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Loh Yueh Feng Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product Universiti Putra Malaysia Serdang Selangor MALAYSIA

Rapid growth of oil palm Plantation in Malaysia. 1990 (1.7 MILLION ha) 2006 (4.5 MILLION ha) • 100,000 hectares + 13.6 million OPS due to replanting each year (Anon 2005) • Total 4.5 million m3 plywood can be produce

5 million m3 of OPS plywood can be produced each year.under sustainable forest resources • • • • . and easy to work with. Taking the selling price of OPS plywood at RM1. If the QUALITY can improved. the revenue from palm plywood will reach RM 4. lightness. United Kingdom. International acceptance: Certified as GREEN PRODUCT if the use of non-wood material > 10% . and Japan Due to its environment friendliness. about 4.6 MILLION stems.5 billion to the plywood industry.INTRODUCTION • Based on 13. the price can be doubled.5 billion/year Export market: United States. this would generate a revenue of RM4.000/m3.

COMMON PROBLEMS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF OIL PALM STEM PLYWOOD 1. Low Quality Veneer ƒ Contain two distinctly different materials: solid vascular bundle and loose parenchyma cells ƒ Rough surface ƒ Less stable (shrink and swell more) • • high adhesive consumption Use as core veneers .

COMMON PROBLEMS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF OIL PALM STEM PLYWOOD 2. Low Price Palm Plywood ƒ Low strength OPS plywood ƒ Low dimensional stability • • • Low-grade Palm Plywood Categorised under Utility-Grade Current market price USD260/m3 .

affect the performance of Plywood high density (600 kg/m3) medium density (400-600 kg/m3) low-medium density (<400-550 kg/m3) low density (<400 kg/m3) . Wide range density of oil palm veneers . Variation of density Unevenly distribution of vascular bundles along the radial direction of stem variation of density values at different parts of the oil palm stem.COMMON PROBLEMS IN THE MANUFACTURE OF OIL PALM STEM PLYWOOD 3.

OBJECTIVES Enhancement of veneer quality through resin treatment ƒ ƒ ƒ To develop effective resin treatment to improve the quality of OPS veneers To determine suitable adhesive spread rate for oil palm stem veneers To determine the mechanical properties of pre-treated OPS plywood .

446kg/m3) Treatment resin : Low Molecular weight Phenol Formaldehyde Binder : Urea Formaldehyde .442kg/m3) Inner layer (2nd stage peeling.Materials OPS veneer : Outer layer (1st stage peeling. 358 . 272 .

METHODOLOGY • Phase 1: Oil Palm Trunk Veneer Production • Phase 2: Pre-treatment of OPT veneer using PF resin. • Phase 3: Production of Plywood .

Parameter Used In This Study Oil Palm Stem Plywood Untreated (Control) Treated with Lmw PF 200g/m2 UF Spread rate 250g/m2 UF Spread rate 200g/m2 UF Spread rate 250g/m2 UF Spread rate 100% Outer Type 100% Inner Type 100% Outer Type 100% Inner Type 100% Outer Type 100% Inner Type 100% Outer Type 100% Inner Type .

Phase 1: Veneer Production Log cutting Peeling Clipping Drying Inner peeling Veneer stacking .

3. OPS veneers were segregated into outer and inner type Dry the veneer to 6-8% MC Soaking of veneers in LmwPF by passing the veneers through a container full with LmwPF resin for ~5seconds Pre-pressing (between 2 rollers) to squeeze out the excessive resin. 5. The pressure is set until “screw tight”. 4. 2. MC of treated veneers should be between 20-30% Drying of phenolic treated veneers at 60°C for 48 hours.Phase 2: Development of treatment method The optimum procedure for treating OPS veneers with LmwPF is as follows: 1. Final MC between 6-7% .

Phase 2: Treatment of Veneer Treatment Veneer treated with PF UF and PF resin Veneer after pressing Roller pressing machine .

Continue… Sticker .

Phase 3: OPS Plywood Manufactured Glue spread Cold press OPS plywood Hot press .

Properties Assessment ƒ Static bending test BS EN 310 Mechanical Test Bonding test BS EN 314-1 .

86 Veneer Density (Kg/m3) Treated 565 Untreated 367 Increase in Veneer Density (%) 54 OPT Plywood (Kg/m3) Treated 857 Untreated 717 Increase in Plywood Density (%) 19 Inner 18.Average Density Increment of OPT Veneer and Plywood after Treated with Lmw PF Resin Solid Uptake (%) Outer 15.98 393 315 25 709 624 14 .

•The lowest increment was 250g/m² glue spread rate with 22%.83 43.62 35.3 20.02 •Inner type gave high percentage of increment about 119% for 200g/m² glue spread rate. •Shows that.Percentage of MOR increment Mean of MOR For OPS Plywood 50 45 40 35 30 MPa 25 20 15 10 5 0 12.47 17.37 27.1 34. treatment do help increase strength properties of OPS veneer and reduced the amount of resin consumption. Outer Inner 200 250 200 250 Untreated Treated .55 26.

250 .Percentage of MOE increment Mean of MOE For OPS Plywood 9000 8000 7000 6000 MPa 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Untreated Treated 2031 200 7722 4763 3090 1944 1903 250 200 5205 •The highest result for MOE increment is outer type with 250g/m² glue spread rate. •Shows that treatment help to increase stiffness properties of the boards. •Treating the veneer with LmwPF resin had increased the stiffness by 67% Outer 3179 Inner •The lowest increment was inner type with 200g/m² glue spread rate.

622 Outer Lay-up Inner Lay-up 0.605 0.8 0.Glue Bond Shear Strength of Phenolic-treated OPS Plywood in Dry Test and Wet Test (cold water) 1.4 0.683 S h e a r S tr e n g th (M P a ) 0.378 Inner Lay-up 0.8 1.6 0.939 Outer Lay-up 0.047 1 1.4 1.2 0 0.2 0 Untreated Treated Untreated Treated Dry Test Wet Test .4 0.8 0.2 1 1.534 0.2 1.6 0.6 S h e a r S tr e n g th (M P a ) 1.711 0.

Percentage of Wood Failure of Phenolic-treated OPS Plywood in Dry Test and Wet Test (cold water) 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 Untreated Treated Outer Inner 100 80 60 40 20 0 Untreated Treated Outer Inner Dry Test Wet Test .

00 0.96 • Further improvement of bond quality • On going analysis is currently conducted to look at the cured glueline whether some crosslinking had occurred between Phenolic-treated veneer and UF resin.00 80.00 60.00 75.00 40.00 S tre n g th R e te n tio n (% ) 140.74 150.00 20.Strength Retention of Phenolic-Treated OPS Plywood 180.10 62.00 160. Outer Lay-up Inner Lay-up Untreated Treated .00 100.00 120.48 160.

Conclusions • Treatment of OPS veneer with LmwPF has significantly improved the strength. • The technique used in this study was able to enhance the strength and bond quality properties of plywood made from OPS veneer.442kg/m3 inner= 272 . reduced the amount of resin consumption. . as well as.446kg/m3 ) had increased the average strength of the OPS plywood. • Greater improvement was seen in the performance of plywood made from the lower-density-inner veneers. • Segregating the veneers by density (outer= 358 .