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# 6.

002x

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

Small Signal Circuits

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Review: n Small signal notation vA = VA + va total operating point n small signal
vi VI vI = VI + vi

VS RL
vO = VO + vO

+ – + –

vOUT = f (vI ) d vout = f (vI ) ⋅ vi dvI v I =VI
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VO point VO 0 + vi – + V – I vO = vI − VT VT VI vI vi vi vo t behaves linear for small perturbations 3   .Review: I Graphical View vO vo interesting input signal operating VS RL vO Vs VI.

Review: II Mathematical view K (vI − VT ) vO = VS − RL 2 K 2 ⎡ ⎤ V − ( v − V ) R S I T L ⎥ d ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎦ vo = dvI v I =VI 2 interesting input signal + vi – + V – I VS RL vO ⋅ vi vo = − K (VI − VT ) RL ⋅ vi gm related to VI constant for fixed DC bias 4 .

VO interesting input signal + vi – + V – I VS RL vO Vs new operating point VO 0 vO = vI − VT VT VI vi vI 5   .How to choose the bias point aka operating point vO vo VI.

How to choose the bias point iDS vo = − K (VI − VT ) RL ⋅ vi gm vO Demo 6 .

and also at the end of this lecture sequence 7   . large signal circuit model for amp VS RL vO + – vI We can replace large signal element models with small signal element models in the same circuit topology Foundations: Section 8.2.g.1. and thereby conduct small signal analysis directly on circuits e.III The Small Signal Circuit View We can derive small circuit equivalent models for our devices.

Replace original elements with small signal models to get the small signal circuit 2 3 Analyze resulting linearized circuit… Key: Can use superposition and other linear circuit tools with linearized circuit! 8 .Small Signal Circuit Analysis 1 Find operating point using DC bias inputs using large signal model. Develop small signal (linearized) models for elements.

9 . Large signal element model Small signal 1 Find operating point using DC bias inputs using large signal model.Small Signal Circuit Analysis 2 How to develop small signal (linearized) models for each of the elements around the operating point.

10 .2 Voltage Sources and DC Supply VS Large signal Small signal DC voltage source behaves as short to small signals. DC current source behaves as open to small signals.

2 Similarly. R large signal small signal 11 .

2 MOSFET Large signal 12 .

2 MOSFET large signal D G + vGS iDS = iDS S K (vGS − VT )2 2 13 .

2 MOSFET iDS K 2 = (vGS − VT ) 2 Small signal large signal D G + vGS iDS = iDS S K (vGS − VT )2 2 14 .

2 MOSFET Large signal D G + vGS iDS = small signal ids = K (VGS − VT )v gs iDS S K (vGS − VT )2 2 15 .

Amplifier example Let us perform a small signal analysis of our MOSFET amplifier using the small signal circuit method VS RL vO + – vI 16 .

Amplifier example: Step 1 Large signal model Find operating point from large signal model Small signal model + – VS RL vO vI 17 .

Amplifier example: Step 2 Large signal model Find small signal models for elements Developing the small signal model + vI – iDS = RL vO iDS + VS – G + vI – RL D vO S + VS – iDS K (vI − VT )2 2 K 2 vO = VS − (vI − VT ) RL 2 18 .

Amplifier example: Step 3 Large signal model Replace elements in original circuit with small signal models Developing the small signal model + vI – iDS = RL vO iDS + VS – G RL v D O iDS S + VS – + vI – K (vI − VT )2 2 K 2 vO = VS − (vI − VT ) RL 2 19 .

Amplifier example: Large signal model Analyze resulting SS circuit Small signal model RL + v – i vO ids + vI – iDS = RL vO iDS + VS – ids = K (VI − VT )⋅ vi K (vI − VT )2 2 K 2 vO = VS − (vI − VT ) RL 2 20 .

our linear tools will now apply… + vI – iDS = RL vO iDS + VS – vO ids ids = K (VI − VT )⋅ vi K (vI − VT )2 2 K 2 vO = VS − (vI − VT ) RL 2 21 .Amplifier example: Large signal model Analyze resulting SS circuit Small signal model RL + v – i Node method: Since small signal models are linear.

Amplifier example: Analyze resulting SS circuit Large signal model Small signal model RL + v – i vO ids + vI – RL vO iDS + VS – ids = K (VI − VT )⋅ vi K 2 iDS = (vI − VT ) 2 K 2 vO = VS − (vI − VT ) RL 2 vo = − K (VI − VT )RL ⋅ vi No?ce.  note  that  we  can  obtain  insight  into  small-­‐signal  behavior  directly   from  the  small-­‐signal  circuit.  ﬁrst  we  need  to  ﬁnd  opera?ng  point  voltages  and  currents.   Get  these  from  large  signal  analysis   But.  without  having  to  do  a  large  signal  analysis   22 .

+ vI – RL vO iDS + VS – + vi – RL vO ids Why was this possible? Also see section 8.2.1 of A&L 23   .The Small Signal Circuit View – A Perspective To find relationship between small signal parameters of circuit: (1) we replaced large signal device models with corresponding small signal device models in the original circuit (2) then analyzed the resulting small signal circuit.

The Small Signal Circuit View – Foundations KVL. so must reflect same typology as in C. except that small signal models are used. + vi – RL vO ids 24   . KCL applied to some circuit C yields: + vI – RL vO iDS + – VS Replace total variables with operating point variables plus small signal variables Operating point variables themselves satisfy the same KVL. KCL equations so. we can cancel them out. leaving But is the same equation as with small signal variables replacing total variables.

Caution: 25   .