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RailTel Corporation of India Ltd.

Training on Optical Fiber Networks

E-mail: Contact no.:09958018833

By: Arun Singh Rawat Deputy Manager/Project

How fiber cable look like

Advantages of Optical Communication
Explosive demand for higher bandwidth Low bandwidth of copper Nearly 25THz possible with fiber Low Loss-Longer distance transmission(Less Repeaters) No EMI in fiber-based telecom Less cross-talk, more reliability More secure communications Lighter than copper Lower cost per unit bandwidth(made of silica which is very cheap) Safer and more advantages

What is Optical Communication? •Optical communication is any form of telecommunication that uses light as the transmission medium. which encodes an electronic pulse into an optical signal. and a receiver. . •An optical communication system consists of a transmitter. which reproduces the message from the received optical signal. which carries the signal to its destination.

Journey through the “Optical Tunnel” .

Transmit-Receive Overview .

Optical Fiber •The most common type of channel for optical communications •Flexible optically transparent fiber made of glass or plastic through which light can be transmitted by the process of total internal reflection •Consists of a core . cladding and coating •Core is the inner glass layer of high refractive index •Cladding is the outer layer which covers the core/ has a lower refractive index •Coating is the outer most layer which provides environmental and physical protection for the fiber .

the core has high refractive index in which the light entering the fiber is guided –Cladding has a refractive index slightly less than that of the core –By principle of total internal reflection the light entering the fiber (core) at one end travels along the fiber by bouncing repeatedly of the inside of the interface of the glass with the surrounding medium (cladding) .Theory of Optical Fiber •Transmits light along its axis using the process of total internal reflection •Based upon the principle of Snell’s Law •Snell’s Law – Total internal reflection can occur when light attempts to move from a material with high index of refraction to one with lower index of refraction –In an optical Fiber.

How Does an Optical Fiber Transmit Light? The light in a fiber-optic cable travels through the core by constantly bouncing from the cladding (mirror-lined walls). Signal degrades within the fiber essentially due to –Impurities in glass –Wavelength of transmitted light – 850 nm – 60-75% per Km –1300 nm – 50-60% per KM . a principle called total • internal reflection. the light wave can travel great distances. Because the cladding does not absorb any light from the core.

Types of Optical Fiber •Optical Fibers are classified as Single Mode or Multi Mode fiber •Multi mode fiber has a core diameter around 50um and cladding diameter of 125 um •Single mode fiber core is less than 10um and can support only one mode of propagation •Optical fiber are also grouped as step index and graded index fiber •In a step index fiber. the refractive index of the core is constant throughout •A graded index fiber has core with varying refractive index .

2um 50um .Types of Optical Fiber Single Mode Fiber 125um Multi Mode Fiber 125um 9.

Fiber Optic Communication •History •Fiber Optic Communication System •Benefits of Optic Communication •Limitation of Optic Communication .

coaxial cables and micro wave systems •Due to their limitation in communicating between long distances. the first commercial fiber optic system was developed with a bit rate of 45Mbps and a repeater spacing of 10 Km . in the second half of the 20th century. the idea of optical carrier of information arrived and found that it is better than other existing carrier signal •Due to lack of suitable coherent light source and better transmission medium no remarkable even took place until 1960 •In 1960 laser was developed and ten years later optical fiber was developed •Between 1970 and 1980.History •Early People used light Signal to communicate •Telegraphs.

Fiber Optic communication System •Four major parts in the system • Optical Transmitter – Semi conductors like LED or Lasers convert electrical signals to Optical signals to send it into the optical fiber • Fiber Optic Cable – routed through underground conduits and buildings carry the light signal between transmitters. amplifiers and receivers • Optical Amplifier – amplifies the light signals to reduce effects of distortions and attenuation • Optical Receiver – Recovers the light signal back to the electrical signal .

Benefits •Permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidth (data rates) than other forms of communication. difficult to tap in and read data being transmitted . •Signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference •No electromagnetic interference hence better S/N ratio •High electrical resistance makes it safer to use where electrical isolation is required •Light weight and small size makes them ideal for multiple applications •High on security.

3 db/km.3 db/km • Microscopic fluctuation in density and imperfect splicing increases attenuation . caused by combination of material absorption and connection losses • Material absorption of silica is 0. spreading of optical pulses as they travel along fiber •Attenuation.Limitations •Dispersion. but impurities increase this amount to 1000 db/km • Modern fiber has attenuation of 00.

Contents •Plesiochronous Digital Heirarchy •Synchronous Digital Hierarchy •Wave Division Multiplexing .

but not fully synchronous. .Plesiochronous Digital Heirarchy • Plesiochronous is a Greek word meaning Almost Synchronous . • In Plesiochronous system every equipment is generating its own clock for synchronization.

Plesiochronous Transmission •Pulse Code Modulation • • • • • Voice Frequency ranges upto 4 Khz Sampling the Voice Signal @ 8 Khz (Double the Max. Frequency) 8 bits per sample Digital Bit Rate: 8Khz X 8 = 64 Khz •Building up the Base Stream (2MB) • • • • • 30 Voice Channels @ 64 Khz One channel for Frame (64 K) One channel for Signaling (64 K) Total number of Channels = 32 Bit Rate: 32 X 64 K= 2048 Khz (2Mb) .

PDH Bit Rates •E1-2048 Kbps (2Mb) [30 Voice Channel] •E2-8448 Kbps (8Mb) [120 Voice Channel] •E3-34368 Kbps (34Mb) [480 Voice Channel] •E4-139264 Kbps (140Mb) [1920 Voice Channel] .

Bit-Interleaved Multiplexing • It is TDM • One bit will be taken from all Tributaries. .

Stuffing and Justification • In a PDH multiplexer individual bits must be running at the • • • same speed otherwise the bits cannot be interleaved The possible “Plesiochronous” difference is catered for by using a technique known as “Justification” Extra bits are added(stuffed)into the digital tributaries which effectively increases the speed of the tributary until they are all identical The speed of the higher order side is generated by an internal oscillator in the multiplexer and is not derived from the primary reference clock .

proprietary .expensive manual check and repair system • No standard for high bandwidth links .PDH • Multiplexing / Demultiplexing is time consuming • Incompatibility of “standard” equipment from different vendors • US and European systems have too little in common Expensive mediators for transatlantic transmission • No self checking .

.NOVEMBER 1988...

G709 (G.707 .783 – Operation of synchronous multiplexers • G. G.784 – SDH network management . G.781 – SDH synchronization networking • G.708 .783 in 97) .707/Y SINCE 96/93) – – – – Transmission rates Signal format Multiplexing structures Tributary mapping for the network node interface • G782 (Merge with G.The Main Standards • G.

The SDH Advantages • High transmission rates • Lower level signals embedded and can be identified from the higher level (much simpler Add & Drop) • Optical standard • Can be introduced into existing networks • Allowance of European and North American PDH systems .

More of the SDH Advantages: • • • • High availability and capacity matching Reliability Centralized synchronization Network management channels (the data used for maintenance is embedded in the signal) • Centralized network control enabled through the management channels .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy • An international standard for high-speed optical /electrical telecommunications networks • A synchronous digital transport system with a built-in management channel for remote management of complex topologies .SDH .

4Gbps STM-64 10 Gbps STM-256 40 Gbps .Synchronous Multiplexer Interfaces Tributaries 1.5 Mbps 2 Mbps 6 Mbps 34 Mbps 45 Mbps 140 Mbps STM-1 Electrical STM-1 Optical STM-4 Optical LAN / MAN FDDI ISDN / BISDN ATM Video Aggregates STM-1 155 Mbps STM-4 622 Mbps STM-16 2.


Network Topologies Chain Mesh Point-to-Point Ring Star (Hub) Terminal Multiplexer Add-Drop Multiplexer Digital Cross-Connect .

Network Management Site 3 SDH Multiplexer Network Site 1 Site 2 Site 4 Management Gateway Ethernet Station .

Management Functions • Alarm / Event Management • Configuration Management • Performance Management • Access and Security Management .

.Transport Systems STM-n 2 Mbps 2 Mbps . 2 Mbps Video 34 Mbps SDH Fiber Highway Pleisiochronous ..

SDH Network Segments Multiplexer Section Regenerator Section Multiplexer Section Regenerator Section Regenerator Section Tributaries SDH Terminal Multiplexer SDH Add & Drop Multiplexer SDH Regenerator SDH Regenerator SDH Terminal Multiplexer Traffic Assembly Traffic Disassembly Path Tributaries .

Protection Schemes Section Protection Path Protection main: protection: .

Multiplexing Process – Step By Step POH TU p. VC-4 x3 TUG-3 x 7 MS Example for multiplexing 2 Mbps tributary into STM-1 level . Staffing Bytes E1 RS x 3 TUG-2 TU-12 VC-12 C-12 Path Overhead AU-4 P.

048 Mbps AUG AU TUG TU VC C TU-12 VC-12 C-12 1.312 Mbps * Pointer Processing Multiplexing Aligning Mapping Administrative Unit Group Administrative Unit Tributary Unit Group Tributary Unit Virtual Container Container TUG-2 x3 TU-2 * * * VC-2 C-2 2.544 Mbps x4 TU-11 VC-11 C-11 .736 Mbps 34.368 Mbps AU-3 * VC-3 x7 x7 x1 C-3 6.264 Mbps STM-n AUG AU-4 * VC-4 x3 x1 C-4 TU-3 TUG-3 x3 * VC-3 44.Multiplexing Structure xN x1 139.

3 (9 X 9) 261 X 9 .3 TUG .SDH Multiplexing technique 4 columns TU – 12 4X9 1 2 3 4 9 rows Stuffing and POH TUG-3 84 X 9 Section Over Head P O H P O H P O H 1 2 3 TUG-2 12 X 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TUG .3 TUG .

048 Mbps (E1) 1 2 3 32 32 Bytes Stuffing Bytes C-12 1 23 32 34 Bytes POH (Lower Order) VC-12 1 23 32 35 Bytes .Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N 2.

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N Pointer TU-12 36 Bytes TU 12 is arranged Into Matrix of 9 X 4 9 Rows 4 Columns .

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
TU-12 TU-12 TU-12

9 Rows

4 Columns Multiplexing

4 Columns

4 Columns


9 Rows

12 Columns

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
7 TUG-2s

Stuffing Bytes

X 7 TUG-2



84 Columns 86 Columns

Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
TUG - 3 TUG - 3 TUG - 3
86 Columns

VC - 4

X 3 TUG–3

HOPOH Stuffing Bytes

258 Columns 261 Columns

4 9 rows Pay Load 261 Columns AU – 4 (Adding Pointer) AU Pointer 4 th Row Pay Load 9 Columns 261 Columns .Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N VC .

Mapping(Stuffing) in SDH The process of matching the signals to the network is called mapping The container is the basic package unit for tributary channels.a special container is provided for each PDH tributary signal The containers are much larger than the payload to be transported.The remaining capacity is partly used for justification(stuffing)in order to equalize out timing inaccuracies in the PDH signals A virtual container(VC) is made up from the container thus formed together with the path overhead(POH) .

these are in turn collected together into a VC One or more AUs form an administrative unit group(AUG) AUG plus the section overhead(SOH) forms the STM-N .Aligning and Multiplexing in SDH The next step towards formation of a complete STM-N signal is the addition of a pointer indicating start of the POH The unit formed by the pointer and the virtual container is called an administrative unit (AU-n) or a tributary unit(TU-n) Several TUs (multiplexed) taken together to form a tributary unit group(TUG).

connections are provided at different signal levels and in different ways on NMS . Physical cross-connections on the same level on DDF are forced if any Digital cross. structures throughout the hierarchy.Advantages Of SDH / PDH PDH The reference clock is not synchronized throughout the network SDH The reference clock is synchronized throughout the network. Multiplexing / Demultiplexing operations The synchronous multiplexing results in have to be performed from one level to the simple access to SDH system has next level step by step. The payload is transparent PDH system has different frame structures SDH system has consistent frame at different hierarchy levels. consistent frame structures throughout the hierarchy. The payload is not transparent.

Synchronous structure is not specified Transport Module 1st Order & higher.) PDH SDH G. STM-64) PDH system does not bear capacity to transport B-ISDN signals..bit stuff multiplexing . namely ATM structured signal.Advantages Of SDH / PDH(Contd. It will transport variety of services. SDH network is designed to be a transport medium for B-ISDN. It will transport service bandwidths Sufficient number of OHBs is available Byte interleaved synchronous multiplexing.STM-16.707 specified the first level of 140Mpbs & no higher order (faster) signal SDH.STM-4.That is. STM-1. Few services are available Limited amount of extra capacity for user / management Bit .by . (STM-1.702 specifies maximum 45Mpbs & G.

Signal Structure F F N x M Bytes M Columns F F F B B B N x M Bytes 1 2 Order of transmission B N Rows B B .

52 Mbps 261 Bytes Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) AU Pointer P Multiplexer Section Overhead (MSOH) a y l o a d .STM-1 Frame Structure 9 Bytes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 270 Columns (Bytes) 9 rows x 270 columns x 8 bits / byte x 8000 f/s = 155.

52 Mbps F F F Path Overhead Section Overhead Payload Capacity = 149.STM-1 .Virtual Container (VC-4) F Serial Signal Stream 155.76 Mbps Designed for 140 Mbps transport .

52 Mbps F Serial Signal F Stream F Section Overhead Path Overhead 9 Rows Tributary Unit Frame STM-1 Payload area 261 Columns .Tributary Unit Frame Structure F 155.

52 Mbps F Serial Signal F Stream F Section Overhead Path Overhead TU Pointer VC Path Overhead Low-rate Tributary Signal Virtual Container Container .Tributary Unit Frame Structure F 155.

American European DS1 signal signal (1.304 Mbps N.728 Mbps 2.736 Mbps) Will also carry a European signal (34.312 Mbps) 86 columns 49. American DS2 signal (6.048 Mbps) 12 columns 6.Different Sizes of Tributary Unit Frames TU-11 9 R o w s TU-12 TU-2 TU pointers area TU-3 3 4 columns columns 1.368 Mbps) .54 Mbps N.912 Mbps Optimized for N. American DS3 signal (44.544 Mbps) (2.

TU Numbering System: KLM TU-12 TU-3 1-4-2 3 TU-2 2-4 .

Synchronous Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing τ STM-1 Signal “A” STM-1 Signal “B” STM-1 Signal “C” STM-1 Signal “D” Denotes 8-bit Byte At STM-1 Signal Rate Denotes 8-bit Byte At STM-4 Signal Rate τ = timing rate ByteInterleaved Multiplexer STM-4 (4 * STM-1) τ .

STM-4 Frame Structure Serial Signal Stream 125 µsec.08 Mbps . STM-1 “A” F STM-1 “B” ByteInterleaved Multiplexer F F STM-1 “C” 9720 Bytes / Frame 9 Rows STM-1 “D” 9 Rows 9 columns 261 columns SOH VC-4 36 columns 1044 columns Interleaved 4 Interleaved VC-4s Section Overhead 9720 (270 * 9 * 4 Bytes / Frame) x 8 (Bits / Byte) x 8000 f/s = 622.

Overhead Functions • Define and build the SDH frame structure • Provide data transportation monitoring indicators • Provide alarm state indications • Enable maintenance activities • Provide routing functions (protection switching) .

Quality Z1 Growth K1 MPS D5 Datacom D8 Datacom D11 Datacom Z2 Growth M1 REI H2 AU Pointer K2 RDI D6 Datacom D9 Datacom D12 Datacom E2 Orderwire Path Overhead (POH) J1 Path Trace B3 BIP-8 C2 Signal Label G1 Path Status F2 User H4 Multiframe F3 User K3 APS N1 Tandem Conn. Framing Framing Framing Framing Framing Framing Trace E1 B1 F1 OrderBIP-8 Media User M wire dependent D usage (MDU) U D1 D2 D3 Datacom Datacom Datacom H1 AU Pointer B2 BIP-24 D4 Datacom D7 Datacom D10 Datacom S1 Synch. Sec. Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) Administrative Unit Pointers Reserved for national use H3 AU Pointer Multiplexer Section Overhead (MSOH) .STM-1 Overhead Detail Section Overhead (SOH) J0 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 Reg.

STM-4 Section Overhead Byte Structure 36 columns A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 J0 Z0 Z0 Z0 B1 E1 F1 D1 D2 D3 Administrative Unit Pointer(s) B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 S1 D11 D12 M1 E2 Bytes reserved for national use .



Wave Length Multiplexing • Multiplexing multiple wavelengths over a single fiber • Two Major Types – CWDM – Coarse Wave Length Division Multiplexing • Channel Spacing – 20 nanometers – DWDM – Dense Wave Length Division Multiplexing • Channel Spacing – 8 nanometers .

WDM Categories • Wrapperless Systems – Protocol Independent • Wrapper Systems – Framed optical channel – Various low-level transmission functions • Error checking • Performance monitoring • Forward Error Correction (FEC) – Management channel to support OAM&P – Optical bitstream interpretable by higher-level protocols .


DWDM Evolution .



MUX Opt. λN λ2 OA λ1... λ2..….…. De-MUX = Laser Diode = Receiver .A Typical DWDM Link Channel 1 Channel 2 λ1 λ2 OADM λ1 Fiber OA λ1.. λ2. λN λN Channel N λN Opt.

Transmitter Simple Block Diagram .

Transmitter Basic Specifications .

Laser/ LED Drivers .

LASER Temperature Compensation .

Receiver Basic Specifications .

Receiver Block Diagram .

3 Wavelength (µm) 1. Siemens. Sycamore – Supports PoS – packet over Sonet to Wavelength – Supports LAMBDA routing Attenuation 1. Lucent.0 dB/KM 0.5 1.4 1. Marconi.Ciena. only 160 colors supported today – Key players .Dense Wave Division Multiplexing • DWDM – Standard support 1000 colors of light.3 1. Cerent (Cisco). Nortel.6 .

Wave 1 Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 2 Wave 3 Wave 3 Wave 4 Wave 4 . customized bandwidth primarily for data traffic and allows data carriers requiring low restoration rates to provide protection switching using their own equipment.What is an Optical Wave? An optical wave is a transponder-based service which provides unprotected.

Customized Bandwidth OCOC-3/STM1 OCOC-12/STM4 OCOC-48 STM16 Delhi OCOC-N OCOC24/STM8 Cal Bombay Nagpur X-Connect Chennai .

Propagation mode .

Single Mode Fiber .

Multi Mode Fiber Number of Modes: M = V2/2 .

Graded Index Fiber .

Propagation in Graded Index Fiber Number of Modes. M = (a/(a+2))*(v2/2) where a is Profile parameter .

Energy Distribution in SM Fiber .

Attenuation in Optical Fiber .

Power expressed in dbm It’s simple to relate to attenuation if Power is also expressed in terms of db. So if mW is the reference: Where µW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log10(P/mW) Power in dbm = 10log10(P/µW) .

Dispersion –BW Losses

Dispersions in MM & SM Fiber

Dispersion in Step Indexed Fiber

Graded Index Fiber – less dispersion .

Chromatic Dispersion LED: Typical spectral width 75-125 nm LASER: Typical spectral width 2-5 nm .

Material Dispersion .

Wave guide Dispersion .

Polarization .

Bending Losses .