Psychotherapy in Modern

Integration China
M.D Pn.D M.D. M.M.




Since ern

the end

of the cultural
China and has ideas, opened

revolution itself and to Westthose practice. market of including

ment 300


sychotherapy as a traditional ing has existed for centuries with a civilization Descriptions of and

way of healin China, a 4,000 treatas of

influence pace

Western The faster



country years.

of more than psychological be found opus On of the

of hfe under associated and

the new

healing in the

could magnum

as early Chinese basis

with a greater

increased need for beliefs

psychob)gi psychotherapy. which

cal problems well both with to grow



die niejing.’

Psychotherapy basic

integration, Chinese
is likely

these descriptions and with the effort of generations of Chinese medical practitioners, some simple psychotherapeutic gradually evolved, such as cognitive ing, attention distraction, behavior tion, problem solving, and using one emotion Although the original methods therapy different theories enced therapy decades, chologists are still in China approach. of psychotherapy the development in China. methods reasoncorrec-


the collectivist

continue ance clude medical from to mental

in influence Remaining

and obstacles

importto the inthe

in China.

of psychotherapy profession,

in China skills stigma

lack of psychotherapy doing psychotherapy,

within profit attached

suggestion/hypnosis, to control another. elements of these modern psychoshape through a philosophy and have greatly influof modern psychoDuring the last few and psyefforts to

lack of potential by the masses,

in practice, has taken Western

and failpsychoPractice

ure to define basic requirements therapy training and practice.
(The and Journal 1994; of Psychotherapy 3:277-283) Research

Chinese medical workers have made unremitting

learn Western ideas and to integrate them into the treatment of the mentally ill through






April Medical


1994; University, Address


cepted May 10, 1994. From China Shenyang, and UniversityofMissouri-Columbia. correspondence to Dr. Beitman, try and Neurology, University Three Hospital Copyright Drive, © 1994 Columbia, American

Department of Psychiaof Missouri-Columbia, MO 65201. Press, Inc. Psychiatric






and pediatrics. in The 1978. China began the apAs ment. of the described and/or old or dominant have integrated Chinese psychonew. The gained psychology as a science reappeared. presentations was Journal publication the the quality improved. demonstrated and the development chology after of psychotherapy Cultural Revolution. Psychology was labeled as “fake science” and became a target of criticism on the grounds that it did not promote dialectical materialism. Chinese Psychological Association its energy in Clinical was born. was very successful. Most neurologists. about were After Psychology every other in December Associyear. Unfortunately. improved Yo Bin. 900 presentation presentasteadily. For the next 10 years to talk about psychology psychotherapy. RECENT modern psychotheras an alternative mental illness and cians in other specialized areas. This marks the beginning of the healthy development of modern psychotherapy The in China. gynecology. and 1979. Revolution the approval officially of the or so. and much also more proposals influence on Russian psychoas part of the and quality psychotherapy convention. both of convention increased in 1991. apy has gained recognition mode of treatment difficulties.278 PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION IN CIIINA psychological cultural factors in the methods. psyIn ad- Reportedly the The publication dition to the Chinese Psychology Journal. which had to stop publication during the Cultural Revolution. the approach to conflicting schools has moving from eclecticism to integration. its second convention. by the for psychological HISTORY ation holds At the first there were started Union was in a therapy. leadership. In 1958. Journal Chinese the quality constantly. a nationwide that tion lasted for disastrous 10 years and consequences. But overall. Chinese Clinical its convention convention. the number articles reporting the success of this marked the beginning of modern so-called political brought was Cultural movement the nalaunched psychotherapy in China. and HealthJournaL2’#{176} articles cording articles greatly published to Zhong Moreover.” in 1966. At than had half the of entered general movement of scientific information. China case analyses authored that first step. quantity tions on the of theme these sixth the 30 presentations on psycho- Modern the heavy China. that the majority treatments Western methods. into approach. Association the Division annual convention Chinese (CCPA) psychotherapy matured. of theoretical orientation. physicians and psychologists in the Psychology Research Unit of the Chinese Academy of Science applied and modified the Russian methods and term eclectic psychotherapy treat neuropathy. held At the Psychology In 1980. even ended governrethe of on over In terms can psychotherapy has increased the last 14 years (Table 1). however. Many political have created ups and process of modern and downs psy- developmental chotherapy. Psychology Health. these mention Cultural With articles treatment It must of the different therapy plication be categorized by the dominant method that was applied (Table 2). Journal of Chinese Psychological of Chinese Psychological Hygiene. one dared worse. gradually joined the team providing psychotherapy. nese Clinical Psychology. Journal of ChiMental of the Acof in newjournals such Newsletter. 1980. In most of these studies of psychother- VOLUME S #{149} NUMBER 4 #{149} FALL 1994 . such as internal and external medicine. therapy early psychotherapy 1950s political Throughout theories when and the in China Soviet cultural the ‘50s. no or. the Revolution. journal treatment developed a shortapproach to treatment of eight of psychotherapy. many in modern professionals gradually to incorand been Psychotherapy At first most sion of Following was formed within the CCPA. physi- Psychotherapy the neurologists’ porate components of diverse schools. be noted. members of CCPA and the Diviwere neurologists. quently logical appear Science articles on psychotherapy freas PsychoResearch.

pathology with the brought Year 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Number 1 2 and other psychological cally increased. cal problems parent-child an “open” political. In addition. an impetus disciplines. Finally. particularly Western. many traditional cultural values were attacked by Western cultural ideology. of the the quality process of the of interaction. more As a confound paranoia. and extramarital teacher-student Westernization. Since 1985. With increasing acknowledging psychologibecame more acceptable. and experiences Note: From permission.Li El’ IL. and psychologists clinics and counthe quality of the or 4 2 2 7 10 17 18 24 31 39 Total 159 Zhong Yo Bin. need professional increased of psychoability to par- for psychotherapy became or well developed because true psychotherapy is just beginning and aspects of major theories are understood. To increase 1991 1992 service. economics. provided professional 1. number of people anxiety. reform reform which in the was to allows intellecAfter came heavier. patients were selected from the clinics chotherapy. psychotherapy theories and Western psychotherapy theories contributed significantly to JOURNAL OF PS’ CI-1OTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . POlITICAlREFORM China late adopt started 1970s. The research methods included observation. and such as divorce. need motivated profespsychotherapy. created much more stress viduals. these of psychotherapy were studied ticularly apparent after Chinese people were exposed to foreign.11 Reprinted by and more physicians opened psychotherapy centers. more and more people started experiencing stressors. ideology. ment of living standards economic reform ideas. One so-called product foreign political of this policy. China had been “closed” for so many years. committed themselves with great eagerness to receiving reeducation and studying techniques. Thus. individuals with ber has psychotherapy. The changes from a planned economy for load comindibeto a market economy. before. experienced new to the profession. to many scientific psyjour- stigma declined somewhat. and foreign countries. phobia. and the The pace of life was greatly psychological individual’s sufficiently cles reflect China. culture. Moreover. and customs. 279 apy. Many articles are simply case reports On advanced entific China or records the whole. many professionals. About increased. and comparative study. this open-door policy was greatly welcomed and and TABLE conflicts. to including in Chinese Articles on psycho nals (1979-1992) therapy sequence. politics. of individuals been steadily This increased sionals to support more have seling dramatiimproveabout by and newly learned Western became more comfortable In recent years. tual exchanges with cultural. the have depression. studies is not sciin not artiin in chotherapy is reflected both societal need for and acceptance therapy provide The and increased the service. clinicians became more knowledgeable about psychiatric readily diagnoses and open to treatment therefore options. which were not as common affairs. which encourages petition. the numwho seek psychotherapy increasing. The effect of this policy in on psy- and hospitals with which the authors were affiliated. 159 articles. economical. these realities 800 patients However. controlled study.

For has been made to integrate instance. have been these intemore powerful integration is in fits the any single approach.” The correction Medical Medical Department in China Orientation Behavioralism Psychoanalysis Cognitive Client Morita Biofeedback Music Fair.280 PSYCHOTHERAPY INTEGRATION IN CHINA Chinese professionals’ ment. For are inviting foreign professionals to foreign for train8 years. strongly advocated psychotherapy to utilize what is common to the approaches and absorb the unique optiis conwill be to develop position by integration psychotherapy To improve training the quality programs of training.ily Hypnosis Supportive Total Note: From permission. promotwas the focus The experts of different as well and differlimited out between those views and pointed sponsoring integration expert addresses. effort the Japanese psychoanaand Chinese to form Psychology University has apapand a apy. the direction psychotherapeuintemany PSYChOTHERAPY I Since the N T E C R A T 1 0 N tic enterprise. term China. The promotion gration has also psychother- psychotherapy supported by beginning of modern clinical efforts in China. Zhong Yo Bin therapy therapy therapy centered also tried to integrate the proach with psychoanalytic proaches in treating various psychotic patients. unique strengths schools and differences training programs and hosting scholarly exchanges and conferences at different training levels. theobest At Psychology Association were to the hunger for knowledge sionals. client-centered and cognitive neuropathic 52 32 26 2 11 15 4 3 3 12 159 Reprinted by Reportedly. from invited than 300 strengths of each approach mal treatment systems. edness and strengths-whereas VOLUME S #{149} NUMBER 4 #{149} FALL 1994 . they integration different for overcoming one-sided views. Many universities that have clinical psychology departments experts and sending countries ing. They have been Psychotherapy Counseling and in 1990. They regarded as the result of “peephole” perspectives individual China Medical dividuals to psychotherapy.” “one divides “discard the ap- It is a common different psychotherapy present different biases-one-sidlimitations an as well integrated as unique approach. psychotherapy the United to lecture trainees have theorists States and for these participated and educators England were More in them. by dominant (1979-1992) Number Morita method with the Western lytic and cognitive approaches traditional “modified Eastern 2. This sistent view that with and supported psychotherapy of the modern of been Beitman’s’2 programs. the sent 7 into study of 7 shortin 11 of multiple acknowledged psychotherapeutic as similarities among ences by of thought to increase opportunities instance. Articles theoretical psychotherapy on psychotherapy orientation behavioral Morita. Chinese practitioners menting with integrating and TABLE have been experidifferent Western approaches. The Chinese ical Hygiene and intellectual developAssociation of Psychologthe Chinese Clinical very responsive among profesvarious They retical suited the ing try to absorb the essence approach and make the to the Chinese founding psychotherapy cultural of the Chinese Association of each treatment background. The idea of psychotherapy accepted Psychotherapy among integration professionals guiding Chinese into two” and dross belief proaches and that select philosophy that a person should the essence. during the last University different but also not only countries held a total them. grated approaches than widely China. the need Thus.

Integration is generally more favored by collectivistic culture than different individual schools The in China tegration. to the also or of defindiagnosis. about with their level of understanding first experience and popular These factors that where ance. such as the school they first encountered.LI E7’AL. state of the nation and of the culture inim- Helpful Useful The in understanding patients. came influence training Because into China policy. conflicts. psychotherapy is hampered because sufficient understanding approaches from them. no more than an not of theory. therapists to be the have direction psychotherapy Different 2. and during funcin culturally and tailorare goal For has of differ- The effects childhood tion. say that it is of techniques. importschools time as is bethe is of great conflicting at the same Reinforcement pat- There is no to select particular patients. acceptable istic (as use of the essence to any individual of each. on behaviors. to abstract integration in China therapists do not have of the different the common factors PSYCHOTHERAPY E V E 1. 3. situation. necessary countries Modification when these are Western 1. 3. are different orgawith differing. so psychotherapy lematic than O D Although a new life B S T A (. 0 P M E N psychotherapy and made in China a great deal has gained of progress JOURNAL OF PS HOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . of factors in therapies so as to framework. these reasons. psychotherapy integration been and will continue in China. psychotherapy. Simple practice. integration If in according psychotherapy we must integration the open characterized tween United nizations but therapy period and psychotherapy by having less the schools in China solid walls than in among a theoretical States. on behavior emo- adopted ent concepts and techniques of Western psychotherapeutic schools. 4. 4. practices. Many factors can influence therapists’ selections. common schools are concepts the selected from also necessitates psychotherapy Many psychotherapy theories from foreign and limited. their successful treatment. 2. Many importance of seeking common develop ing the therapy we can say that system for determining how techniques for particular therapists are not aware of the psychotherapy research. Psychogo through the various schools. 3. One way to reach this is through psychotherapy integration. following: experiences psychological patients context. need to understand specific cultural effect action Stimulus Cognitive tion. for change in patients. is less On the probother similar. in China of struggle in China has begun. is more collectivorienta- ing Many criteria Chinese therapists use in selecting theories the followand tech- the integrated approach in China because of the opposed to individualistic) niques: 1. for where there psychotherapists theories and did not among integration the West. The Western 1. The their of early on later theories applied in China. to a feared of intrapsychic of new articles about psychotherapy. L E S T hand. 281 which makes be superior Moreover. common therapies techniques selected are the following: of cognitive distortions. can approach. are much different from those therapists experience various almost in the United States. 2. ported bound ing are of thought. behavioral from Correction Exposure Analysis terns. and easy to understand and tion in its social and cultural environment.

no treatment will be sought cannot function. one-hour A second people psychotherapy could be and misused to fool people. many institutional insurance programs do not cover psychotherapy costs. should move psychological. of this bias. should for controlling fessionals who 1988. in the government uses employed and charge session that does have prefer thus for not doubts medicine as an is provided In an attempt the Chinese and the Dividrafted the Psyat by pro- im- Unfortunately. There it is not are free still and from a number doubt about of major psy- therapy.282 PSYCHOThERAPY INTEGRATION IN Ci IINA in recent its future. be a potential of a medpersonnel Even in in the site of the in tend to terminate appearance of good attained. drafted Psychotherapy and The “behavior. Among the professionals who are offering treatment in medicine those and facilities. to correct this chaotic situation. against not the seek Parents have the societal prejudice ill still and exists. In Beijing. Clinical Psychology Association sion the of Psychotherapy Regulations. but also concerns about profit making. the do not neurology structure. by the several pricing the cost portant by “talks” very (about much apy. incentive organizations do not have political Without the government’s involvethe Psychotherapist Regulations is a scrap main of paper. stigma Moreover. numerous the qualifications of the proprovide psychotherapy. are other instrumental means of treatment. of the Psychotherapist by professional organiza- performing psychother- Second. physicians would treatment. manifestations medical services of instruments criterion. ment. But when will the intervene? points drafted as follows: of psychotherapy from college must have received We cannot tell. Unavoidindividuals counseling.” standard a fee for many and people much is priced a regular is 3 yuan provide about or psychotherapy 25 cents). or teaching. medical psychother- psychology gone through and some or and some do not. related of treating mental obstacles are related about psychotherto cultural and Many will humiliation. mentally treatment of young psychological to improving popularizing chotherapy as a means disorders. many development is the bias There its difficulties. of these people. has This less than one-tenth apply psychotherapy counseling centers have been opened. merely government The obstacle the government. Some of these to the lack of knowledge apy and political some are restrictions. low. and consolaEven worse. psychotherapy are In offerthe turn affect the proposal hospital’s that the ably. apparently out of fear of people who disorders often try to hide the problem. psychotherapy to practical Psychotherapy cine in China. some unqualified ing psychotherapy hands times tion. In addition. apy ical still the is generally unit. psychotherapy Regulations tions 1. viewed majority department obstacles is that the model dominates the Although psychotheras a branch of medical (which. which also discourages the interest in psycho- Providers graduated and VOLUME S #{149} NUMBER 4 #{149} FALL 1994 . in apy will Although model logical. of course. The cerning therapist qualifications attention within the profession. sometimes problems have was condrawn plementation This. obstacles years. some some understand understand some have psychotherapy is not only due to the lack of knowledge and skills. time. some do not. is the lack of a system believe in psychotherapy. is much and doing the toward and verbal faces the affects major and cheaper more than mediprofit. regulations present jointly chotherapist fessional support. gained much still integrating biosocial treatment support. Since psychotherapy clinics and Chinese for psychotherapy). Even treatment when the has been problem those psychotherapy prematurely functioning Another In many cases until the person who do receive One of the major traditional biomedical medical field in China. some training in have not. First. psychotherapy. of held are im- some- becomes mere support advice giving. there are more than 10 of these facilities.

Zhentao of 28 outpatients HealthJournal Relaxation with 1988. Zhong China. 6:138-139 psychotherapy Hygiene PsychotherPsychological of Individual 1987 Li: Morita of 10 neuroses in a hospital. patients: a review. its application Mental 3. Journal 1990.LI ET 1L. hope. New JOURNAL OF PS’I HOTHERAPY PRACTICE AND RESEARCH . Wong clomipramine Mental 11. 3:62-65 7. 283 the Bachelor’s Philosophy. Company. social 2:250-252 phobia. psychointegration professionals’ R F F F R F N C F 1. enlegal Chinese the growth of psychotherapy. applied an introduc2:104-108 treatment Health in the Chinese HealthJournal therapy HealthJournal Yo Journal 5:38-40 B: The York. bright support for psychotherapy culture and of inte- in psychotherapy. psychotherapydespite As exchange programs manydiflicultobbetween China regulations and only government and the West continue to develop. Beitman apy. 3. 5:35-37 therapy for Mental combined enuresis. by the they people Degree must have of Medicine training dedicated exam. 1992. 2:205-208 6. are have the not no or expeto The future C 0 N C L t S I 0 N appears in influences China. Homey’s Health Journal 12. Xuerong Li: Cognitive triptyline in the treatment sive neuroses in China. Xiangping theory on Liu: A brief introduction neurosis. 2. Shandong and Hebei about Huang Publishing School of Chinese Medical School: di#{128} nie jing. Chinese Mental Mental to K. Yanlin Zhong: Comparison tion and flooding/implosive ment Mental anxiety Journal 4. therapy: 1988. These rience They the They Because acted status. Xiaodong therapy compared with amiof 18 patients with depresChinese therapy 1991. People’s of systematic therapies Health 1989. 2:209-212 Qian: Rational-emotive Mental 1992. athletes Health with Chinese in Health Chi- 1982 desensitizain the treatChinese for Health 2. XuJiunmian: Cognitive nese Mental HealthJournal Xu: Rational disturbance. 6:29-Si Huiliang: for 30 children Bin: Psychology of Chinese Structure Guilford. 1988. Chinese Journal 1988. 4:30-33 8. Chinese psychotherapists may find that their perspective on Western thought may provide more efficient therapy and effective ways of defining for the world. 4. Traditional Questions Medicine and Answers Beijing. emotive Chinese therapy with and Mental for depression. should be loyal enterprise must pass these represent the integration and qualifying Western grated stacles.JianlinJi: training and Chinese with emotional Journal 10. Behavior 9. 5. Mingyi tion. 1992.

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