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North American Indian Religion in the History of Research: A General Survey.

Part II Author(s): Åke Hultkrantz Reviewed work(s): Source: History of Religions, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Feb., 1967), pp. 183-207 Published by: The University of Chicago Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1061751 . Accessed: 27/10/2012 01:01
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Ake Hultkrantz

NORTH AMERICAN RELIGION INDIAN IN THE HISTORY OF RESEARCH: A GENERAL SURVEY PART II*

IV As is well known, Franz Boas rose to a towering eminence in American anthropology.1 His influence was great in anthropological theory, and he also substantially contributed in the investigation of North American aboriginal cultures through his own fieldwork on the Northwest Coast, through his training of squaw men and Indians to record Indian traditions, and through the inspiration he gave his pupils to spend years among the Indians, learn their languages, and write down their culture contents. 2 We may also, with a certain justification, speak about a Boas period in the study of American Indian religion, roughly covering the years 1892-1925.3 This is not the place to judge Boas' contributions to anthropo* (Professor Hultkrantz' survey is being published in three instalments. Part I appeared in the previous number, November, 1966. Part III is scheduled to appear in Vol. 7, No. 1 [August, 1967].-EDITORS). 1 C. Kluckhohn, "Developments in the Field of Anthropology in the Twentieth Century," Cahiers d'Histoire mondiale III, No. 2 (Neuchatel, 1957), 761 ff. 2 See the following works: A. L. Kroeber et al., Franz Boas 1858-1942 ("American Anthropological Association, Memoirs," Vol. LXI [1943]); M. Herskovits, Franz Boas (New York, 1953); W. Goldschmidt (ed.), The Anthropology of Franz Boas ("American Anthropological Association, Memoirs," Vol. LXXXIX [1959]). 3 This time span for the domination of Boas and his pupils was suggested by B. J. Meggers, "Recent Trends in American Ethnology" (American Anthropologist, XLVIII, No. 2 (1946), 176. 183

5 Boas. p. Tsimshian. but it also played a role in religion."6 His object was "to find the processes by which certain stages of culture have developed.. "Preliminary Notes on the Indians of British Columbia.North American Indian Religion logical theory and his importance as an anthropologist in the field. B. It is interesting to note that Boas arrived in North America in 1888 at the instigation of E. Kwakiutl. "When I thought that these historical methods were firmly established I began to stress. The Central Eskimo (Bureau of Ethnology. and particularly in mythology. and Kutenai tribes. since. as mentioned before. His ideal of research was in 1896 "a detailed study of customs in their relation to the total culture of the tribe practising them. We are concerned here with his achievements in American Indian religion and his influence on comparative religious theory. their import remained the same. this influence was a consequence of his general anthropological finds and theories. 6th Annual Report [Washington. of course. he viewed religion as an expression of the same dynamic factors which operated on culture. Coast Salish. The southern Kwakiutl (Vancouver Island and vicinity) soon emerged as his "special tribe. Boas. 1940). 7 Ibid. Partly. Boas asserts that in his early teaching. 1888]). and stayed in America. in connection with an investigation of their geographical distribution among neighboring tribes. the problems of cultural 4 F. about 1910. 6 Boas. 276. was a mechanism in material culture. the father of "animism. Boas (ed. Boas was sent to the tribes on the coast of western Canada. when he fought evolutionism and other-as he says-"old speculative theories. "The Limitations of the Comparative Method of Anthropology. as we shall see. Language and Culture (New York.4 This was not the first time Boas made fieldwork in the New World-he had visited the Central Eskimo five years earlier and composed a substantial paper on their culture and religion 5-but from then on he worked almost exclusively among the Northwest Coast tribes." he stressed the necessity of the study of dissemination. Haida." who was then chairman of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. D." Report on the 58th Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (London.). According to the views of Boas." 7 Although in later years he reformulated the aims and methods of his research. 1889). 184 . his first report from this exploratory journey dealt with the religious ideas of the Tlingit. since. diffusion. In an article written during his last years.C. this topic only occurred as a by-product in his work. Tylor." It is not easy to judge Boas' contributions to religion." in F. for instance. Race.

He found in the materials of myth and folklore excellent instruments to prove his theses of culture. In order to substantiate further investigations along the same line." 10Jacobs has pointed out several deficiencies in the recording and presentation of Indian tales by Boas." 11 This is an important objection and shows how little awareness Boas had of the viewpoints pertaining to the study of religions. demonstrated the diffusion of tales and motifs among the North Pacific Indians. for instance. 1916]). Folklore ("American Anthropological Association. D." 8 It matters little if. Boas collected." in F. However. In his imposing work on Tsimshian mythology.13 Boas' pupils and followers further elaborated on this technique: Clara Ehrlich used it in her study of Crow mythology. 1940). "History and Science in Anthropology: A Reply. 311. Tsimshian. Kwakiutl. 31.9 the main thing is that Boas slowly and gradually altered his approach to the study of culture. 120. Boas (ed. and published Bella Coola. "to get the field research done. the change in methods occurred at a later date. In a way. 11 Ibid. Race." Vol. These theoretical trends are reflected in Boas' works on mythology. Jacobs. p." Vol. interpreted. Radin in his re8 Boas. LXXXIX [1959]). 132. and it was even more accentuated in a later work on Kwakiutl mythology. laying more and more stress on functional problems (and thus contributing to the emergence of functionalism).C.dynamics. 13 Boas. Language and Culture (New York. p. as Benedict thinks. for the author also demonstrates how Tsimshian mythology reflected Tsimshian culture. Tsimshian Mythology (Bureau of American Ethnology. and Kutenai myths and tales. Benedict. p. Memoirs. in Jacobs' words.. the fact that "Boas' fieldwork did not always establish a narrative as myth or tale. and to bring together evidence to display dissemination and amalgamation. 31st Annual Report [Washington. in some instances he appears to have neglected to inquire how natives classified their stories. it goes further. referred to above. Memoirs. LXI [1943]). 12 Boas. Franz Boas as an Ethnologist ("American Anthropological Association. of integration of culture and of the interaction between individual and society. p. to publish it accurately. Boas illustrated how mythological themes and plots were distributed and recombined in the Northwest Coast area." Vol. this important paper represents a perfection of his treatise on Indian mythologies from 1895. XXVIII [1935]). The task which he set for himself was. Chinook.12 The functionalistic perspective is thus evident here. Kwakiutl Culture as Reflected in Mythology ("American Folklore Society.). 9 R. His early monograph on Northwest Indian mythology. Memoirs.. 185 . 10 M.

Says Reichard. Boas stressed the importance of thorough fieldwork. we find accounts and texts referring to religious beliefs and religious rites." No. Boas has published a treasure of Indian myths and promoted the publication of such myths. indirectly a certain value for the understanding of mythology. and in the publications of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition.North American Indian Religion construction of Winnebago history. "Literary Aspects of Winnebago Mythology. 3 [Albuquerque. and Katherine Spencer in her study of the Navajo origin myth. Boas' own contributions concerned mainly the Kwakiutl Indians on whom he published one volume after another. in the publications of the American Ethnological Society. and this applies in particular to the studies made by Boas." 17 The result of these efforts of Boas and his pupils is. however. of course. 55. Radin. 1947]). intense and varying collections of ethnographic materials. "The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians. The criticism delivered here should not conceal the fact that.18 It inspired him to psychological insity of New Mexico Publications in Anthropology. a classic in American anthropology. pp. and trained his pupils to make." Vol. Spencer. emphasis is on culture in this type of studies. cit. "The strongest rocks in Boas' self-built monument are his texts. pp. 18 Boas. Besides the mythological texts. 15 P. 1897).16 He himself made. We are indebted to him for bringing a whole corpus of Indian myths before the public in the memoir series of the American Folklore Society. for instance. whereas the traditional tale is well integrated with aboriginal culture. 17 G. LXI [1943]). his belief that what people record of themselves in their own words will in the last analysis reveal their motivations and ideas most accurately. Reflection of Social Life in the Navaho Origin Myth ("Univer- ("American Anthropological Associa- 186 .14 Research along these lines has. Franz Boas and Folklore 14 See K. 16 Jacobs. more than any other anthropologist. 126-27.15 On the whole. As mentioned before.A. the finest series of monographs on primitive culture and religion that exists today. as we know. Radin.. Memoirs. p. states that among the Winnebago the myth reflects the culture to a very slight extent. should be particularly mentioned in this connection. op. in spite of the fact that he abhorred the experience of fieldwork. 7 ff." Report of the United States National Mu7seum (Washington. XXXIX (1926)." Journal of Americaln Folklore. of which there are quite a few collections. tion. 18 ff. His famous paper on the secret societies. Wittfogel and Goldfrank in their investigation of Pueblo mythology and society.Reichard.

). 23 Boas. pp. We seek in vain. 22 It is quite another matter whether the religious ideas of the slaves (for the Kwakiutl owned slaves) were the same as those of the freemen. X. pp. "The Ethnological Significance of Esoteric Doctrines. Kwakiutl texts and translations. scarcely justified.21 This means that their religion must have been fundamentally the same in all quarters. as pointed out by Codere.g. LIX. It ought to be observed that Boas here-as in many other works-published materials in his own name which had been collected by his Kwakiutl-speaking. e. so it seems. half-breed assistant. 20 V. "Rejoinder. "Religious Terminology of the Kwakiutl. Boas (ed.sights into the relationship between the religions of the philosopher and the layman-insights which a few years later stimulated Radin. Nos. even. 312 ff. Race. No. for a cohesive treatment of the religion in all its aspects. generalizations of Kwakiutl religion. however. Boas (ed. and prayers. in a characteristic way. 1 (1956). 1940). Language and Culture (New York." Vol.19 Some ten years after Boas died." in F." in F. but the perspective is one of linguistic terminology. not of religion. however. there may emerge a well-developed guardian spirit concept and quest similar to that of Puget Sound. Ray.22 Boas did not publish any comprehensive survey of Kwakiutl religion. Language and Culture (New York. 167. LVIII. like most of his other monographs on this tribe. the question was raised whether in his Kwakiutl papers he had described more than the culture and religion of the aristocracy (for these Indians had an interesting pseudo-stratified social system)." American Anthropologist. the work which is dedicated to the particular study of this religion contains. 1930]). but rank distinctions. Codere. the Kwakiutl had no class differentiation. This question needs further investigation (if it now can be solved at all). George Hunt.23 It is true that Boas attempted a systematic analysis of Kwakiutl religious concepts in a short paper in Festschrift Meinhof (1927).). 3 (1957). 21 See H. although modified in an esoteric direction in the secret societies.). Ray suggested that anthropologists should now concentrate on "the customs of the lower classes" and expected that "whole new complexes may be found. 1940 [first published 1902])." 20 This interpretation of Kwakiutl society in terms of class concepts is.." in F. In fact. pologist. No. The Religion of the Kwakiutl Indians ("Columbia University Contributions to Anthropology. Race. 25 See his statements in the article "Some Problems of Methodology in the Social Sciences. F. Boas (ed.25 His method was particularistic insofar as that he restricted 19 Boas. 24 Boas. 1940). Language and Culture (New York. the texts concern such topics as personal documents of shamans. 612 ff.24 Boas obviously disliked generalizations." American AnthroVol. 187 . "Kwakiutl Society: Rank without Class. Race. 1-2 [New York. in particular if the slaves had been captured in war and belonged to far off nations.

29 Kroeber may be right when. 14 [1963]). considers that it was an extreme empiricism. Kroeber's opinion that Boas' enormous output does not contain "even minute instances of error" is. for instance. pp. Memoirs." Vol. it is first and foremost a methodological treatise. Les Religions des Indiens primitifs de l'Amerique ("Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis: Stockholm Studies in Comparative Religions.26 Although this paper gives an outline of Indian myths. 96 ff. and empirical basis. Boas credited the Northwest Coast Indians with a belief in possession." Anthropology in North America (New York. Wax. 1 (1956). Some Central Elements in the Legacy ("American Anthropological Association."27 However. has noticed how. "Mythology and Folk-Tales of the North American Indians. he says that Boas stood for a sound approach. It is possible that Boas' avoidance of generalized and comparative accounts has something to do with his inability to preclude inconsistencies in his research and in matters of opinion. 31 M. 29 Cf. "The Limitations of Boas' Anthropology. Franz Boas: The Man ["American AnthropologicalAssociation. whereas in another report he attributed possessional phenomena exclusively to the Old World. p. Wax. in an assessment of Boas' influence in America. Lowie. he did produce some important generalizing studies. a lengthy article on North American mythology. against this background. Kroeber. The History of Ethnological Theory (New York.. This notwithstanding. p. posing problems rather than solving them. op. he never summed it up in the same way as he comprehended Kwakiutl social organization. as Goldenweiser expresses it. Franz Boas: The Man.31 This is undoubtedly true. 188 . Cf. LVIII. See also L. No. "the American school p. Vol. negativistic in its consequences. 15253. factual. not a dogma. Hultkrantz. pp.North American Indian Religion himself to a careful sifting of religious facts. 22). p." Vol. descriptive-analytical research on these religions.).28 Boas has certainly not helped in clarifying the role of possession in America. 26 Boas. LXI (1943)].30 One of Boas' critics. op. 125. and his refutation of Locher's systematic interpretation of Kwakiutl mythology (also in Race. perhaps "Boas' best writing on method. for instance. However. Language and Culture. cit. 28 R. LXXXIX [1959]). p. 446 ff. 56. It is due to his influence that the speculative and uncontrolled ideas about Indian religions gave way to a sound.. surprising (see A. 268. cit. in one paper. H. 1937). Boas founded. despite his vast writing on Kwakiutl religion. pp. and fateful for the development of anthropology. p. 30 Kroeber. also Reichard. 27 Jacobs. A." American Anthropologist. 1915). L." Vol. 146. a difficult but intriguing issue which still awaits an adequate treatment. 24. Spier. Boas placed American investigations of Indian religions on a solid. Memoirs. Lowie.

" No. "Recent Trends in American Anthropology" (American An. he also influenced the American approach to primitive Indian religions. 189 .. Cooper." Vol. a psychologist from the start who soon became entangled in his studies of culture area and cultural intensity. 1916]). America (New York. Geological Survey.). The History Native Culture in of California ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 90 if. 201. cf. Time Perspective in Aboriginal American Culture: A Study in Method (Canada Department of Mines. 35 C. above all. D. was not a good field researcher. 1944). pp. M.C. V As mentioned before. 123-42). for instance. and his Native Culture the Southwest 1923]. 36 E. 34 Radin.33 Boas' skeptical attitude toward far-reaching historical reconstructions was shared by Lowie. Most. but not all: Goldenweiser. Here Boas' pupils followed their master who. of (same series. 10 [Washington. and Kroeber made historical reconstructions of Pueblo and Californian religions of which his teacher disapproved. that penetrating field work and a cautious attitude to generalizations (particularly as regards environmental influences and evolution) characterized most achievements. however. a remarkable student of American Indian religion. was negativistic in his concern about premature explanations but was "a constructive positivist as regards data" and one who "tirelessly collected data from unknown cultures and languages in his search for a better under32 Goldenweiser. p. Memoir 90 [Ottawa.36 Our main attention is. 1941]). and the peyote cult (pp. 38. 157. the latter was. the visions and guardian-spirit complex (pp. The Story of the American Indian (New York. 189 ff. XX [Berkeley. That meant. 2 (1941). Sapir. J. 33 Kroeber.35 Wissler's scheme of cultural and religious development guided many American papers on Indian religions in the 1920's and 1930's. Wissler. XLIII. Temporal Sequence and the Marginal Cultures ("The Catholic University of America. in particular the discussions of the sun dance (pp. whereas Radin lightheartedly made the Southeastern temple culture originate from Mexican emigrants who had crossed the Gulf of Mexico. as we shall see in the sequence. thropologist. The Relation of Nature to Man in Aboriginal pp. key concepts in his diffusionistic approach. XXTTI [Berkeley. attached to the accomplishments in the field research. as Kroeber says. Vol. 1928]). 82 ff. 1926). Anthropology Series.). More careful reconstructive rules were subsequently put forward by the ingenious linguist Sapir and the penetrating field researcher Cooper. Boas and his pupils dominated research on North American religions for several decades.). No." 32 In doing so.of anthropology.34 Other audacious propositions on historical reconstruction were suggested by Wissler.

J. H. for instance. however. the latter not infrequently being grouped together under headings such as "miscellaneous beliefs." In all fairness. published and unpublished.40 Thus. 39 Cf. Kroeber. Sapir made some contributions to mythology and religion in the southern part of the North Pacific Coast area. 1952). Howard. Others.. The American Indian (3d ed. p. things changed after the 1930's. "The History and Present Orientation of Cultural Anthropology. Wissler. XXVI (1965). 38 Lowie. as clearly emerges from Lowie's analysis of North American ceremonialism. nowhere on earth may the student of religion find as many thorough field reports on primitive religions as in this American corpus of works.38 In many places. for. and several others investiThe Nature of Culture (Chicago.39 Nevertheless." Anthropology in North America 37 Kroeber. but the facts and the texts are usually of a high quality. the intricate ceremonial structure has survived the religious beliefs which once were associated with it. however. "The Compleat Stomp Dancer. p. New York. Lowie. superstitious in effect but essentially motivated by behavioristic causes. 190 . 229 ff. and Goddard penetrated California. less interested in facts and more preoccupied with theories. 221. 40 Wissler. 146. among these Indians ritually regulated performances have been an obsession. The field work which was produced by Boas' pupils covered almost all of the North American culture areas (as these had been defined by Wissler). and Linton. the temptation has been great for many students in the field to limit religion to ritual acts and behavior (see below concerning the sun-dance studies). made their entry. view religion as a denomination of a varied lot of cultural expression." (New York. "Ceremonialism in North America.. Some of the "Boasian" (as they have been called) field reports reveal a genuine interest and true feeling for religion and the role it plays in the life of the individual and in society and culture. 5-6. it must be admitted that many American Indian religious systems at least superficially lend themselves to such an interpretation. 1938). We may take exception to the way in which the interpretations have been done. Therefore."37 Field research was the signum of this period in anthropology. when a new generation of anthropologists. Many students of comparative religion have been frustrated when trying to disentangle religious attitudes from the web of ceremonial activities. Barrett.North American Indian Religion standing of processes. It is even possible to say that the results of Boas and his pupils have no parallels in this respect in any other country. Dixon. 1915). pp." South Dakota Museum News. in fact. In this respect. ritual actions are more intensely described than religious ideas.

p. since the Plains Indians had been the last conquered Indians (the Ghost Dance in 1890-91)." Vol. and "Crow Religion. that is. and their aboriginal religion was still persisting. Concerning Lowie's own reaction to religion. he made extensive use of older documentary sources. Although unable to experience it himself. Swanton's work was prevailingly ethnohistorical. of course. pp. part of the field work on culture. Radin. Goldenweiser. that these Indians had already changed their aboriginal cultures. pp. pp.. The Religion of the Crow Indians ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Their old inherited culture was then.41 and the visionary experiences and individual religious reactions take first place in his descriptions of Crow religion. Idle Dreams. and their field reports on religion are in many ways excellent. 1959]. 379. No. 3 (1966)." Current Anthropology. and his The Crow Indians (New York. 1951). stands back for Lowie. Hopi. "Dreams. and "Die Religion der Crow-Indianer. a living culture. Lowie spent a long series of seasons with the Crow Indians in Montana (1907. Speck. 1935).. 3 ff.42 If. Haeberlin. No." Primitive Religion. and Skinner turned to the Eastern Woodland area. as he says. 134). as has been pointed out. we lack a systematic treatment of Crow religion 41 See Lowie. Lowie. Primitive Religion (2d ed. It is apparent that such a great anthropologist as Kroeber. 28 ff. Radin. The most thorough field work was done on the Plains. and the likewise posthumously published article.. 1931). Lowie conducted field research also in other quarters (among the Basin Shoshoni. 2 [New York." as he termed it. and their culture and religion remained rather intact for a long time afterward. Lowie was fascinated by the "religious thrill. and it is therefore interesting to compare the contributions made from the viewpoints of ethnology and comparative religions. pp. 237 ff. Michelson. Robert H. see his posthumous work (Robert H.. 42 Lowie." Beitrdge zur Volkerkunde Nordamerikas (Hamburg. Spier. in these papers. 1948). and Underhill visited the Southwestern Indians. respectively. Boas' successor as leading figure in the science. and others). but it is through his intense and sober work among the Crow that he made his substantial contributions to the study of primitive religion. Bunzel. VII. Parsons. Ethnologist: A Personal Record [Berkeley and Los Angeles. they developed a keen interest in the subject. 1910-16.gated the Plains area. 99 ff. 191 . and Swanton and Bushnell studied the religions of the Southeastern Indians. 1922]). and Speck from the point of view of comparative religion. XXV. New York. Washo. The field work on religion was. the reason was. Although none of the latter directly specialized in the field of religion (Radin perhaps partly excepted). Reichard. Blackfoot. Chipewyan. v.

44 rather it was provoked by a careful. Cf. 2 (the Tobacco society). S.46 It is not the quantity of texts which is so reBoas and Radin had more to offer-but the markable-both skilful analysis. Curtis. Boas. Lowie." American Anthropologist.49 Radin con43 Lowie. op.43 Lowie's refusal to deal with such general schemes was certainly not. his accounts of Crow ceremonies and organizations in the "Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. 45 S. 1 (on the sun dance). this deficiency has probably to do with Lowie's skeptical attitude to cultural systems.. we may mention in particular Simms and Curtis among the earlier reporters. however. 192 . As Radin remarks. 133. Lowie. since their theme was close to problems of social organization for which he had a lifelong interest. 361. LX. No. No." Vol. as Goldenweiser thought. Vol." Journal of American Folklore.. cit. he always frantically defended Boas against the latter's adversaries in the 1950's.. 48 Cf. he returned to this subject. Ethnologist. in which he annihilates pretentious theoretical systems but scarcely presents other theoretical constructions. p. Studies in Plains Indian Folklore ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. E. Parts II and III. To return to Lowie's work among the Crow. Primitive Religion. Vol. "Recent Trends" etc. No. 5 (minor ceremonies). XXI (1908). Primitive Religion. IV (Cambridge. tales. Vol." Vol. C. Lowie's reply in Robert H. 49 Cf. Simms. Mass. 47 Lowie.48 Lowie's articles on cultic activities engaged him more.North American Indian Religion as a functioning whole. Lowie 1883-1957. although (rather much against his own wishes) he had started his career with an article on mythology. In this respect he differed from his master. at least by anthropologists. The North American Indian. however. 1 [Berkeley. 1903]). XVI. XXI. No. 2 (1958). p. 97 ff. XXI. the first anthropologist to delve into the particulars of Crow religion and to try to understand it from within. Besides Catlin and Maximilian. 159. His interest in myths was in no way outstanding. 2 [Chicago.47 Later in life. 44 Goldenweiser. cults. he was not the first to give details of their religion. sifting attitude and a rigor in method which he had taken over from Boas. referred to in Part I. Incidentally. 1942]). Lowie's Crow work is in a class by itself. Traditions of the Crows (Field Museum Publication 85. Lowie felt that this book was neglected. and also from most of the anthropologists of his own generation. the true "religious insight. XL. We find this mistrust clearly demonstrated in his classical work. 46 Radin. "Robert H." Lowie also recorded myths. "The Test-Theme in North American Mythology. dependent upon a "markedly unimaginative" nature. No. and ceremonies among the Crow.45 Lowie was. 1909). No.

from whom 50 Radin. 73 ff." Vol. p. XI. No. The Method and Theory of Ethnology: An Essay in Criticism (New York and London. and we are still impressed by the author's elegant reasoning. 1958)." Proceedings of the 32nd International Congress of Americanists (Copenhagen. Indians of the Plains (Anthropological Handbook No. pp. and therefore took part in Alice Fletcher's investigations of this tribe with a vivid interest (see below). it is obvious that this paper represented a high mark in its day. It was. the Ojibway and Ottawa. Lowie for once appears as a master connoisseur of Plains Indian religion and society in general. he says. to penetrate the religious acculturation of the Crow Indians.51 As a matter of fact. Cf. Ethnologist. he has presented a synthesis of Plains Indian religion in one of his last major works. The Crow Indians once separated from the Hidatsa at the Missouri River. Radin also paid attention to two Canadian Woodland tribes. pp. 13 [New York. Paul Radin contributed the finest data from the Woodland area.siders that Lowie's paper on the Plains age-societies (the societies which sponsored the sun dance) "for its completeness."50 Whereas I doubt that the solutions would be accepted by present-day structuralists. 1954]). Ethnologist. its clear-cut recognition of the problems involved.53 One thing remains to be said about Lowie's investigations of Crow religion: He was never keen on studying acculturation. and its admirable solution. "Robert H. 168. p. a tribe which Lowie visited for that reason. Lowie. the reconstruction of the ancient primitive life which interested him.52 This notwithstanding. cultural or religious. 169. he himself has stated that he had never been a specialist on the Plains area as Boas was on the North Pacific and Kroeber on the Californian areas. 1 [New York. in many respects he refuted the area approach. In this work. another tribe at the Missouri River. 1933). "Supernaturalism. the chapter is called. the Winnebago. also Radin's review in: Radin. 154 ff. Otherwise." 54 Robert H. 53 Lowie. 148 ff.. are linguistically akin (Siouan) to the Crow Indians but participate in another cultural type and live in another ecological environment. Radin found his Winnebago closer affiliated to the Omaha. 1916]). 52 Cf. Lowie. "The Culture Area Concept as Applied to North and South America. pp. strange to say. "His" tribe.54 It was left to later students. Voget for example. Lowie 1883-1957". Lowie's paper was titled: Plains Indian Age-Societies: Historical and Comparative Summary ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. has never been excelled. 193 . Lowie. While Lowie's papers on Crow religion constitute the finest anthropological achievements in the study of Plains religion. 51 Robert H.

L. XXXIX (1926).58 There are still many manuscripts 55 See Radin. Their clan organization is extensively treated. 233 ff. Radin characteristically dismisses their material culture in a few pages. Radin." Journal of American Folklore. the book was written as if Winnebago culture consisted solely of oral literature and religious beliefs. Kroeber (Berkeley. The Winnebago Tribe (Bureau of American Ethnology. Vol. is often described by reference to an Indian account of it or the speeches given. All the interests and themes that were brought forth in this monograph engaged Radin for the rest of his life. D. published many important myths." Canada Geological Survey.North American Indian Religion he secured valuable materials on dreams and visions. tales. although they have an indirect bearing on the evaluation of mythology. from the very beginning. Like his old friend Robert Lowie. and in the life-stories of single individuals. Whereas. Radin. myths. but also its force." Papers of the Southwest Anthropological Society.56 In short. No. the following works: "The Winnebago Myth of the Twins. for instance. Herein lies its limits. 18 ff. for it is the ethnographical monograph on North American religions that has gained most attention from the students of religion. and his "Literary Aspects of Winnebago Mythology. a ceremony. literature. "Some Aspects of Puberty Fasting among the Ojibwa. for whom he had a lifelong interest. Lowie turned to studies of social and ritual organization. 56 Radin. 57 Cf. and recitals have a domineering place. All through this work. Museum Bulletin. 1936). particularly in his later years. But it was as a specialist on the Winnebago that he acquired a worldwide reputation in anthropology. California." Canada Geological Survey. "Literary Aspects of North American Mythology. Paul Radin visited the Winnebago (of Wisconsin and Oklahoma) during the years 1908-13. became interested in the literary and religious aspects of Winnebago oral traditions. Radin. however. Museum Bulletin. 58 See.C. 2 (Ottawa. prayers. In his classical monograph on the Winnebago tribe. recorded in the Winnebago language and thoroughly commented upon. 16 (Ottawa.55 He extended his field trips to the Mexican Zapotecs. 1915). 37th Annual Report [Washington. for instance. "Winnebago Myth 194 . 517 ff.." Essays in Anthropology Presented to A. and comparative religion. 1923]). No.. 1914). with preference given to clan myths and songs. and some Indian groups in California. and the detailed accounts of religious beliefs and ceremonies fill up two-thirds of the volume. I (1915). pp. We need not here discuss his provocative papers on literary style among the Winnebago and other Indian tribes. pp. he learned the language of the tribe.57 Of more immediate interest to us are his analyses of the religious value of literary documents. and his "Ojibwa and Ottawa Puberty Dreams.

143 ff.. LXXIV (1961). 36 ff. embodying some primal needs. my criticism in Man (TXTTT. 64 Hultkrantz. quite justly.59 The careful analysis of the texts of this enormous mythological material contrasts in an unfortunate way with the rather lighthearted conclusions as regards the religious import associated with them. "I think it safe to assume. 1954. For instance.. Sapir. 59 Goldenweiser. though he may not be able to make it more than probable. the culture hero of the Winnebago is treated as a fictive trickster created by literary imagination. op.No. a figure to whom Radin repeatedly returns in his works and by whom he was obviously fascinated (see below). I (1948). 1956). Vols."60 In short. 181). from a psychological angle." Primitive Culture." says Radin. 62 See." Journal of American Folklore. his works Primitive Religion (New York. New York. more or less accepted and further elucidated by Kerenyi (adducing Greek tricksters) and. Radin accepts. 230 (1963). cit."63 This person is then the creation of the gifted raconteur. by an uncontrollable urge to wander and by sexuality. XLIV (1931). "Paul Radin 1883-1959. The Trickster: A Study in American Indian Mythology (New York. Cf. "Winnebago Hero Cycles: A Study in Aboriginal Literature. that Radin was a talented man with sudden insights. 195 .64 It was.62 The same tendency is. pp. and his imagination-or intuition-sometimes ran wild. however.of his on this subject which await publication. also obvious in his interpretations of Winnebago myths. however... Memoirs." Journal of American Folklore. although it was connected with great learning and wide reading. p. 1937) and The World of Primitive Man (London. Les Religions des Indiens primitifs de l'Amerique (Stockholm. Radin was a man of much imagination. Vol. 1956). "The Thunderbird Warclub: A Winnebago Tale. pp. II (Basel. 8 ff. 61 A completely different judgment of Radin's speculations may be found in J. "that it began with an account of a nondescript person obsessed by hunger. 66 f. quite a few of them were not directly recorded by Radin but sent to him by knowledgeable informants whom he had trained during his field visits. but: "The companion vice of this virtue is a certain impatience as to certainty. 63 Radin.. 165." International Journal of American Linguistics. 1953). Goldenweiser has stressed. 1963). I.61 It is this quality of Radin's which often makes it so difficult to accept his theses in his general books on religion and culture. p. and Toronto. in particular. or at least gives official status to a hunch. D. This theory of the trickster is undoubtedly a pure fancy in view of extant mythological materials from other Indian tribes. 60 Ibid. 160 f... The Evolution of an American Indian Prose Epic: A Study in Comparative Literature. by Cycles. I (1926). 160.

VII (1914). The Dreams of an American Indian: Their Meaning and Function ("Studien zur Analytischen Psychologie C. Radin had a direct personal interest in regarding individuals as creators. Du Bois.North American Indian Religion C. "A Sketch of the Peyote Cult of the Winnebago: A Study in Borrowing. p.69 This concentration on the individual. 1945]). in myths and legends." Vol. as the moving forces behind the wheels of history. Bulletin 53 [New York. 1955]). 146 ff. "History of Ethnological Theories.68 Although the impetus to such studies originally came from Boas (and. Jungs. 26 ff. 68 See Kluckhohn. Cf. 71 Radin. Jung." Vol. pp. perhaps. 1926). XXXI. apparent in his Winnebago monograph. pp. 1960). The Personal Document in Anthropological Science (Social Science Research Council. Radin's presentation in 1920 of the life-history of a Winnebago Indian provided students of religion with first-class religious materials." Journal of Religious Psychology. 70 Radin.70 The Winnebago Indian whose autobiography Radin published ended up as a peyotist.71 This was one 65 C. his abilities and inabilities. later reissued as Crashing Thunder (New York and London. G. but never became a Jungian. XVI." American Anthropologist. "Paul Radin: An Appreciation. Radin. pp. Radin's conspicuous interest in personal documents.. but his canons of procedure did not safeguard a correct interpretation.65 Radin's preference of subjective judgments in cultural and religious studies reflected his own inclination toward a humanistic approach and his denunciation of quantitative methods. Radin had studied under Jung and was certainly stimulated by him. Radin. No. 1920]). Primitive Man as Philosopher (New York. 69 Radin.. formed the basis for Radin's well-known differentiation between the priest-thinker and the man of action. Diamond (ed. II [Zurich. 66 Radin. The Method and Theory of Ethnology. paved the way for biographical and autobiographical accounts of religious experiences among North American Indians. In an earlier paper he had proved in a masterly way how the Peyote cult was fitted into the native religious scheme of the Winnebago Indians. 67 Ibid.). 183 ff. 1927). 196 . 31 ff. The Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 79 ff. His ambitions were in this respect directed against the French sociologists and psychologists and against the old evolutionistic dogmas about societies without history and without philosophers. G. Culture in History. xiii." in S.66 He thought it possible to reconstruct Winnebago religious history through an analysis of internal evidence in personal documents and accounts of religious rites. Essays in Honor of Paul Radin (New York. 7 [Berkeley. Emelie Demant-Hatt in Denmark). No. Radin gave a sketch of the new Peyote religion in his Winnebago monograph.67 His ambitions were certainly laudable.. 1 (1929). Vol.

and other contemporary students. "The Ritual and Significance of the Winnebago Medicine Dance. V [New York. the Iroquois. 797. Next to Lowie and Radin. Spier. 75 Modem research based on the study of documents seems to corroborate his account. pp. 1950]). O. And he was indeed a capricious culture hero among those American anthropologists who were concerned with religious studies: He changed his opinion from one book to another and was quite open about it. His first great work on the Yuchi produced information on totemism which has proved to be of considerable value to com72 Radin. Goldenweiser. 139 ff..75 the important thing is that he tried to reveal religious history in a "primitive" tribe at an early date and that his chief method was the use of internal evidence and the study of neighboring tribes. pp. Diamond.74 We cannot judge here whether he was right in his reconstruction. Frank Speck was the researcher who was most dedicated to the study of Indian religions. 148 ff. his factual contributions to our knowledge of American Indian religions were outstanding. 76 Cf.. See N. also Radin. to the theme itself with a thorough study which not only presents the authentic ritual in all its detail but also aims at elucidating its historical development. 197 . etc. Radin found out that the medicine ritual originated in an old shamanistic ceremony to which the shooting feature characteristic for the Algonkian medicine ceremony (midewiwin) had been added. Lurie. His first paper on the medicine dance was a quantitative analysis of the type then popular in American anthropology. 73 Radin. The Method and Theory." No. 1945]). the Yuchi and the Eastern Sioux. and not one of his colleagues did as much as he did to further the interest in these religions. The medicine society of the Winnebago constituted the subject of another historical investigation by Radin. He was a congenial field student and had a rare gift of tracing important religious materials pertaining to the little known Algonkian groups in the East. The Road of Life and Death ("Bollingen Series. 74 Radin. Nevertheless.of the first studies ever made in cultural and religious process among primitive peoples. 2 [Baltimore. Radin later repudiated this article. The Origin Myth of the Medicine Rite: Three Versions ("Special Publications of Bollingen Foundation. however." Journal of American Folklore. Thus. op. cit. "Winnebago Protohistory. XXIV (1911). p. Radin followed here the same pattern as Kroeber.73 He returned.72 True to his inmost attitude in methodological questions.76 Radin was called "the trickster" by his close colleagues in his last years. 74 ff." in S." Vol.

77 F. No. 85 Speck.78 he published the first close analysis of American shamanism in function.84 Speck's last great work dealt with the midwinter rites of the Iroquois. I. Wawenock Myth Texts from Maine (Bureau of American Ethnology." Journal of American Folklore.80 His finest contribution to comparative religion was without Indians of the doubt the monograph on the Naskapi-Montagnais Labrador peninsula. in particular. Pa.. many of them in text (he mastered Algonkian dialects in a marvelous way). religious beliefs. G. The Celestial Bear Comes Down to Earth (Reading. 78 See." Vol. e. a work which is concerned solely with the religious beliefs and rituals of these "savage hunters." Vol.C. VI. and rites." American Anthropologist.g.82 This work was later supplemented by a study of religious ceremonies among the Delaware of Oklahoma. "Anthropological Publications of the University Museum. II [Philadelphia. Oklahoma Delaware Ceremonies. 82 Speck. "Penobscot Tales and Religious Beliefs. 1 (1951). Penobscot Shamdnism ("American Anthropological Association. and Feasts ("American Philosophical Society. see. 1909]). His accounts are factual and reliable and do not contain much personal "He was never primarily concerned with high-level speculation.."86 His descriptions of Indian religions belong to the finest of the American anthropological tradition. 1 [Philadelphia.North American Indian Religion in the field of religion parative religion. Okla.79 and he wrote a substantial report on the religious beliefs of a New England tribe. 86 Hallowell. Another first-rank monograph contains detailed accounts of the Delaware Indian house of ceremonies and of the spirits and annual rites connected therewith. A Study of the Delaware Indian Big House Ceremony ("Publications of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission. "Frank Gouldsmith Speck. Memoirs.77 His later investigations mostly concerned Algonkian myths. Speck.. 1881-1950. 1928]). No. for instance. generalizations attested facts on record." Vol. VII [Philadelphia. but rather with putting well or interpretations. No. Dances.83 A third important book on the same Indians described their bear ceremonies."81 Speck has presented here an interesting picture of a religion dominated by beliefs in animal masters.85 was. 84 Speck. 79 Speck. 1937]). 1 ff. 1919]). 198 .. Speck. Ethnology of the Yuchi Indians (University of Pennsylvania. 83 Speck. 1931]). Naskapi: The Savage Hunters of the Labrador Peninsula (Norman. 70 ff. Memoirs. 68. very Speck not only wrote on religion-he he was deeply concerned with interested in arts and crafts-but the problems of Algonkian religion and had the profoundest sympathy for the religious expressions of his native friends. 1949). bear ceremonialism. D. 1945). 80 Speck.. Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Philadelphia. pp. Pa. 4 [Lancaster." Vol. He collected myths and tales from widely scattered Algonkian Indians. and rites of divination. 43d Annual Report [Washington. 1935). LIII. 81 Speck. XLVIII (1935).

pp. the other pupils of Franz Boas were less outstanding in the field of religion. Vol." ibid. Nevertheless. 342. 437." Journal of American Folklore. and the Mohave." American Anthropologist. "The Arapaho.91 Kroeber's numerous books and articles on the Californian Indians. 2 (1904). for the Californian Indians represented only remnants of once-functioning religions. rites. characteristically. Thus. no description or discussion of the land of the dead (nor is there in his myth collection). 91 For a new trend in this respect. 1 (1956). were less satisfactory due to his lack of training in the field.87 His account of Arapaho religion is sometimes bewildering. IV: Religion. LXXVIII (1965).In comparison with Lowie. 323. many of them have composed field reports which are of great importance to the students of religion.90 His recordings of myths and tales from both tribes were published such materials separately. XVIII. 317. Ethnology of the Gros Ventre ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Alfred Louis Kroeber published much folkloristic and ethnological material on Plains and Californian Indians in which religious ideas." Vol. and Speck. His work on Patwin religion is noteworthy because it includes a very enlightening discussion of the Californian Kuksu cult sys87 Kroeber. XVIII." American Museum of Natural History. I. but there are references to ghosts and. to objects which may be associated with ghosts. Kroeber wrote informative accounts of aboriginal Californian religion on such diverse ethnic groups as the Yuki. but most attention is given to rituals and ritual symbols. 90 Kroeber. Even if we also find here an uneven presentation of the material.88 Similar observations can be made in other connections in this early paper. 4 [New York. No. 452. the Patwin. and myths had a conspicuous place. Still. No. In other words. Kroeber's "The Arapaho. 4 (1907). 447. close kinsmen of the Arapaho. see W. 3 ff. "The Place of Boas in Anthropology. 88 Kroeber. 199 . 1908]). No. is slightly better. Bulletin. for example. beliefs are occasionally described. Kroeber was himself convinced that his early contributions on some Plains tribes. No. in the true American tradition-for have mostly been considered as pure narratives without having any deeper religious implications. 153. Radin.89 Kroeber's book on the Gros Ventre.. this is largely a consequence of the situation in the field. Bascom. contain extremely valuable information on religion. 89 Cf. the Cahuilla. "The Forms of Folklore: Prose Narratives. LVIII. There is. III: Ceremonial Organization. the Nisenan. on whose culture he was the specialist par preference. Arapaho and Gros Ventre.

2 (1902). L. No. Bulletin 78 [Washington. 898 ff. 94 One of Kroeber's best known myth collections concerns the Yokuts Indians: Indian Myths of South Central California ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. "Alfred Louis Kroeber 1876-1960. including religious texts and myths. Cf. 1056. 98 A. pp. whose works on the Kuksu cult will be mentioned later. illustrating how lore picked up here and there takes form as circumstantial myths through the medium of dreams. No. delineated native New World culture areas about this same time mainly in terms of technological adaptations to distinctive environments." American Anthropologist. 96 J. XIII. very often in Kroeber's publications. on the whole. It was during these years that he published texts. W." Vol. 1932]). No. LXIII. His concept of "myth" is. Steward. XXIX."96 Kroeber had earlier presented an outline of Indian religion in California. 4 [Berkeley.94 Kroeber's classical handbook of the Californian Indians. Kroeber's contributions cover the Yurok and Wiyot. 4 [Berkeley. No. very inclusive. although during his last years he told the present writer that he had become more and more intrigued by the role played by the shaman in aboriginal society. Clark Wissler. IV. 1925]). Cf. No." Vol." American Anthropologist. pp. H. his "Preliminary Sketch of the Mohave Indians. 1 f.95 Steward remarks that "whereas his contemporary. 279 f.. 93 Kroeber.93 Descriptions and analyses of myths figure. Handbook of the Indians of California.97 With the exception of myths and tales. Together with Gifford. 1948])." Vol. 754 ff. The Patwin and Their Neighbors ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. pp. Kroeber tended to emphasize religious organization and belief. 200 ." Vol. 1907]). Seven Mohave Myths ("Anthropological Records. contains inter alia a sketch of the aboriginal "culture provinces" (culture areas). published in 1925. 1 [Berkeley and Los Angeles. which he had written down in his notebooks when he visited the Yurok and Mohave Indians at the turn of the century. pp. 97 Kroeber. Gifford. XI. 391 ff. of course. D. 1949]). Loeb. 95 Kroeber." Vol. Kroeber paid more attention to religion in the formative days of his career.92 Kroeber's analysis of Mohave myths is rewarding to the student of religion. Gifford's the Karuk and Hupa facts. Kroeber and E.North American Indian Religion tem. not least in those which concern Californian Indians. World Renewal: A Cult System of Native Northwest California ("Anthropological Records. 6 [1907]). another indefatigible scholar at Berkeley. he issued a well-known book on the world-renewal rites of northwest California. The Religion of the Indians of California ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology.98 92 Kroeber. and Handbook of the Indians of California (Bureau of American Ethnology. 1 [Berkeley and Los Angeles..C. IV. No. IV. No. 5 (1961).

myths." according to Benedict's and Goldenweiser's judgments. Swanton. 4 (1959). where his contributions were of a markedly high order. legends. and idea systems probably appealed to him from the psychologist's point of view.101 Sapir had the linguist's approach to the myth." in D. For a time. "Religious Ideas of the Takelma Indians. Eskimo and Plains Indians. 101 See.103 His first field work was done among the Tlingit and Haida Indians of the Pacific Northwest and resulted in a series of papers on.. Selected Writings of Edward Sapir (Berkeley and Los Angeles. No." Journal of American Folklore. 868 ff. they have not rendered him a distinguished place among theorists on religion. No. cit." American Anthropologist. and these studies have made him as famous as his teacher Boas..). Thoughts on Zuni Religion (Holmes Anniversary Volume [Washington. to investigations among the Indians of the Southeast. 269 ff. Mandelbaum (ed. op. Yana. among other things. the Zuni Indians in the Southwest caught his attention.99 However. pp. XX (1907). Besides the presentation of myths in text collections from the Nootka. but there are indications that he was also perceptive of the religious implications of such materials. 1922]). After 1905 he turned. and Navajo Indians. surprisingly. LXI. "Edward Sapir.Kroeber's interest in Californian Indians remained with him throughout his life. Sapir. and in this 99 Kroeber. Southern Paiute. 667. 102 Cf.102 A prominent anthropologist who was more genuinely interested in religious problems was John R. "John Reed Swanton 1873-1958. pp.C. XII. 346 ff. he also paid some attention to religion. Sapir. 468. Goldenweiser. D. and Yana. 100 Benedict. "The Meaning of Religion. 158. Kroeber's cultural analyses have a profound bearing on the study of religion. Fenton. indirectly. whereas his earliest commitments. 33 ff. and beliefs of these tribes. On the other hand. and his "Zunii" (Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics [New York. 3 (1939). This is unfortunate for. also from the religious angle. a man who was "brilliantly endowed. in particular. p. ceased to attract him after 1910 (not counting a study of Arapaho dialects published in 1916). he published an account of Takelma religious ideas and field notes on religious beliefs and rites among the Nootka. Another first-rank anthropologist among Boas' pupils was Edward Sapir. 1916]). N.100 Although his paramount interests were concentrated on linguistics and individual psychology. Wishram. G. when not writing on Californian Indians he mostly turned to studies of culture and culture processes. himself a devoted spiritualist (something which provoked the scorn of his otherwise admiring fellow anthropologists). XLI." American Anthropologist.. 103W. 1949). 201 .

106 Swanton. "Sun Worship in the Southeast. a source book on Choctaw ceremonies. 1911]). 2.C. D. pp. and.C. Elsie Clews Parsons paved the way for the study of Pueblo religion. Social and Religious Beliefs and Usages of the Chickasaw Indians (Bureau of American Ethnology. C [Washington.C.. D." Swanton's first important paper on the Southeast. 742 ff. 2 (1928).C. D. 1928]). although perhaps slightly unimaginative. 202 . The Work of John R. and. small. Dorsey and Gatschet. more or less absorbed by the white or Negro populations. pp.. 1928]). the most authentic data on these Indians. 105 J. R. 206 ff. in which he combined information from field work and archival sources. In the Southwest area. 1931]). p. Swanton dived into the archives and perused. and. Aboriginal Culture of the Southeast (Bureau of American Ethnology. Swanton (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. J.. 42d Annual Report [Washington. Bulletin 43 [Washington. Swanton's accounts of Indian religion are sober and sound. the old written records.106 His personal interest in problems of religious history may be discerned in a couple of articles on religion and magic (see below). Vol. and that mention of the area automatically brings to all of us the association of his name. but it remained for Swanton to put together what meager information he could get from the acculturated. and dispersed surviving groups. O. 42d Annual Report [Washington."104 Two earlier ethnologists. D. 1946]). and. Bulletin 103 [Washington.105 His later production on the Southeast included such papers as studies of Creek and Chickasaw religions.." American Anthropologist. D. and one has the impression that. Parsons started out with a fervent sociological interest.. He was a master in the use of these documents from past centuries and is regarded as the first "ethnohistorian. was his classical treatise on the Natchez and their neighbors. even in those books and articles which treat Pueblo religion. as the first of American ethnologists.. No. XXX. Religious Beliefs and Medical Practices of the Creek Indians (Bureau of American Ethnology.North American Indian Religion field he continued to specialize to such a degree.. had done some work here. and. 707 ff.. 1940])..C. says Kroeber. "that it remains undisputedly his. she was more 104 Kroeber. D.C. Beside this field work which brought together remnants of religious beliefs and scraps of myths and tales. Bulletin 137 [Washington. 44th Annual Report [Washington. Source Material for the Social and Ceremonial Life of the Choctaw Indians (Bureau of American Ethnology. an analysis of southeastern sun cults and general surveys of southeastern Indian religion. Indian Tribes of the Lower Mississippi and Adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico (Bureau of American Ethnology. D. Swanton. a book which contains much valuable material on the last remnants of the Mississippian temple-mound religions.C. 1928]). The Indians of the Southeastern United States (Bureau of American Ethnology.

203 . No. it must be said that no one has had such a knowledge of Pueblo religion as Miss Parsons. I. Memoirs. XIV [1930]).ll4 Her great comprehensive opus on Pueblo religion brings together a mass of material which she had not published elsewhere. "War God Shrines of Laguna and Zufii. XXXVI. H. 109Parsons. Pueblo Indian Religion... XIX.112 Finally. there 107 Cf. and Hopi and Zuii Ceremonialism (American Anthropological Association. and "Spanish Elements in the Kachina Cult of the Pueblos. 4 (1934).. her "The Religion of the Pueblo Indians. 1920])." Journal of American Folklore. inaugurated a new era in the research on southwestern religions. Steward). "Ritual Parallels in Pueblo and Plains Cultures. Steward.113 and she found ritual and other parallels to Pueblo religion in Plains and even Aztec religions.. 110 Parsons. see also Parsons' Pueblo Indian Religion (n. however. 112 Parsons. The Ceremonial Buffoon of the American Indian (Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science. Wis. 106 ff. Concerning the connections between the Pueblo and Plains Indians. 114 Parsons." American Anthropologist. XX. Arts and Letters. 125 ff. 1939). 115 below). however. No.110 and on the sacred clowns (an intriguing subject which was also dealt with by J. as well as the article by Ch. No. XXXVI (1923)." Ethnohistory. Lange." American Anthropologist.. beginning with some short articles on the Zuni and ending with the bulky work on Pueblo Indian religion in its entirety." American Anthropologist.107 Parsons had. 115 Parsons. II. "The History and Present Orientation. XXXV. 135 ff.109 on ceremonialism. 1933]). a keen sense of historic change in religion. cit. L. "The Origin Myth of Zufii. 151." Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Americanists (1924). 3 (1918). 611 ff.'11 She has published myths and tales. Vol.15 It is a pity. She has written articles on sacred shrines. Vols. 642 ff. H. XXXI. Parsons and R. No. she has analyzed the ways in which certain tales. 111E. "The Sacred Clowns of the Pueblo and MayoYaqui Indians." ibid. C. 1029 ff. Her investigations all over the Pueblo area. 113 Parsons. 491 ff.. for instance origin myths. witchcraft. 2 (1957). "Witchcraft among the Pueblos: Indian or Spanish. 4 (1929). from Hopi in Arizona to Taos in New Mexico. 150 ff. with a Special Reference to the Pawnee. and "Some Aztec and Pueblo Parallels. In spite of these shortcomings. 4 [New York. p." op.interested in clans and ceremonial details than in religion. 108 Kroeber. As a partial result of her activity." Vol. "Plains-Southwestern Inter-Cultural Relations during the Historic Period. IV. that the reader is drowned in a sea of facts without always glimpsing the religious themes and motivations. II (Chicago. 381 ff. No.." Man."l08 Her contributions to the study of Pueblo religion are numerous. pp.. 582 ff. No." Proceedings of the 23d International Congress of Americanists (1928). Beals. and kachina ceremonies have been influenced by Spanish sources. Cf. XXVII (1927). Notes on Ceremonialism at Laguna ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. 140 ff. in clear distinction from most of her colleagues who-as Kroeber has pointed out-saw history in a "flat perspective. pp. XXXIX [Menasha. Vol. 4 (1933). etc. for instance.

North American Indians of the Plains (3d ed. The Idea of Fertilization in the Culture of the Pueblo Indians ("American Anthropological Association. C. No. XIII. 1 [Lancaster. 193 ff. The American Indian. In this connection. No. "In Memoriam: Herman K. Many students have received their first impression of North American religions from his famous introduction to New World anthropology. see N.. and he mastered Plains Indian ethnography as had no one else.. 120 Wissler. 121 Wissler. he also organized most of the ethnological expeditions to North American Indian reservations. touched upon above). Goldfrank.122 With the aid of a native 116 H." American Anthropologist. we should also mention another of Boas' disciples.116 With the possible exception of Lowie's monograph on Plains age-societies. 1 (1918). first and foremost interested in material culture. 204 . "Clark Wissler 1870-1947. Haeberlin might have been influenced by Wundt's ideas. "SbEtEtda'q. 119 F. Dumarest. Boas. New York. who pointed out in a provocative paper that Pueblo religion was dominated by the idea of fertilization.119 Clark Wissler was a great anthropologist in his day. but most of his work on culture and religion emanated from field studies among the Blackfeet (before a serious illness in 1909. He wrote some papers on Teton Dakota mythology and Pawnee rituals. Memoirs. 3 (1948). III. White.120 others have become acquainted with Plains Indian religion through the study of his handbook on these Indians. this was the first attempt at the pattern approach which was later so emphatically used by another of Boas' pupils." American Anthropologist. Pa. K. and others.121 Wissler was. No. and his contributions to Indian religion are not outstanding. 117 According to Lowie. 1916]). Haeberlin." American Antiquity. Nelson. He wrote. the early deceased Herman Haeberlin. A Shamanistic Performance of the Coast Salish. Stirling. 122 It has been hinted that Wissler's interest for the Blackfeet (and the Pawnee?) was inspired by Grinnell. Ruth Benedict (see below). 1941). see Lowie. No.North American Indian Religion followed quite a few publications on Pueblo religion by Bunzel. however. 71. No. Haeberlin. pp." American Anthropologist. LVIII. 245. 1012. 3 (1918).118 His premature death deprived American research on primitive religion of one of its most promising talents. Not only did he deeply influence his science through his development of the culture-area concept (and his ideas of diffusion. 118 Haeberlin. which put an end to his intensive field research). 106 ff.117 Haeberlin's other works dealt with myths and religious customs of the Puget Sound area. among other things." Vol. XX. pp. 249 ff. XXI. "Reminiscences of Anthropological Currents in America Half a Century Ago. an interesting account of a shamanistic ceremony which has been much quoted. 6 (1956).

R. 1912])." Proceedings of the 19th Congress of Americanists (1915). Wissler recorded texts on Blackfoot myths." Vol. e. Cree. 1908]). 128 See. Wissler. Wissler and D. Spinden. A. 125 Cf. C. New York. and Wahpeton Dakota ("Indian Notes and Monographs." (MS. visionary experiences. No. G. 124 Wissler. XIII. Murie when the latter prepared his manuscript on Pawnee ceremonies.g." Vol. 205 . Wissler does not evince any interest for the religious experiences as such in his publications. Skinner. and his Social Life and Ceremonial Bundles of the Menomini Indians ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. No. Dorsey.Blackfoot. IX. and his Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee ("American Folklore Society. Alanson Skinner was a diligent field worker among the Menomini. 2 [New York. and he was thereby helped by Wissler who arranged and edited the enormous manuscript (which is. in the Bureau of American Ethnology). VII. Potawatomi. Dorsey during their Pawnee researches. 1 [New York. 1 [New York. 126 J.124 Wissler's occupation with the Pawnee rituals is perhaps most obviously manifested by the aid he gave to James R. C.128 Pliny Earle Goddard investigated religious life among the Hupa of California and collected myths 123 C. most of them students under Boas: Lowie. "Comparative Study of Pawnee and Blackfoot Rituals. Ojibway. G. and rituals. Ceremonial Bundles of the Blackfoot Indians (same series. Memoirs.123 Although he had originally been trained as a psychologist. The Pawnee: Mythology (Washington. Murie. "The Ceremonies of the Pawnee. IV [New York. pp. 335 ff. Weltfish. 1904]). Murie. Sauk. Medicine Ceremony of the Menomini. 1965). 1906)." Vol. still unpublished). Duvall. Mythology of the Blackfoot Indians ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Skinner. cf. No. 1911]). however. Spier. and others. a native Pawnee who had earlier assisted both Miss Fletcher and the Chicago anthropologist George A. 127 A. Vol. contributed considerably to the study of North American Indian religions. and Lowie of course first of all." Vol." Vol..127 He has also illuminated the hunting religion of the Northern Algonkian groups in several papers. and here he was assisted by a staff of able men. Notes on the Eastern Cree and Northern Saulteaux ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. VIII [Boston. pp. and other tribes of the Middle West. Iowa. Some of these men. 1920]). No. prayers.125 was himself eager to record the entire religion of his people. 480 f. He was more taken in by problems of convergence and diffusion in the sphere of rituals and ritual objects. Duvall. Iowa.126 Wissler was curator at the American Museum of Natural History. II. The Lost Universe (New York and London. Skinner. 1913]). Goddard. 2 [New York. and has written on the Menomini medicine ceremony and sacred bundles. D.

129 Leslie Spier made excellent ethnographical monographs of the Klamath in Oregon and some Yuman tribes in the Southwest (Havasupai.130 This "plotting" procedure reached its culmination in Spier's study of the sun-dance distribution (see below)." Vol. As will emerge from the sequence. No. XXIX. whose monograph on the Maidu Indians of northern California. Life and Culture of the Hupa ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 206 . Lowie. Michelson's Contributions to Fox Ethnology (Vols.North American Indian Religion among some Apache groups. Barrett.).C.. and Gunther. Reichard. No. Spier later made important research on phenomena of religious contact. No. Linton. "the first strictly scientific investigation of a Californian tribe" according to Lowie.. Dixon. in a characteristic way. Maricopa). XVII. whose excellent descriptions of religious beliefs and rites in 129p. among other things.133 and so on. Bunzel. II. A." Vol. 130 See. White Mountain). 131 R. and others who mainly operated after 1925 and who partly changed the course of studies of Indian religions. Underhill. 1960). A. Spier. 1 [Berkeley. Benedict. 261 ff." Vol. Havasupai Ethnography ("Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. Many more pupils of Boas' could be mentioned who. 132 S. myth texts by the same author in the "Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History.. Barrett is known. e.131 S. linked with similar features in other Indian tribes. In the sequence.g. and his The Dream Dance of the Chippewa and Menominee Indians of Northern Wisconsin (Publications of the Museum of the City of Milwaukee. 3 (New York. du Bois (ed.132 Truman Michelson. p. religion is here treated in its cultural context. VIII (Jicarilla) and XXIV (San Carlos. Bulletins 85 and 95 [Washington. 3 [New York. about the Indians and squaw men whom Boas trained. Some words. prominent linguist. No. I. not only to record texts. E." in C. D. Goddard. and religious features are. for example. cf. 275 ff. 1928]). "The Northern Maidu. 11 [Berkeley. contributed to our knowledge of Fox myths and rituals. George Hunt. his Kwakiutl collaborator. Pomo Bear Doctors ("University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. 1905). 428. "Franz Boas 1858-1942. for his descriptions of Pomo medicine men and Central Algonkian religious dances. wrote accounts of Indian religions within the framework of culture. B. Bulletin 1 [1911]). 1927-30]). Bureau of American Ethnology. 1903]). finally. we shall discuss the later "Boasians": Lesser." American Museum of Natural History Bulletin. There was Roland Dixon. pp.. A keen observer was James Teit. the papers on ceremonies and fetishes brought together in T. I. like the ones presented here. Lowie's Selected Papers in Anthropology (Berkeley and Los Angeles." Vols. XII. 1917]). has been mentioned. but also to handle the collected material in a scientific way. 133 Cf. critical and exceedingly learned. was a model monograph.

135 W. [To be continued] 207 . Jones. The Thompson Indians of British Columbia (American Museum of Natural History. Shuswap. pp.ethnographical monographs on different Salishan IndiansThompson River. Bulletin 125 [Washington.. 1939]). Teit. 326 ff..134 Teit was also active in recording the myths and legends of the tribes mentioned. 1900]). 368 ff. 337 ff. 10 ff. became a good linguist and ethnologist on his own cultural heritage.135 134 See. e. Jones was killed by the Ilongots of Luzon while performing field research among them in 1909. W. a part Fox Indian. William Jones. Ethnography of the Fox Indians (Bureau of American Ethnology. Memoirs.. pp. Vol. His analysis of Fox religion deserves our attention. Lillooet.g.C. D.. J. and Okanagon in the Columbia-Fraser Plateau area-constitute a treasure trove for the student of North American religion. Fisher. The book was edited by M. II [New York.