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Prof. Drs. Manihar Situmorang, M.Sc., PhD

Bilingual & International Chemistry


Water and Fresh water Important for every aspect of life Needed in large amount The quality of drinking water is used as an indicator on the quality of the country (health) The consumption of clean water is increase as the number of population is increased Contamination of water is related to the incident of diseases

Water Cycle
Water Cycle (hydrologic cycle) The process of water movement from atmosphere and return back to atmosphere through condensation, precipitation, evaporation, and transpiration continuously


Global Water Cycle
 Despite drought and its famine …  Water’s global cycle is little altered by us  Solar evaporation → humid atmosphere  Cresting waves → microscopic salt crystals  Salt crystals seed condensation  Rainfall snares soluble gases, feeds Life, erodes mountains, and returns to the sea


Hydrologic Cycle
 The hydrologic cycle, quantities of water in trillions of liters per day


Water Movement  Types of water movement 1) Evaporation and transpiration is the water movement in the upper surface of the earth through evaporation process and return back in the form of rain. canal and ended in the sea 6 . or ice 2) Infiltration is the water movement in the earth through ground tunnel and pore running to a lower level vertically or horizontally toward water table 3) Water Runoff is the water movement in the upper surface of the earth through river. snow.

Where do they go? 7 .

Where do they go? 8 .

Hydrosphere and Geosphere  Exploitation of the geosphere such as the conversion of the forest become plantation or field will effect the quality of water in various aspect:  Change in Vegetation  results in decreasing transpiration  Water movement  faster in earth surface causes erosions and changing the composition of water 9 .

river)  Sea water (after desalinization process)  Over exploitation of the ground water could causes intrusion 10 . pond. mostly from  Ground water  Water table (lake.Water Consumption  Composition of water is the key role for water consumption.

healthful water 11 .Water in Human life  Water quality issues were concerned mainly with the prevention of disease  People who settled in village needed only to dig a well or divert the course of a free-flowing stream to have adequate supplies of clean.

typhoid fever. clarification and filtration 12 .Water in Human life  This began to change in the nineteenth century  Outbreaks of infectious diseases (cholera. dysentery and hepatitis)  Related to increased population densities  Relatively impure water supplies  Metropolitan areas has to treat water:  Water for domestic consumption  wastewater through processes of sedimentation.

Water For Us  Indonesia is a rich country (???) 13 .

Water For Us  What do you think if we sell our water (???) 14 .

Water in Human life  Water is used not only for consumption. but also for other purposes 15 .

Water in Human life  What would will be if the water are polluter? Or if the water overloaded? 16 .

Water Properties  Hydrology is sciences study about water. including:  Limnology is studying the characteristics of fresh water. and chemical and physical properties of water  Oceanography is studying the properties of sea water 17 . the characteristics of organism live in water.

Water Properties  Properties of water is unique that allows every creatures could live with water  Universal solvent  Transparent to visible  Higher heat of evaporation 18 .

Important Properties of Water Properties Excellent solvent Highest dielectric constant of any common liquid Higher surface tension than any other liquid Transparent to visible and longer-wavelength fraction of ultraviolet light Maximum density as a liquid at 4oC Higher heat of evaporation than any other material Higher latent heat of fusion than any other liquid except ammonia Higher heat capacity than any other liquid except ammonia Effects and Significance Transport of nutrients and waste products. vertical circulation restricted in stratified bodies of water Determines transfer of heat and water molecules between the atmosphere and bodies of water Temperature stabilized at the freezing point of water Stabilization of temperatures of organisms and geographical regions 19 . allowing light required for photosynthesis to reach considerable depths in bodies of water Ice floats. making biological processes possible in an aqueous medium High solubility of ionic substances and their ionization in solution Controlling factor in physiology. governs drop and surface phenomena Colorless.

water could be use for recreational uses (which is further subdivided into full-body contact and partial-body contact classifications) c) Third Class. water could be use for aquatic and wildlife uses.Water Quality Standard  Government has establishing water quality standards are based on its function (PPRI 82. and d) Fourth Class. water could be use as the source of domestic water (drinking water and other purposes) b) Second Class. 2001) become 4 classes: a) First Class. water could be use for agricultural use (which is subdivided into irrigation and livestock watering classifications) 20 .

Water Consumption Water-Scarce Countries.410 2010 500 420 20 440 250 110 30 70 300 870 600 190 710 830 830 980 Change (percent) -32 -41 -33 -46 -24 -42 -25 -50 -45 +4 -9 -10 -37 -28 -40 -30 21 . 1992.150 1.130 1.390 1. With Projections for 2010 Region/ Country Algeria Botswana Egypt Rwanda Israel Jordan Qatar Saudi Arabia Syria Belgium Netherlands Singapore Sudan Morocco Somalia Lebanon Per Capita Renewable Water Supplies (cubic Meters per person) 1992 730 710 30 820 330 190 40 140 550 840 660 210 1.

22 .Water Quality Analysis  Water quality standards include parameters in the three broad categories of biological. chemical and physical water quality There are different standards written within these categories. because water may be designated for different uses.

alga. by conducting in situ with chemical reaction Biological analysis  the level of pollution by using organism (bacteria. insect. plant) 23 .Water Quality Analysis  Water quality analysis is used for the composition of water that could be done chemically and biologically Chemical analysis  the level of pollution.

Chemical Analysis  Water quality analysis by chemical analysis could be done by using Test Kits and Colorometers 24 .

Water Quality Criteria  Good quality Water is the water that free from toxic contaminant and microorganism  Parameters for Water quality analysis Total Dissolve Solid (TDS) Ionic conductivity (IC) Dissolve Oxygen (DO) Alkalinity and pH Biological oxygen demand (BOD) Chemical oxygen demand (COD) Total Organic 25 .

P. home. substances)  Effected the visibility of the water (turbidity). etc) 26 .Total Dissolve solid (TDS)  Dissolve of solid substances in water (ion. when rainy season become brown. K)  Oligotropic  low because the nutrition contents are low  TDS is an indicator for water pollution (ppm)  Domestic waste (industry. colloids. and at dry season become yellow  TDS is related to the productivity of the water  Eutropic  high because the nutrition contents are high (N.

Total Dissolve solid (TDS)  Turbidity testing method is an indication for total solid in water  Turbidity measures the actual quality and quantity of suspended solids in the water 27 .

55 − 0.70 Conductivity (C) 28 .Ionic Conductivity  Ionic conductivity is an indicator for water due to the solubility of ionic in the water (ppm)  Measured using conductimeter  There are relationship between total solid dissolve and the conductivity  Conductivity of the solution is equals to the resistance of the solution  Measure the TDS (assume as ion) could be used to predict the conductivity of water Total dissove solid (TDS) = 0.

Conductivity Measurement Conductivity in pure water Conductivity of water plus salt Conductivity solid NaCl Conductivity molten NaCl 29 .

Conductivity Measurement  Conductivity of the solution is related to the total disolve solid in the water  The concentration of solid equals to the resistance of the solution 30 .

Dissolve Oxygen  Gasses dissolve in water are crucial to the welfare of living species in water  Aquatic organism (fish) require O2 and give off CO2  Aquatic plant require CO2 to perform photosynthesis and releases O2  DO is an indicator for quality of water to support living organism  DO is also used to indicate water pollution (the presence of algae or SO2 in water)  Organism survive if DO > 5 ppm  DO is analyzed quantitatively by using of 1) Titrimetric (Winkler Method  Oxygen kit) 2) Electroanalytic Method (Oxygen meter) 31 .

70 ppm  Solubility of O2 (T and P) is shown by ClausiusClapeyron Equation) C1 ΔH  1 1  = −  Log  C2 2.987 cal x deg-1 x mole-1) 32 .32 ppm  At 25 oC. 0. 1 atm  DO 8.303R  T1 T2  Where C1 and C2 denote the concentration in water at about temperature of T1 and T2 respectively ∆H is the heat of solution in cal/mole R is the gas constant (1.DO Measurement  DO is influenced by temperature & pressure in water  At 25 oC.21 atm  DO 8.

DO oxidizes Mn2+ to higher ordered Mn(OH)x+2.  Add I-/H+. (-) agents. options include adding azide [(NO2)-].is liberated. (S2O3)2. I.DO Measurement  Winkler Method  More precise & reliable  Add Mn2+ + strong base.  Titrate with (S2O3)2. Mn goes back to Mn2+ & equivalent I. & permanganate [Fe2+]  Fix on-site & run w/i 8 hrs 33 .takes the place of O2 Interferents include oxid.must be standardized at least quarterly.w/starch indicator.(+) & red.

32 ppm  At 25 oC.535 23.824 42.07279 0.510 760.04187 0.000 PH2O.756 PH2O.324 71.788 17.543 9.175 55. 1 atm  DO 8.00000 34 .209 12.02307 0.01683 0. (atm) 0.70 ppm  Water vapor excerpt a partial pressure to be used for calculating of the solubility of oxygen (Table 1) Table 1.21 atm  DO 8.01212 0.05549 0. (atm) 0. oC 0 5 10 15 20 25 PH2O (Torr) 4.880 92.09458 0. 0.Effect of P and T on the solubility of Gas  DO is influenced by temperature and pressure in water  At 25 oC.579 6.03126 Temp.00861 0.12172 1.00603 0. oC 30 35 40 45 50 100 PH2O (Torr) 31. Partial pressure of water at different temperature Temp.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  Most commonly used parameter to define the strength of a polluted water  Used to determine the relative oxygen requirements for polluted waters  What threat dose BOD present to a receiving water body?  Reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO)  < 30 mg/L is the standard  In the laboratory  Quantity of oxygen utilized by a mixed population of microorganisms in the aerobic oxidation (of the organic matter (OM) in a sample of wastewater) at a temperature of 20°C ± 1 °C in an air incubator or water bath 35 .

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)  BOD is another important water-quality parameter  Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) refers to the amount of oxygen utilized when the organic matter in a given volume of water is degraded biologically  Conducted for a period of 5 days  Dark condition (No photosynthesis)  Decreases in O2 is due to the microorganism activity that consume O2 and degrade organic or nutrient in water  Clean water (normal water)  low M’O  Decrease in O2 level small  BOD low = 0.7  Polluted water  high M’O  Decrease in O2 level large  BOD high > 200 (200 mg O2 consumed by organism in 5 days) 36 .

Cells DO + bacteria DO + protozoans • If [OM] increases. releasing CO2 & producing a substantial increase in bacterial pop. therefore BOD test indirectly measures [OM] 37 . OM → CO2 + bact. oxygen consumption: • Increases.BOD reaction Mechanism • Metabolism of OM & uptake of DO by bacteria. cells → CO2 + prot.

prep time)  D2 = final DO (after 5 day incubation)  D1 and D2 both have units of mg/L  P = decimal fraction of wastewater  = mL of wastewater/mL of BOD bottle 38 .BOD Calculation  BOD (mg/L) = (D1-D2)/P  D1 = initial DO (after 15min.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)  COD is another important water-quality parameter  Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) refers to the amount of oxygen utilized to oxidizes chemical matter in water  To oxidize organic substances by using chemical oxidizer such as K2Cr2O7 CxHyOz + Cr2O72.+ H+ CO2 + H2O + Cr3+  COD measurement is conducted by titration as the amount of dichromate needed is equals to the O2 to oxidize organic matter 39 .

6.Alkalinity and pH • Alkalinity and pH is another important of waterquality parameter • Alkalinity is the defined as the ability of a natural water to neutralize acid • The composition of the natural water contains of chemical substances results in total alkalinity  The pH of fresh water (unpolluted) is pH 6.0.1 (All water below pH 5.0 is categorized as polluted  pH was measured using pH-meter  Alkalinity is measured by titration (Titrimetic method) 40 . and sea water is pH 8. where rain water is pH 5.0-8.

Alkalinity Measurement  Both laboratory and field instruments readily available 41 .

equivalence end point determined is difficult to determine (only by extrapolation) 42 . or potentiometric (most accurate) • For low alkalinity samples (<20). may interfere but cannot be removed since they contribute to alkalinity of the water • Analysis by HCl (or H2SO4) titration (end-pt.Alkalinity Measurement • Oily matter. ppcts.

50 CO2. The calculating CO2 is based on the alkalinity 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6.Example pH Measurement  Measurement of pH and Alkalinity yields CO2  Several types of CO2 meters have available.00 7. mg/L 7.00 8.50 pH 43 .50 8.

Chemicals in Water  Chemical is easily dissolve in water (natural such as minerals. or ion (cations and anion). and from organism activity)  Chemicals as pollutant  Chemical as nutrient  Chemicals commonly found in water could be as gases (O2. Colloids etc that mostly invisible  The presence of chemicals in water effected the quality of water (drinking water)  Regulation by Government to protect water and to control the pollutant 44 . CO2).

Salinity Measurement  Salinity can be indirectly measured using the measurement of a physical property such as refractive index. conductivity or density 45 .

Salinity Measurement 46 .

Chemicals in Water Dissolved from minerals 47 .

Chemicals in Water From industry 48 .

and at > pH 10 in the form of [Al(OH)4]-. Ba2+.Chemicals in Water Chemical Sources substances Aluminium Mineral (Al) Formation in water Could be in the form of [Al(OH)6]3+ below pH 4. Very toxic and reactive at a high (Cl) pollutant concentration Fluorida (F) Minerals. etc Chlorine Mineral. In the form of HF at low pH (pKa = 3.5-6.0. At pH 4.5 as coagulant of Al2O3. Sr2+.3H2O.13). and Pb2 water Iron (Fe) Mineral dan In water ground as Fe2+ and as water mineral particulate of Fe3+ Magnesium Mineral such In the form of Mg2+ that having the (Mg) as dolomit same properties with Ca2+ of water (CaMg(CO3)2) hardness 49 . additive in Insoluble salt of Ca2+.

fertilizer Sodium (K) Phosfor (P) . and NO2-. organic degradation Mineral. fertilizer Mineral.Chemicals in Water Chemical substances Manganese (Mn) Nitrogen (N) Sources Mineral Formation in water In the form of MnO2 that could be reduce to Mn2+ and as in the form of coagulant of MnCO3 Very important for aquatic life as NO3-. NH4+ Obtained from the degradation of feldspar (KAlSi3O8) which is then used as nutrient for aquatic plants In the form of anion H3PO4. and organic phosphorous that could multiply the growth of algae 50 Mineral.

or H2SiO4 In the form of sulfate ion or H2S At high concentration is very harmful for plant as it could increases the concentration of salt 51 . pollutant Sodium Mineral.Chemicals in Water Chemical Sources substances Silicon (Si) Mineral such as feldspar (KAlSi3O8) Sulfur (S) Mineral. (Na) pollutant Formation in water In the form of colloid of SiO2.

your name)  Submit the assignment via e-mail. student number and assignment number on your assignment (write the file name: EC-Assignment3 . and the Deadline submission on week 7 52 . but the discussion has containing the given issue  Write your name.Assignment 3  Write a short paper on “The strategy to preserve the water clean and healthy for domestic consumption in North Sumatera”  The title is free to choose.