .The structural design of concrete pipe is based on a limits state design procedure that accounts for strength and serviceability criteria and is consistent with the procedures in Section 17 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for technologies are not disruptive to transportation systems and provide safer construction operations for both workers and the general public. trenchless technologies are many and some of these methods are new.3 Use of Trenchless Technologies for Comprehensive Asset Management of Culverts and Drainage Structures. Sam Salem. asset management procedures for culverts are a complex issue. budget allocations and resources limitations represent a major barrier to a comprehensive asset Therefore. culverts renovation. P. they provide a new design life to existing culverts and drainage structures that may double or triple the original design life of these assets. and can benefit a great deal from an optimal asset management program that incorporates new trenchless technologies. Trenchless drainage infrastructures. and can be applied in certain existing conditions to be effective. Lacking is a comprehensive multi-scale engineering study that would be conducted for decision making at upper this management project level. However. While the challenge is well understood. a distribution infrastructure assets and environmental exposure.E.

auger systems.CHAPTER 3: VARIOUS TRENCHLESS TECHNIQUES: 3. 3. Dewatering or grouting are common methods of soil stabilization.1. The design of the drive shaft is critical to the success of the project. The excavation method selection is based on soil conditions. After each pipe segment has been installed. As the excavation proceeds soil is transported out of the jacked pipe and drive shaft either manually or mechanically. This concept of a jacking system is adopted by many trenchless technologies. pipe jacking is regarded as an installation technique. the rams of the jacks are retracted machine (TBM). slurry systems. Chain conveyors. it implies a tunneling operation with the use of thrust boring and pushing pipes with hydraulic jacking force. soil stabilization techniques must be considered. Excavation can be accomplished by hand mining or mechanical excavation within a shield or by a tunnel boring referred to as a process. For personnel health and safety. Both the excavation and spoil removal processes require workers to be inside the pipe during the jacking operation. for the purposes of this research report. The pipe is moved by jacks located in the drive shaft. including auger boring and micro tunneling. The thrust power of the hydraulic jacks’ forces the pipe forward through the ground as the face is being excavated.2 DESCRIPTION OF PIPE JACKING METHOD: Pipe Jacking is a method for installing a prefabricated pipe through the ground from a drive shaft to a reception shaft. a minimum pipe diameter of 42-inches is recommended. belt. The soil conveyance systems include wheeled carts or skips. If there is any possibility of the excavation face collapsing.PIPE JACKING: The term pipe jacking can be used to describe a specific installation technique as well as a process applicable to other trenchless technology methods. and vacuum extraction systems. When so that another pipe segment can be placed in position for the jacking cycle to begin again. However. The shaft floor and thrust reaction structure must be designed to withstand the large jacking forces required to push the pipe through the .

With the use of the proper excavation methods many types of ground conditions can be overcome. if overexcavation occurs or voids develop. The over excavation above or ahead of the pipe is to be avoided. Sandy clay is the most favorable soil condition if the water table is not above . Major factors to be considered are the presence of groundwater. conditions that would require different equipment to excavate.ground and withstand the weight of heavy pipe segments being placed on them repeatedly. Pipe jacking equipment that has a pipe lubrication system can decrease the jacking forces necessary by 20-30 percent. prediction of subsurface soil behavior. Unanticipated ground conditions require corrective measures that cause cost overruns and delays. the working space should be from 4 feet to 10 feet wider than the diameter of the pipe and from 10 feet to 25 feet longer than the length of pipe sections being installed. The required working space must provide adequate space for storage and handling of the pipe and spoil and space for the shaft. Typically. Shaft size will vary depending on the type of jacking and excavation equipment used. The primary concern is the the pipe invert. such as unanticipated and obstructions changed soil boulders. Other concerns include proper design of the shaft to withstand the large jacking thrust and that jacking thrust is uniformly transferred through a properly designed joint material. external grouting is usually required.

Fig 1.1 VARIOUS STEPS IN PIPE JACKING TECHNIQUE .

5.3.Figure 1. View of cutterhead assembly from inside of pipe jacking equipment Figure 1.2.4. the pipe jacking operation is complete . After jacked concrete pipe emerges from the Reception pit. Note track leading out of pipe for spoil bucket removal Figure 1. Cutterhead on Akkerman pipe jack apparatus . Figure 1. Concrete pipe being jacked into place behind cutter head assembly. Emerged cutter head assembly.

• Jacking or propulsion system. guided pipe jacking process that provides continuous support to the excavation face. and changed soil conditions that would require different equipment to excavate. Five diameter.01 percent of the drive length depending on many factors. • Pipe lubrication system. including boulders and solid rock. Microtunneling is very accurate. The required working space must provided adequate space for storage and handling of the pipe and spoil and space for the shaft. . 3. • Laser guidance and remote control system. A wide variety of MTBM cutter heads are available that provide the capability to handle a range of soil conditions.5 DESCRIPTION OF MICROTUNNELING TECHNIQUES • Microtunnel boring machine.3. • Spoil removal system. Spoils are removed by either a pumped slurry or by mechanical auger. Unanticipated ground conditions require corrective measures that cause cost overruns and delays. It can be used in a wide range of soil conditions while keeping close tolerances to line and grade. the drive shaft would range from 16 feet to 50 feet wide and from 35 feet to 100 feet long depending on pipe are the presence of groundwater. Line and grade can be maintained to 0. Wet sand for slurry MT and stable sandy clay for auger MT are the most favorable soil conditions for each. length and equipment dimensions. unanticipated obstructions such as boulders. The primary concern is the prediction of subsurface soil behavior. Typically. the most important being the skill of the machine operator. Working space typically would range from 20 feet to 40 feet wide and 75 feet to 150 feet long. Major factors to be considered independent systems are incorporated into Microtunneling systems.4 MICROTUNNELING TECHNIQUES Micro tunneling (MT) is a method using a remotely controlled.

3. FIG 2. glass reinforced plastic and asbestos-cement pipes of all diameters are used for trenchless laying of the communications with microtunneling. For linkage of pipes special pump buckets are used in order to eliminate water entry through connection joints. ceramic. reinforced concrete.1 MICROTUNNELING PROCESS .6 PIPES USED FORMICROTUNNELING Polymer-concrete.

2) American Society of Civil Engineers. Standard Practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Box Sections for Jacking in Trenchless global trenchless service achieve the market networking. 51 pp. The low wage economy that is prevalent in India. Global trenchless service providers need to take notice of this market. As a society. 2004. 106. One must Construction. 52pp. Other positive points are the stable currency and the democratic governance systems. 3) American Society of Civil Engineers. Standard practice for Direct Design of Precast Concrete Pipe for Jacking in Trenchless Construction.CONCLUSION: The Indian trenchless market is now on the path of growth and expansion. however. Horizontal Auger Boring Projects. with the project owners realizing that these techniques are useful and. stakeholders but the opening markets have somewhat mitigated such risks to certain extent. Its always a good policy to repurpose and reuse. 2000. there is need for more trenchless service providers and specialists. presents a challenge for the global conservation. Trenchless technology is yet another extension of this same idea. 2000. as the magnitude of projects available in the Indian markets is substantially large. we are reusing the old pipe. All that metal that we are replacing means that traditional excavation is not only inconvenient but wasteful. we are looking more towards renewable resources and . in certain cases. turning it into a form for a new Cast-In-Place Pipe as well as structural reinforcement and a bonding surface. ASCE Standard 27-00. they are the only way to get the projects done. In addition to these presence of INDSTT for the last eight years has lent substantial support to providers presence the to and REFERENCES 1) American Society of Civil Engineers. therefore consider expanding in the Indian markets for a better future. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No. By relining (or by replacing smaller sections for water pipes). ASCE Standard 28-00. 52pp. as the demands for such services are rapidly growing today. Further.

and Renewal. Champaign. and Crovetti. FHWAIF-02-064. David. 2001. McGraw-Hill. Raymond L. Administration. of Trenchless Louisiana Technology Technological #2001-03. Jadranka. W. 3rd ed. 8) Shahin. Tom.. Samuel. Jadranka. Tom. HDD Consortium Horizontal Good Practices Guidelines. 1999 Trenchless and Soil Engineering Research And Development Center.. Carolyn A.. Tanwani. 2002. 1997. and Sterling. Construction. Iseley.4) Bennett. Construction Methods Compatibility Manual. 12) Wilde. IL. Beneath Roadways – Highway Practice. Manual for 7) Najafi. Report No. 19pp.A. Patricia K. Council of Transportation Research Board. University Technical Report prepared for the United States Army Corps of Engineers Engineering Research And 5) Trenchless Installation of Conduits a Synthesis of Research Development Center. and Nelson. National Cooperative Highway Research Program NCHRP Synthesis 242. and Sterling. prepared for the United States Army Corps of Engineers 6) and Iseley. Vermont. Final Report for the Street Excavation Impact Assessment for the City of Burlington. J. 76pp.. 1985. June 12.Y. United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Trenchless Technology – Pipeline and Utility Design.. Guidelines for Impact . Sanjiv B. Grant. 489pp. 2001. 10) Center Moiling. National 11) Simicevic. 102pp. Prepared by ERES Consultants. M.. Ariaratnam.. Mohammed. Raymond L. Controlling and Reducing the Frequency of Pavement Utility Cuts. Mohammad. and Como. Guidelines for Pipe Ramming. Raj. 9) Simicevic. Casey. Najafi. 2001. Trenchless Technology Center of Louisiana Technological University Technical Report #2001-04. 1985. and Gokhale. James. 173 pp. 23pp. 2004.