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Power Transformer

INTRODUCTION Transformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers. With this tool in hands it has become possible to harness the energy resources at far off places from the load centers and connect the same through long extra high voltage transmission lines working on high efficiencies. At that, it may be said to be the simplest equipment with no motive parts. Nevertheless it has its own problems associated with insulation, dimensions and weights because of demands for ever rising voltages and capacities. In its simplest form a Transformer consists of a laminated iron core about which are wound two or more sets of windings. Voltage is applied to one set of windings, called the primary, which builds up a magnetic flux through the iron. This flux induces a counter electromotive force in the primary winding thereby limiting the current drawn from the supply. This is called the no load current and consists of two components- one in phase with the voltage which accounts for the iron losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis, and the other 90° behind the voltage which magnetizes the core. This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load is connected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces a demagnetising effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more current from the supply so that

IP.NP = IS.NS
Where Ip and Np are the current and number of turns in the primary while IS and NS are the current and number of turns in the secondary respectively. The ratio of turns in the primary and secondary windings depends on the ratio of voltages on the Primary and secondary sides. The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high grade silicon or other sheet steel which are insulated from each other by varnish or through a coating of iron oxide. The core can be constructed in different ways relative to the windings.

CONSTRUCTION 1- Transformer Core Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings and forms a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary. Fig (1), Fig. (6) and Fig. (7) Shows the core type

Fig (1) core type
The core of shell type is sh own Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.(5), in which The winding is surrounded by the iron Circuit Consisting of two or more paths through which the flux divides. This arrangement affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuit conditions. In actual construction there are Variations from This simple construction but these can be designed With such proportions as to give similar electrical characteristics.

Fig (2) shell type

Fig.(3) Single phase Transformer

Fig. (4) Single phase Transformer

Fig. (5) 3- phase Transformer Shell type

Fig. (6) 3- phase Transformer core type

the core height can be reduced to a large extent compared with the two leg core. thus. increase tank strength. Regarding single-phase Transformers. which are usually transported by ship and freed from restrictions on in-land transport. two-leg core is well known. and effectively use space inside the tank. Even among thermal/nuclear power station Transformers. Where Transformers to be transported by rail are large capacity. however. Practically. minimize vibration. . four-leg core and five-leg core are used in large capacity Transformers. The sectional areas of the yoke and side leg are 50 % of that of the main leg.Three-phase Transformers usually employ three-leg core. gigantic Transformers of the 1000 MVA class employ five-leg core to prevent leakage flux. three leg cores is used. five-leg core is used to curtail them to within the height limitation for transport.

As a result. All cores employ miter-joint core construction. high-grade. upper and lower clamps are connected by a core leg tie plate. When erecting a core after assembling. which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the coreand-coil assembly and short circuits. Silicon steel strips are stacked in a circle-section. fore and hind clamps by connecting bars. In large-capacity Transformers. Also. Fig (8) Fig (9) The steel strip surface is subjected to inorganic insulation treatment. which are likely to invite increased leakage flux. grain oriented silicon steel strip is used. A computer-controlled automatic machine cuts grain-oriented silicon steel strip with high accuracy and free of burrs. (9). And then. Connected by a core leg tie plate fore and hind clamps by connecting bars. so that magnetic characteristics of the grain-oriented silicon steel remains unimpaired. the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates. nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat. the resin undergoes heating for hardening to tighten the band so that the core is evenly clamped Fig. which are likely to invite increased leakage flux. As a result. a special device shown in Fig. with resin-impregnated glass tape wound around the outer circumference. the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates. which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the core-and-coil assembly and short circuits. The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling.For core material. keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force. . In large-capacity Transformers. Yokes are jointed at an angle of 45° to utilize the magnetic flux directional characteristic of steel strip. (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate. Each core leg is fitted with tie plates on its front and rear side. keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force. Sturdy clamps applied to front and rear side of the upper and lower yokes are bound together with glass tape. nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat.

Rectangular wire is used where current is relatively small. this type is applied to windings ranging from BI L of 350kV to BI L of 1550kV.The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling. Unlike cylindrical windings. this type of winding is also termed "interleaved disk winding. This capacitance acts as series capacitance of the winding to highly improve the voltage distribution for surge. electrically isolated turns are brought in contact with each other as shown in Fig.Continuous Disk Winding This is the most general type applicable to windings of a wide range of voltage and current Fig. (10) Fig. When erecting a core after assembling. (12) is applied to large current. Thus. which faces to an inner winding of relatively high voltage. the optimum winding is selected so as to utilize their individual features. 2 . (10) Thus. Fig." Since conductors 1 . (11).Helical Disk Winding (Interleaved disk winding) In Helical disk winding.12 assume a shape similar to a wound capacitor. the advantage of transposed cable may be fully utilized. a Transformer of 100MVA or more capacity handles a large current exceeding 1000A. resulting in smaller coil outside diameter and thus reducing Transformer dimension. When voltage is relatively low. In this case. (11). Continuous Disk Winding . 1 . According to the purpose of use. Comparatively small in winding width and large in space between windings. general EHV or UHV substation Transformers employ Helical disk winding to utilize its features mentioned above. while transposed cable Fig. it is known that these conductors have very large capacitance. (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate. the construction of this type of winding is appropriate for the winding.Winding Various windings are used as shown below. Helical disk winding requires no shield on the winding outermost side.4 and conductors 9 . 2 . a special device shown in Fig.

Finally the tank is designed to withstand the application of the internal overpressure specified. Also. (13) double helical coil 3 . thereby ensuring adequate dielectric characteristics. In addition.Fig. The tank is provided internally with devices usually made of wood for fixing the magnetic circuit and the windings. Fig (12) illustrates the transposing procedure for double helical coil. potential distribution is improved by inserting a shield between turns. The tank has two main parts: a –The tank is manufactured by forming and welding steel plate to be used as a container for holding the core and coil assembly together with insulating oil. The other openings are sealed with oil-resistant synthetic rubber joints. Adequate transposition is necessary to equalize the share of current among these parallel conductors. Each conductor is transposed at intervals of a fixed number of turns in the order shown in the figure. Fig. These parts are manufactured in steel plates assembled together via weld beads. without permanent deformation. (12) Transposed conductor construction Diagram Further. since the number of turns is reduced. over which a cover is sometimes bolted. a helical coil is used which consists of a large number of parallel conductors piled in the radial Direction and wound. whose compression is limited by steel stops. The base and the shroud. the tank is designed to withstand a total vacuum during the treatment process. even conventional continuous disk construction is satisfactory in voltage distribution.Helical windings For windings of low voltage (20kV or below) and large current. and as a result the location of each conductor opposed to the high voltage winding is equalized from the view point of magnetic field between the start and the end of winding turn. .Tank. Sealing between the base and shroud is provided by weld beads. whenever necessary. 3 .

Handling devices: Various parts of the tank are provided with the following arrangements for handling the Transformer. (15) Fig. The conservator is designed to hold a total vacuum and may be equipped with a rubber membrane preventing direct contact between the oil and the air.Fig (14) Power Transformer 30 MVA 132 / 11 KV b .Conservator The tank is equipped with an expansion reservoir (conservator) which allows for the expansion of the oil during operation. . (16) 4 . Fig.

. (Totally enclosed and fully protected against contact's With live parts. 6 . . (17&18) Available for either HV or LV side.Tank Earthing terminals: The tank is provided with Earthing terminals for Earthing the various metal parts of the Transformer at one point. or spray water. (17) .One drain plug for the tap-changer compartment. with or without stress cones. Fully enclosed terminal box for cables Fig. Horizontally split design in degree of protection IP 44 or IP 54. splash. Multiple cables per phase are terminated on auxiliary bus structures attached to the bushings removal of Transformer by simply bending back the cables.Two isolating valves for the "Buchholz" relay. locking devices and position indicators.One refilling valve for the on-load tap-changer. three basic insulated termination systems is available.Four locations (under the base) intended to accommodate bidirectional roller boxes for displacement on rails. 5 .Four jacking pads (under the base) .Two isolating valves for the protection relay.Connection Systems Mostly Transformers have top-mounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN or IEC in their standard version. . .One drainage and filtering valve located below the tank. plus protection against drip. or for both. Fig. And when there is an on-load adjuster: . . sealing joints. .Four pull rings (on two sides of the base) . The magnetic circuit is earthed via a special external terminal.) Cable installation through split cable glands and removable plates facing diagonally downwards. Optional conduit hubs suitable for single-core or three-phase cables with solid dielectric insulation.Valves: The Transformers are provided with sealed valves. The Transformers usually include: .One conservator drainage and filtering valve. Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct Connection of bare or insulated wires. .One isolating valve per radiator or per cooler.

and the dehydrating breather removes the moisture and dust in the air inhaled and prevents the deterioration of the Transformer oil due to moisture absorption. (20) The dehydrating breather uses silica . (18) HV Side 300 KV Fig. Construction and Operation See Fig.The dehydrating breather The dehydrating breather is provided at the entrance of the conservator of oil immersed equipment such as Transformers and reactors. (19) LV Side (11KV) connection terminal 3-cable for each phase 7 . The specifications of the dehydrating breather are shown in Table (1) and the operation of the component parts in Table (2).Fig. The conservator governs the breathing action of the oil system on forming to the temperature change of the equipment.gel as the desiccating Agent and is provided with an oil pot at the bottom to filtrate the inhaled air. .

Oil level line (Red .Absorbent 10. Peep window 3.Fig. Breathing pipe 7. Set screw 15.Filter 8.Cover 13. Wing nut 12. Oil (Transformer oil) 11. Flange 4. Suppression screw 14. Oil pot 5. Case 2. (20) Dehydrating breather 1. Oil pot holder 6. silica-gel 9.

(Dry condition) (Wet condition ) Blue -----. Consisting of a single porcelain tube through which passes a central conductor.000A rated current. In addition to the removal of moisture.Light pink Removes moisture and dust in the air inhaled by: the Transformer or reactor. it seals the desiccating agent from the outer air to prevent unnecessary moisture Absorption of the desiccating agent. Toshiba has accumulated many years of splendid actual results in their operation.spherical. this type of bushing is available in a standard series up to 25.white silica-gel 75% blue silica-gel 25% Table . indicates the Extent of moisture absorption by discoloration. Absorbs dust and deteriorated matter in the oil pot. approx.Silica-gel (Main component SiO2) Shape. (21). while it is not performing breathing action. Ø4 – Ø5 Mixed ratio --.Table . . this type proves to be advantageous when used as an opening of equipment to be placed in a bus duct Fig. this bushing is of simplified construction and small mounting dimensions. Size --.5 kg Desiccating agent FP4.Light purple ----. Plain-type Bushing Applicable to 24 kV-classes or below. especially. to Maintain the oil pot in a good operating condition.1 Type Weight of desiccating agent 4.2 Item Silica -gel Blue silica-gel Action Removes moisture in the air inhaled by the Transformer Or reactor. In addition.5A Material --. Oil pot Oil and filter absorbent Bushing Having manufactured various types of bushings ranging from 6kV-class to 800kV-class.

Fig. mainly consisting of a condenser cone of oil-impregnated insulating paper. offers the Following features: • High reliability and easy maintenance. • Provided with voltage tapping for connecting an instrument Transformer if required. Paperinsulated Condenser Bushing Fig. paper insulated condenser bushing. 22&23). (23) Bushing type GOEK 1425 for direct connection of 420 KV Power Transformer to gas insulated Switchgear or high voltage cable . • Provided with test tapping for measuring electrostatic capacity and tan δ. Fig. This bushing. of enclosed construction. is used For high-voltage application (Fig. (21) 24 KV Bushing Oil-impregnated. (22) 800 KV bushing The oil-impregnated. • Partial discharge free at test voltage.

Indirect connection system in which. GIS connection-type Transformers are ever-increasing in their applications. . Oil-gas bushing support is composed of a Transformer-side flange and an SF6 gas bus-side flange. a coil terminal is connected to the cable head through an oil-oil bushing in the cable connection chamber. Fig.Fig. (26) Indirect Cable Connection GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) Connection There is an increasing demand for GIS in substations from the standpoint of site-acquisition difficulties and environmental harmony. Cable connections and oil filling can be separately performed upon completion of the tank assembling. with a cable connecting chamber attached to the Transformer tank. In keeping with this tendency. (24) Cut away view of Transformer bushing type GOE Construction of Cable Connection and GIS Connection Cable Connection In urban-district substations connected with power cables and thermal power stations suffered from salt-pollution. Construction of the connection chamber can be divided into sections. The SF6 gas bus is connected directly with the Transformer coil terminal through an oil-gas bushing. permitting the oil side and the gas side to be completely separated from each other. cable direct-coupled construction is used in which a Transformer is directcoupled with the power cable in an oil chamber.

Fig. (27) Direct GIS Connection .

producing gas or developing an impulse oil flow. thereby actuating the alarm device. the float lowers and closes the contact. To detect these phenomena. Buchholz Relay The 2nd stage contact is used to detect major faults.Buchholz Relays The following protective devices are used so that. Fig. In this case. In the event of a fault. thereby causing the Circuit Breaker to trip or actuating the alarm device.35Q) or above. the 1st stage contact is used to detect minor faults. an alarm is set off or the Transformer is disconnected from the circuit. There are a 1st stage contact and a 2nd stage contact as shown in Fig.3Q-0. upon a fault development inside a Transformer. (28). In the event of a major fault. When gas produced in the tank due to a minor fault surfaces to accumulate in the relay chamber within a certain amount (0. Buchholz Relay The Buchholz relay is installed at the middle of the connection pipe between the Transformer tank and the conservator. . a Buchholz relay is installed. (28). the float is lowered to close the contact. abrupt gas production causes pressure in the tank to flow oil into the conservator. oil or insulations decomposes by heat.

If specified.Temperature Measuring Device Liquid Temperature Indicator (like BM SERIES Type) is used to measure oil temperature as a standard practice. Further. on request a search coil can be installed which is fine copper wire wound on a bobbin used to measure temperature through changes in its resistance. the dial temperature detector is used to measure maximum oil temperature. provided with an alarm contact and a maximum temperature pointer. during remote measurement and recording of the oil temperatures. The relay measures the temperature of the hottest part of the Transformer winding. the relay can be fitted with a precision potentiometer with the same characteristics as the search coil for remote indication. thus. (30&31). there is no possibility of the glass interior collecting moisture whereby it would be difficult to observe the indicator Fig. (29) Construction of Winding Temperature Indicator Relay Fig (30) Oil Temperature Indicator . With its temperature detector installed on the tank cover and with its indicating part installed at any position easy to observe on the front of the Transformer. Fig. is of airtight construction with moisture absorbent contained therein. Winding Temperature Indicator Relay (BM SERIES) The winding temperature indicator relay is a conventional oil temperature indicator supplemented with an electrical heating element. The indicating part.

which changes in volume with varying temperature. (31) Winding Temperature Indicator The temperature sensing system is filled with a liquid. The sensing bulb placed in a thermometer well in the Transformer tank cover senses the maximum oil temperature. The heating elements with a matching resistance is fed with current from the Transformer associated with the loaded winding of the Transformer and compensate the indicator so that a temperature increase of the heating element is thereby proportional to a temperature increase of the winding-over-the maximum.35-0. When the pressure in the tank has dropped beyond the limit through discharging. the device is automatically reset to prevent more oil than required from being discharged. In this way the instrument indicates the temperature in the hottest part of the Transformer winding. The pressure relief device starts automatically to discharge the oil. The matching resistance of the heating element is preset at the factory.oil temperature.sq.Fig. the measuring bellows react to both the temperature increase of the winding-over-the-maximumoil temperature and maximum oil temperature. Therefore.7 kg/cm. . Pressure Relief Device When the gauge pressure in the tank reaches abnormally To 0.

.Fig. the third letter represents the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling system and fourth symbol represents the kind of circulation for the external medium. (32) Pressure Relief Device Cooling System METHODS OF COOLING The kinds of cooling medium and their symbols adopted by I. 2026 (Part 11)-1977 are: (a) Mineral oil or equivalent flammable insulating liquid O (b) Non flammable synthetic insulating liquid L (c) Gas G (d) Water W (e) Air A The kids of circulation for the cooling medium and their symbols are: (a) Natural N (b) Forced (Oil not directed) F (c) Forced (Oil directed) D Each cooling method of Transformer is identified by four symbols.S. the second letter represents the kind of circulation for the cooling medium. Thus oil immersed Transformer with natural oil circulation and forced air external cooling is designated ONAF. The first letter represents the kind of cooling medium in contact with winding.

2. (33) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN Fig.Oil Immersed Natural cooled – Type ONAN. (33 & 34) In this case the core and winding assembly is immersed in oil. It becomes possible to reduce the size of the Transformer for the same rating and consequently save in cost. Oil Immersed Air Blast . (34) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN . Cooling is obtained by the circulation of oil under natural thermal head only. (35 & 36) In this case circulation of air is obtained by fans. Fig. Fig.For oil immersed Transformers the cooling systems normally adopted are: 1. Additional surface is obtained with the provision of radiators. In large Transformers the surface area of the tank alone is not adequate for dissipation of the heat produced by the losses.Type ONAF Fig.

5. (35) Oil Immersed Air Blast . The circulation of oil is only by convection currents. Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled . pump is employed in the oil circuit for better circulation of oil.Type OFAN Fig.Fig. In addition fans are added to radiators for forced blast of air.Type ONWN In this case internal cooling coil is employed through which the water is allowed to flow. This type of cooling was employed in older designs but has been almost abandoned in favor of the Type OFWF discussed later 4. . Except at hydropower stations this would off-set the saving in cost when special means have to be provided for adequate supply of water. (36) Oil Immersed Air Blast .Type ONAF Fig. Oil Immersed Water Cooled . (38) In this method of cooling. Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled . Apparently this system of cooling assumes free supply of water.Type ONAF 3.Type OFAF Fig. (37) In this system of cooling also circulation of oil is forced by a pump.

Fig.Type OFAF Fig. (37) Forced-oil. Forced-air-cooled . (38) Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled . It is quite common to select Transformers .Type OFWF In this type of cooling a pump is added in the oil circuit for forced circulation of oil. 7.Type OFAN 6. through a separate heat exchanger in which water is allowed to flow. It should be remembered that Transformers cooling type OFAF and OFWF will not carry any load if air and water supply respectively is removed. Forced Directed Oil and Forced Air Cooling -ODAF. Forced Oil Water Cooled .

This means that so long as the load is below 45 MVA. The insulating oil used for Transformers should generally meet the following requirements: (a) Provide a high electric strength.. Various national and international specifications have been issued on insulating oils for Transformers to meet the above requirements. fans or pumps and hence no auxiliary motors.. These determine the type of cooling upto certain loading. Since the electric strength and the life of a Transformer depend chiefly upon the quality of the insulating oil. will cool Transformers at a much better rate. .. On bigger units not only there is a saving in price but also the reduced weights and dimensions.g. (c) Have low specific gravity-In oil of low specific gravity particles which have become suspended in the oil will settle down on the bottom of the tank more readily and at a faster rate. ONAN/ONAF/ OFAF. ONAN/ONAF or ONAN/OFAF or sometimes three systems e. INSULATING OIL (SPECIFICATIONS AND DEHYDRATION AT SITE) In Transformers. (d) Have a low viscosity. saving in price in changing from ONAN cooling to other forms of cooling is negligible. the fans/pumps are Switched on.Oil with low pour point will cease to flow only at low temperatures. For example the advantage of reduced price. As soon as the load exceeds a preset value. (f) Have a high flash point. (g) Not attack insulating materials and structural materials. and an explosive mixture may be formed with the air above the oil. it is very important to use a high quality insulating oil. The flash point characterizes its tendency to evaporate. The lower the flash point the greater the oil will tend to vaporize. as 45/60 MVA. i. its viscosity rises. It shall be appreciated that the ONAN cooling has the advantage of being the simplest with no. having greater fluidity. Where special arrangements have to be made for water supply and disposal of the water. it loses in volume. These are Switched on automatically when the load on the Transformer exceeds 45 MVA. the insulating oil provides an insulation medium as well as a heat transferring medium that carries away heat produced in the windings and iron core. (e) Have low pour point. When oil vaporizes. say.g. The rating of a Transformer with ONAN/ONAF cooling may be written. dimensions and weight in case of type OFWF can be fully realised only where water supply is readily available. On smaller units say up to 10 MVA.e. Site conditions sometimes influence the preferred cooling arrangement. the fans will not be working. a property aiding the oil in retaining its homogeneity. Type of cooling has a bearing on the cost of the Transformer.with two systems of Cooling e. render the transport easy and decrease the cost of Foundations etc. with other systems of cooling of Transformers. (h) Have chemical stability to ensure life long service. (b) Permit good transfer of heat. the installation costs for OFWF Transformers may increase.Oil with low viscosity.

. (b) at 2 7 0 °C Min. The frequency with which oil samples are taken depends primarily on the size of the Transformer and the impact of any Transformer failure on the network.The specifications for insulating oil stipulated in Indian Standard 335: 1983 are given below. Electric strength (breakdown voltage) Min.g. This method is very sensitive and gives an early warning of incipient faults. i. 0. Max. 7 30 kV (rms) 60 kV (rms)..9 °C Non-corrosive. . 15 ppm Gases analysis The analysis of gases dissolved in oil has proved to be a highly practical method for the field monitoring of power Transformers.002 35 X 10 12 8 9 Ω / cm 12 1500 X 10 Ω / cm 10 0. APPLICATION.4 mg KOH/g 0. e. The relative distribution of the gases is therefore used to evaluate the origin of the gas production and the rate at which the gases are formed to assess the intensity and propagation of the gassing. (a) New unfiltered oil (b) After filtration Dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ) at 90 °C Max. after oxidation. Corrosive Sulphur (in terms of classification of copper strip). (a) Neutralization value. Specific resistance (resistivity): (a) At 9 0 °C Min. This method of monitoring power Transformers has been studied intensively and work is going on in international and national organizations such as CIGRE.e. after oxidation Max. The gases (with the exception of N2 and O2) dissolved in the oil are derived from the degradation of oil and cellulose molecules that takes place under the influence of thermal and electrical stresses. Both these kinds of information together provide the necessary basis for the evaluation of any fault and the necessary remedial action. Different stress modes. (b) Total sludge. It is indeed possible to determine from an oil sample of about one litre the presence of certain gases down to a quantity of a few mm3 .10 percent by weight 11 12 The oil shall not contain antioxidant additives.04 N/m. Flash point Min. Max. IEC and IEEE. Max Interfacial tension at 270°C. Oxidation stability. Min. hot spots with different high temperatures. 0. 104 °C . Requirement The oil shall be clear and transparent and free from suspended matter or sediments. 1 2 3 4 5 6 characteristic Appearance Density at 29.5°C. produce different compositions of the gases dissolved in the oil. normal operating temperatures. a gas volume corresponding to about 1 millionth of the volume of the liquid (ppm). Pour Point Max.89 g/cm3 0. Presence of oxidation inhibitor Water content. partial discharges and flashovers.

When a Buchholz (gas-collecting) relay or pressure monitor gives a signal. Recalculation of the height of a peak to the content of this gas is done by comparison with chromatogram deflections from calibration gases. until all factors influencing the gassing rate are known. Some schemes give an appearance of great precision.ETHANE C2H6 5 .g. With the composition of the gas mixture and the total gas content in the oil sample known.ETHENE C2H4 6 .g. An oil pump provides the necessary circulation. during a heat run test or when oil samples are taken at intervals of only a few days. The result is plotted on a recorder in the form of a chromatogram. One sampling per year appears to be customary for large power Transformers (Rated >= 300 MVA >= 220 kV). electrical discharges. the gases dissolved in the oil must be extracted and accumulated.CARBON MONOXIDE CO 2 . The following gases are analyzed: 1 . It is possible to obtain an idea of the type of fault by using a diagnosis scheme. The oil sample to be degassed is sucked into a pre-evacuated degassing column. This high sensitivity is necessary in those cases where it is desired to determine a trend in the gas evolution at short sampling intervals. The gas extracted by the vacuum pump is accumulated in a vessel.PROPANE C3H6 The detection limits depend partly on the total gas content. Different routines for sampling intervals have been developed by different utilities and in different countries.. The routine that has been used over a long period of time of checking the state of the oil every other year by measuring the breakdown strength. excessively hot metal surfaces and fast degradation of cellulose. Using calibration gases it is possible to identify the different peaks on a chromatogram. Identification of faults. for hydrogen. e.When a defect is suspected (e. methane and carbon monoxide about 5 ppm and for carbon dioxide about 2 ppm. A low pressure is maintained by a vacuum pump.ACETYLENE C2H2 7 . abnormal noise).Directly after and within a few weeks after a heavy short circuit 4 . followed by a further test some months later. Extraction and analysis To be able to carry out a gas analysis. The fault types that can and should be identified are corona. . To avoid having to deal with the contents of the individual gases.CARBON DIOXIDE CO2 3 .METHANE CH4 8 . for hydrocarbons (except methane) the limit lies below 0. To assure effective degassing (> 99 per cent). The volumes of the gas and the oil sample are determined to permit calculation of the total gas content in the oil.Some typical cases where gas analysis is particularly desirable are listed in the following: 1 . The accumulated gas is injected by means of a syringe into the gas chromatograph. one frequently uses quotients between different gases. the neutralization coefficient and other physical quantities is not replaced by the gas analysis. the content (in ppm) of the individual gases in the oil is obtained.In connection with the commissioning of Transformers that are of significant importance to the network.5 ppm. the oil is allowed to run slowly over a series of rings which enlarge its surfaces.. but certain care should be observed when making assessments. Any water that may have been present in the oil is removed by freezing in a cooling trap to ensure that the water will not disturb the vacuum pumping.HYDROGEN H2 4 . 2 . the tan value. 3 . which analyses the gas sample. A number of different schemes of this type have been prepared.

test methods. METHANE.GAS ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER Type Of Gas CARBON MONOXIDE. and guide for electrical insulating oils Of petroleum origin . C2H4 PROPANE. If the Transformer tank and the OLTC have a common conservator the warning and fault limits are 30 ppm and 100 ppm respectively for C2H2 Standard IEC 60475 IEC 60422 Method of sampling liquid dielectrics Supervision and maintenance guide for mineral Insulating oils in electrical equipment IEC 60567 Guide for the sampling of gases and of oil from oil filled electrical equipment and for the analysis of free and dissolved gases IEC 60599 Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in Service -Guide to the interpretation of dissolved and Free gases analysis IEC 60296 Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for Transformers and Switchgear ASTM Dl 17-96 Standard guide for sampling. ACETYLENE. C2H6 ETHENE. C3H6 HYDROGEN. Specifications. CH4 Caused By CO AGEING CO2 H2 ELECTRIC ARCS LOCAL OVERHEATING H2 CORONA Gas concentration limits used in the Interpretation of DGA data A statistical survey concerning gas concentrations in Transformer Oil using the results of that survey the following limits have been set: Threshold Warning Fault Unit Limit Limit Limit H2 20 200 400 ppm CH4 10 50 100 ppm C2H6 10 50 100 ppm C2H4 20 200 400 ppm C2H2 1 3 10 ppm CO 300 1000 ppm CO2 5000 20000 ppm The limits above are for a Transformer which are open with a breather and have no OLTC or has a separate conservator for the OLTC. C2H2 ETHANE. CARBON DIOXIDE. HYDROGEN.

ASTM D923-97 Standard practices for sampling electrical insulating liquids ASTM D3613-98 Standard test methods of sampling electrical Insulting oils for gas analysis and determination of Water content ASTM D36 12-98 Standard test method for analysis of gases dissolved In electrical insulating oil by gas chromatography ASTM D3487-88(1993) Standard specification for mineral insulating oil Used in electrical apparatus .

If the neutral point of a star or zigzag connected winding is brought out. V1 and W1 of the other Transformer. however. If a pair of three phase Transformers have the same phase displacement between high voltage and low voltage windings and possess similar characteristics (Such as no load ratio of transformation phase rotation. . V1 and W1 of one Transformer to HV terminals U1. It is the intention here to discuss the last two i. In case of any difference in the phase rotation it can be set right by simply interchanging two leads either on primary or secondary. 3) The same resistance to reactance ratio. 2) The same percentage impedance. Thus taking the case of two three phase Transformers having vector symbols Dd0 and Yy0. forming a three phase bank are indicated by letters Y.two or more three phase Transformers. these can be put into parallel operation by connecting H. 1.. should possess: 1) The same no load ratio of transformation. The above conditions are characteristic of all three phase Transformers whether two winding or three winding. 6) The same inherent phase-angle displacement between primary and secondary terminals. 5) The same phase rotation. The first four conditions need no explanation being the same as in single phase Transformers. percentage impedance) these can be paralleled with each other by connecting together terminals which correspond physically and alphabetically. Displacement of the low voltage winding vector varies from zero to -330° in steps of -30°. which are desired to be operated in parallel. and star zigzag. zigzag-delta. Connections of Phase Windings The star.V terminals U1.Yd11. low voltage terminals U1V1 and of one Transformer should be connected to U1. 4) The same polarity. Similarly. Hardly any power system adopts such a large variants of connections. zigzag star. With three winding Transformers. Displacement of the vectors of other windings from the reference vector. -180" and -330° (clock-hour setting 0. the following additional requirement must also be satisfied before the Transformers can be designed suitable for parallel operation. star-delta. delta or zigzag connection of a set of windings of a three phase Transformer or of windings of the same voltage of single phase Transformers. sixth and seventh conditions in detail. delta star. Some of the commonly used connections with phase displacement of 0. delta-delta. 6 and 11) are shown in Table ( below) Symbol for the high voltage winding comes first.PARALLEL OPERATION OF THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS Ideal parallel operation between Transformers occurs when (1) there are no circulating currents on open circuit. 7) The same power ratio between the corresponding windings.e. D or Z for the high voltage winding and y. with anticlockwise rotation. is represented by the use of clock hour figure. Phase Displacement between Windings The vector for the high voltage winding is taken as the reference vector. These requirements necessitate that any . IS: 2026 (Part 1V)-1977 gives 26 sets of connections star-star. V1 and W1 terminals of the second Transformer. d or z for the intermediate and low voltage windings. For example a 220/66/11 kV Transformer connected star. the indications are Y N or Z N and y n and z n respectively. and (2) the load division between the Transformers is proportional to their kVA ratings. depending on the method of connections. The fifth condition of phase rotation is also a simple requirement. -300. star and delta and vectors of 66 and 11 kV windings having phase displacement of 0° and -330° with the reference (220 kV) vector will be represented As Yy0 . delta-zigzag. It assumes that the standard direction of phase rotation is anti-clockwise. followed by the symbols of windings in diminishing sequence of voltage.

W of the two being RYB in the anti-clockwise direction are as shown in Figs. Fig. (39c) by full lines instead of Connecting 1V to bus Y and 1W to bus B as shown in Fig (39b) by dotted lines. This can be achieved by interchanging externally two of the h-v connections of the incoming Transformer to the supply. (39a) and (39b) respectively.V. . by connecting 1V to bus B and 1W to bus Y as shown in Fig. i. For example. (39) Example of parallel operation of Transformers of groups 3 and 4 (Transformers having symbols Dy 1 and Yd 11 operating in parallel It may be seen from these diagrams that the phase displacement between the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings is -30° in the first Transformer and it is -330° in the second Transformer. This is possible with suitable changes in external connections. with the phase sequence of the supply connected to terminals U. However. for the successful parallel operation of these Transformers.Sometimes it may be required to operate a three-phase Transformer belonging to one group with another three-phase Transformer belonging to a different group. Referring to Table (below) the phasor diagrams of the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings of the two Transformers..e. the phase displacement must be the same in the two. let us consider a three-phase Transformer with vector symbol Dy1 and see how this can be operated in parallel with a three-phase Transformer of similar characteristics but having vector symbol Yd11.

. The secondary voltages of this Transformer. The change in two of external it-v connections of the second Transformer thus brings it -30°. (39c) and therefore results in a phase displacement of -30° between the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings [see Fig. Between the three pairs of windings of the two (or more) Transformers (being paralleled) it is imperative that the power ratio of the corresponding windings of . Thus Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No. 0 and 6 however. Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No.e. (39c) instead of connecting 2V to busy and 2W to bus b as shown in Fig. (39b). have a phase rotation reversed with respect to that of the secondary voltages of the first Transformer. cannot be operated in parallel with one another without altering the internal connections of one of them as change of external connections only brings about change in phase rotation.Vector Group This results in the reversal from anticlockwise direction to clockwise direction of the phase rotation of the induced voltages as shown by arrows in Fig. 1 and 11 can be operated in parallel with one another by interchanging two of the external h-v and also the corresponding l-v connections of one Transformer. by connecting 2V to bus b and 2W to busy as shown in Fig. however. However. This can be set right by changing again the two corresponding l-v external connections. (39c)]. The general principle applying to the parallel operation of a three winding Transformer with another three winding Transformer are the same as those for the paralleling of two winding Transformers. i. to obtain the same percentage impedance.

e. Therefore. Fig. ( PH )1 ( PM )1 ( PL)1 = = ( PH ) 2 ( PM ) 2 ( PL) 2 Where (PH)1 and (PH)2 represent the powers of the h-v windings (say primary). This as is evident also fulfils the second condition of same percentage impedance. . (PM)1 and (PM)2 represent the powers of the medium voltage windings (say secondary) and (PL)1 and (PL)2 represent the powers of the low voltage windings (say tertiary) of the two Transformers labeled 1 and 2.the Transformers should be the same. when new three-phase 3 winding Transformers are to be purchased for parallel operation with existing three-phase 3-winding Transformers the purchase order must specify the power ratings of the various windings of the existing Transformers along with other specifications and indicate that the power ratios of the corresponding windings of the various Transformers must be identical failing which it will be impossible to design Transformers with same percentage impedances for the corresponding windings. When Transformers which do not fulfilling this condition are paralleled the operation may be satisfactory without fulfilling the ideal conditions so long as the loads to be carried do not overload either Transformer. Fig (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented) ( ZH )1 ( ZM )1 ( ZL )1 = = ( ZH ) 2 ( Z M ) 2 ( Z L ) 2 Thus the power ratios of the corresponding windings are similar. (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented by their equivalent circuits) connected in parallel. The currents flowing in the various circuits and windings are shown in the figure. i. This is proved below.