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Lecture Note 5

Prof. Drs. Manihar Situmorang, M.Sc., PhD

Bilingual & International Chemistry


 The quality of drinking water is used to measure the welfare of the nation  Disease: In developing nations, 80% of diseases are water-related. Synthetic Organic Compounds Inorganic Compounds & Mineral Substances such as Acids, etc. Radioactive substances Oxygen-demanding wastes Plant Nutrients Sediments Thermal Discharges

Indicators for Water Pollution
 Defined as the change of natural water from normal condition becomes potentially to harm organism (unhealthy water)  Could be seen from the change in physics appearance, chemicals contents, thermal change, biological, and radioactive

Water Pollution  Indicators for Water pollution 1) Change in temperature 2) Change in pH. odor. colloids 5) The presence of microorganism 4 . basic or salt 3) Change in color (visualized). taste 4) Formation of coagulant.

industries. etc)  Influencing the solubility of O2 in water  Influencing the physiological of aquatic organism such as fish.1. Change in Temperature  The change in the temperature of water  Could be caused by the human activities (machine. etc  Increasing the temperature of water will results to increasing the toxicity of chemicals  Multiplication on the toxic ability of the chemicals in water 5 .

Basic and Salt  pH of normal water is in the range of pH 6.0 – 7. an organism has to adapt with the salinity. basic condition and the pH of the water through osmotic process 6 .5  To be survive. Change in pH.2.

Basic and Salt  The change in the pH. basic or salt  Sulfuric acid could decreases the pH of water very low (pH 3.2.0) because the minerals contains sulfur decay  The presence of basic in ore will increase the pH of water up to pH 9.0 7 . basic and salt of water occurred from nature and the activity of organism  Microorganism degraded organic and inorganic minerals to become acid. Change in pH.

etc 8 . Basic and Salt  The change in the pH. Change in pH. waste of industries. basic and salt of water could be caused by the human activities (fertilizer.2. etc)  Influencing the pH of water will force the aquatic organism to be adapted  survive • Fish and plants survive in fresh water • Fish and plants survive in sea water  Influencing the physiological of aquatic organism such as fish.

Change in pH. organic materials. etc) 9 . basic or salt mainly coming from  Human activity  Natural (Degradation of minerals.2. Basic and Salt  Increasing the pH.

3. organic materials. Odor. tasteless  The change in color. etc  Change in the color. odor and taste of water will Influence the chemical properties of fresh water 10 . Change in Color. odor and taste of water  Could be caused by the human activities such as home waste or industrial waste. Taste  Normal water is invisible. etc in the form of various waste • Dye • Organic and inorganic chemicals • Degradation of minerals. odorless.

Formation of coagulant. colloids  Formation of coagulant. colloids could be coming from insoluble industrial waste  Formation of coagulant or colloids is also coming from ions (anion-cation)  The presence of coagulant and colloids in water will result in:  Reduce the intensity of light  Effect in photosynthesis process  Reduce in O2  Influence the aquatic life 11 .4.

Microorganism in Water  The presence of pathogenic microorganism in water  potentially as the source of various diseases  Waste from food and home industries in water will multiply the number of pathogenic microorganism in water  As reducer since they convert complex  Bacteria chemicals become simple elements  Fungus  Algae  as producer since it will converted light becomes energy 12 .

Waste Water Component  Waste water components consisted of:  Solid waste  Inorganic waste  Organic waste  Food waste  Oil and oily waste  Chemical waste 13 .

Waste Water Component 1) Solid waste  solid waste enter the water in the form of :  Colloid  will influence the visibility of water  aquatic life  Slump  will influence the condition of river 14 .

Source of Solid Waste Water  Single large source  Can localize it to one spot Industrial Plants Sewage pipes 15 .

electronics. electroplating. chemicals) enter the water  Will influence the conductivity of water and the hardness of water  Toxic to organism  Difficult be removed (degrade by organism)  Difficult to identify (only by using modern analytical tools)  Last longer in water 16 .Waste Water Component 2) Inorganic waste  waste from industry (metals.

Source of Industrial Waste 17 .

drink. pharmaceuticals.Waste Water Component 3) Organic waste  waste from industry (Food. rubber. etc) enter the water  Will influence the population of microorganism in the water  Toxic to organism  Changing the ecosystem 18 .

pesticides. plastics.Water Polutant  Forms of Pollution  Organic: sewage. etc.4-D can contaminate 10 million liters of drinking water!  One gram of PCBs can make 1 billion liters of water unsuitable for freshwater aquatic life! 19 .  One drop of oil can render up to 25 liters of water unfit for drinking  One gram of 2.

S) 20 .Waste Water Component 4) Food waste  waste from industry (Food. drink. etc) enter the water  Will influence the population of microorganism in the water  Toxic to organism  Bad odour (bad smell due to N.

etc) and oil from machinery enter the water  Will influence the visibility of water (reduce the light.Waste Water Component 5) Oil and oily waste  waste from industry (oil. Food waste. exhibit the photosynthesis)  Toxic to organism do to limited dissolve oxygen 21 .

Waste Water Component 6) Chemical waste  waste from chemical industry (detergent. etc) enter the water  Will influence the population of aquatic organism in the water  Toxic to aquatic organism 22 . pesticide.

Waste Water Component Forms of Pollution as Chemical waste : Inorganic – acids. toxic metals One gram of lead in 20. Lead is often found in the pipes of older homes What is the safe drinking water limit for arsenic? For lead? How much does UA water supply have? 23 .000 liters of water makes it unfit for drinking. salts.

organics chemicals. pesticide. etc (see examples in the text book) 24 .Waste Water Component  Chemical waste (heavy metal.

pesticide. organics chemicals.Chemical Waste  Chemical waste (heavy metal. etc (see examples in the text book) 25 .

Trace Metal 26 .

organometallic (fungicide)  very toxic. pesticide (Pb3(AsO4)2. mutagenic S Hg S C N(CH3)2 (Fenil merkuri dimetilditiokarbamat) 27 .Heavy Metal in Water  Heavy metal that are commonly found as chemical waste in water: 1) Arsenic  from fossil. paris green Cu3(AsO4)2)  very toxic and carcinogenic 2) Cadmium  very toxic. the same properties with Zink (enzymatic reaction) 3) Lead  from fossil (oil)  toxic and harmful to human 4) Mercury  from minerals. Na3AsO3.

Pesticide in Water  Pesticide that are commonly found in water  Insecticide for insect  Rodentiside for Rhodesia  Aviside for bird  Ficiside for fish  Herbicide for plant  Name of pesticide and their structure are presented in page 96-98 28 .

Detergent in Water  Detergent is a salt and easily dissolve in water. containing of surfactant as an active material to lower the hardness of water  Alkyl benzene sulphonate (ABS)  difficult degrade by microorganism  potentially as pollutant O Na+ + O S O H C CH2 CH CH3 CH3 CH3 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 CH3 CH3 CH3 ABS (alkil benzen sulfonat) 29 .

Detergent in Water  α–dodekana benzensulfonat or linear alkyl benzene sulfonat (LAS)  easily degrade by microorganism  save for environment H3C CH CH2 CH2 CH2 H2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH C CH CH3 LAS (α-dodecanebenzen sulfonat) O S O O Na+ 30 .

Cyanide in Water  Cyanide as NaCN and KCN are used to extract gold and silver in mining 31 .

plagiat.Assignment 4  Write a short assay (2-4 pages) on the issue of water pollution  It is good if you could present with photos or other sources  You could also write its relation to the health. diseases or disaster  The topic could also taken from the news or related articles  Never copy paste. and double submission 32  Due date submission on week 10 .