1 views

Uploaded by Shankar Ganesh

PAPR reduction in OFDM using adaptive ACE algorithm.

save

- Teknik Modulasi.ppt
- Lec 13 Error Rate Performance
- qpskmod
- OFDM1
- reference.pdf
- W5 - Analog
- What are the Advantages and Benefits of Chirp Signals.docx
- Handout 9(1)
- 1modulation[1]
- Code Modulation
- Chapter 5 ADM
- Spectrum Sensing and Blind Automatic Modulation Classification in Real Time
- 1 Modulation
- DOQPSK - Differential Demodulation of Filtered Offset QPSK
- Modulation and Frequency Synthesis x Digital Wireless Radio
- JT2316191624.pdf
- celluar system
- EEE461Lec16(Performance of QAM)
- 400gbe
- CHAP 3
- PID972964[1]
- 100G Technology
- Fundamentals of Spread Spectrum Modulation
- BER performance for BPSK
- Agilent Blackbird e3238s_wsd
- DCN A03 Analog Transmission
- NAB Uplink Operator SeminarR9
- communication syatems
- Ericsson Tools _ Lte
- Third Year
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Yes Please
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- Steve Jobs
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- Bel Canto
- The Master
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Cider House Rules
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Interpreter of Maladies
- The Wallcreeper
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- A Tree Grows in Brooklyn

You are on page 1of 8

**Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)
**

43

Peak-To-Average Power Ratio Reduction by CB-ACE and

Adaptive Ace Algorithms

Madhuri P

1

, Dr Malleswari B L

2

1

Assistant Professor, GNITS, Hyderabad, A.P.

2

Professor, GNITS, Hyderabad, A.P.

1

madhuripocha@gmail.com

2

blmalleswari@gmail.com

Abstract - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM) is a method of Digital Modulation in which a signal is

split into several narrowband channels at different

frequencies. The OFDM technology was first conceived in the

1960s and 1970s during the research into minimizing

interference among the channels near each other in the

frequency [5]. The main idea behind OFDM is that since low-

rate modulations are less sensitive to multipath, the better

way is to send a number of low rate streams in parallel than

sending one high rate waveform [8].The OFDM signal has a

noise like amplitude with a very large dynamic range;

therefore it requires RF power amplifiers with a high Peak-to-

Average Power Ratio (PAPR) or Peak-to-Average Ratio

(PAR) [1].

The high PAPR increases the complexity of Analog-to-

Digital (A/D) and Digital-to-Analog (D/A) converters and also

lowers the efficiency of power amplifiers [1]. The Clipping-

Based Active Constellation Extension (CB-ACE) Algorithm

and Adaptive Active Constellation Extension (Adaptive ACE)

Algorithm can be efficiently used to reduce the high PAPR in

OFDM systems.

Keywords - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM), Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), Peak-to-

Average Ratio (PAR), Clipping-Based Active Constellation

Extension (CB-ACE), Adaptive Active Constellation

Extension (Adaptive ACE)

I. INTRODUCTION

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

is a Multi-Carrier Modulation (MCM) scheme, in which

many parallel data streams are transmitted at the same time

over a channel, with each transmitting only a small part of

the total data rate. With OFDM, a high-speed digital

message is divided into a large number of separate carrier

waves [7].

OFDM depends on Orthogonality principle.

Orthogonality is allowing the sub carriers, which are

orthogonal to each other. So that, the cross talk between co-

channels is eliminated and inter-carrier guard bands are not

required.

The OFDM signal has a noise like amplitude with a very

large dynamic range; therefore it requires RF power

amplifiers with a high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

(PAPR). The high PAPR increases the complexity of

Analog-to-Digital (A/D) and Digital-to-Analog (D/A)

converters and also lowers the efficiency of power

amplifiers [1].

A. Block Diagram of OFDM Transmitter

The block diagram of Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter is shown in the figure

1.1. S[n], a serial stream of binary digits is the input to the

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

transmitter. By inverse multiplexing, the serial stream of

binary digits is converted into N parallel streams, as any

programmable IC will take the input parallely. The N

parallel streams are converted into the state space

components by using modulation techniques like

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) and Phase Shift

Keying (PSK).

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is a

combination of simple Amplitude Modulation (AM) and

simple Phase Modulation, which helps to transmit more

data over the same bandwidth as that of simple Amplitude

Modulation alone or Phase Modulation alone. Hence, QAM

increases the efficiency of transmission of the data for radio

communication systems.

Phase Shift Keying (PSK) is a digital modulation

scheme that conveys the data by changing or modulating

the phase of the reference signal or the carrier wave. PSK

uses a finite number of phases each assigned with a unique

pattern of binary digits. The various forms of the Phase

Shift Keying (PSK) are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK),

Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), 8-Phase Shift

Keying (8-PSK) and 16-Phase Shift Keying (16-PSK).

An Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is computed

on each set of symbols, giving a set of complex time-

domain samples. The time-domain samples are

then Quadrature mixed to pass band in the standard way.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)

44

The real and imaginary components are first converted

to the analog domain by using Digital-to-Analog

Converters (DACs).

The analog signals are then used to modulate cosine and

sine waves at the carrier frequency, f

c

respectively. These

signals are then summed up to give the transmission

signal, S(t) [16].

Fig 1.1 : Block Diagram of OFDM Transmitter

B. Block Diagram of OFDM Receiver

The block diagram of Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) receiver is shown in the figure 1.2.

The received signal, r(t) is the input to the Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) receiver. The

received signal is Quadrature mixed down to baseband

signals by using cosine and sine waves at the carrier

frequency, f

c

. The frequency of the baseband signals is

equal to twice that of the carrier frequency i.e., 2f

c

,

so Low Pass Filters (LPFs) are used to attenuate the

frequency which is greater than the carrier frequency, f

c

.

The baseband signals are then sampled and digitized by

using Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs). A forward

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used to convert back into

the frequency domain. The frequency domain signals are

then converted to N parallel streams, each of which is

converted to a binary stream using an appropriate

symbol detector. The binary streams are then recombined

into a serial stream, denoted by

ˆ

S[n]

which is an estimate

of the original binary stream at the transmitter [16].

1.2 : Block Diagram of OFDM Receiver

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)

45

II. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of an

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

transmit signal is given as shown in equation 2.1 [4], [6].

2

T

2

0

max( x(t ) )

1

x(t ) dt

T

10

PAPR 10log dB

, ,

, ,

}

=

Eq. 2.1

Where,

PAPR – Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

x(t) – Baseband Representation of OFDM Symbol

T – Duration of the OFDM Symbol

The baseband representation of the Orthogonal

Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) symbol is given

as in equation 2.2 [1].

j2 nt N 1

N

n

n 0

1

x(t) X e , t T

N

t ÷

=

= 0 s s

¿

Eq. 2.2

Where,

N – Number of Subcarriers

X

n

– Data Sequence

T – Duration of the OFDM Symbol

OFDM is currently being used in several new radio

broadcast systems including the proposal for High

Definition Digital Television (HDTV). The other major

applications of the OFDM systems are –

- Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

(WiMAX)

- Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)

- Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB)

- Wireless Networking

A. Applications of CB-ACE And Adaptive ACE

The Clipping-Based Active Constellation Extension

Algorithm also called as the Repeated Clipping and

Filtering (RCF) process is used to reduce the Peak-to-

Average Power Ratio (PAPR) in OFDM Systems.

The Adaptive Active Constellation Extension Algorithm

is not only used to reduce the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

(PAPR) but also to overcome the drawbacks of CB-ACE

Algorithm or RCF Process.

III. CLIPPING-BASED ACTIVE CONSTELLATION EXTENSION

(CB-ACE) ALGORITHM

The basic idea of the Clipping-Based Active

Constellation Extension (CB-ACE) Algorithm is to

generate the anti-peak signal for reducing the Peak-to-

Average Power Ratio (PAPR) by projecting the flipping in-

band noise into feasible extension area while removing the

out-of-band distortion with filtering [2].

The basic principle of Clipping-Based Active

Constellation Extension (CB-ACE) algorithm involves

switching between the time domain and the frequency

domain. Filtering and applying the ACE constraint in the

frequency domain, after clipping in the time domain, both

require iterative processing to suppress the subsequent re-

growth of the peak power [9].

The CB-ACE algorithm is first used to clip the peak

amplitude of the original Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) signal. The clipping sample

obtained after clipping the peak signals, denoted by

(i )

n

c

,

is given by the equation 3.1 [2].

n

j (i) (i) (i)

n n n

(i)

n

c ( x e , x

x

u

= | |÷A) | |> A

0, | |s A

Eq. 3.1

Where,

(i )

n

c

– Clipping Sample of the i

th

iteration

(i)

n

x

– Oversampled OFDM signal

A – Predetermined Clipping Level

θ

n

– arg(-

(i)

n

x )

The equation 3.1 says that the clipping sample is reduced

to a value equal to zero when the peak amplitude of the

original OFDM signal is less than or equal to the

predetermined clipping level, A. If the peak amplitude of

the original OFDM signal is greater than the predetermined

clipping level, then the clipping sample is given by

n

jθ (i)

n

( x A)e ÷ , where the predetermined clipping

level is subtracted from the oversampled OFDM signal an

is then multiplied by an exponential value [2].

The predetermined clipping level, denoted by A, is

related to the target clipping ratio, γ and is given by the

equation 3.2 [2].

2

2

n

A

γ=

E{ x }

Eq. 3.2

Where,

γ – Target Clipping Ratio

A – Predetermined Clipping Level

x

n

– Oversampled OFDM signal

The clipping of the peak signal results to distortion of

the original OFDM signal.

The distortion of the original signal can be assumed as

the noise, which results to an unreliable communication

between the transmitter and the receiver.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)

46

The distortion caused by clipping the original OFDM

signal is categorized into two types, namely [2] –

- In-Band Distortion.

- Out-of-Band Distortion.

The in-band distortion results in the system performance

degradation and cannot be reduced, while, the out-of-band

distortion can be minimized by filtering the clipped signals.

The signal obtained after filtering the clipped signal is

given by the equation 3.3 [2].

(i+1) (i) (i)

x =x +μc Eq. 3.3

Where,

(i)

c

– Anti-Peak Signal at the i

th

iteration

µ – Positive Real Number (µ varies from 0.1 to 1)

The anti-peak signal at the i

th

iteration generated

for the PAPR reduction, denoted by

(i)

c , is given by the

equation 3.4 [2].

(i) (i) (i)

c =T c Eq. 3.4

Where,

(i)

c – Anti-Peak Signal at the i

th

iteration

T

(i)

– Transfer Matrix at the i

th

iteration

C

(i)

– Peak Signal above the Pre-Determined Level

The transfer matrix at the i

th

iteration, denoted by

T

(i)

, used for generating the anti-peak signal is given by the

equation 3.5 [2].

(i) *(i) (i)

ˆ ˆ

T =Q Q

Eq. 3.5

Where, T

(i)

– Transfer Matrix at the i

th

iteration

*(i)

ˆ

Q – Conjugate of Constellation Order

(i)

ˆ

Q – Constellation Order

Though, the process of filtering completely eliminates

the distortions caused by the clipping process, it introduces

peak re-growth at some of the peak signals of the OFDM

signal. The peak re-growth can be reduced by repeating the

filtering process, which may again introduce some

distortions. Therefore, the clipping and filtering processes

are to be repeated until the peak signals are completely

reduced. Hence, the Clipping-Based Active Constellation

Extension (CB-ACE) Algorithm is also named as the

Repeated Clipping and Filtering (RCF) process.

IV. ADAPTIVE ACTIVE CONSTELLATION EXTENSION

(ADAPTIVE-ACE) ALGORITHM

The main objective of the Adaptive Active Constellation

Extension (Adaptive ACE) Algorithm for reducing the

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is to control both the

clipping level and the convergence factor at each step and

thereby minimize the peak power signal whichever is

greater than the initial target clipping level [2].

The Adaptive Active Constellation Extension (Adaptive

ACE) Algorithm can be initialized by selecting the

parameters namely the target clipping level, denoted by A

and the number of iterations, denoted by i. In the first step,

the iteration is taken as two i.e., i = 2 and the initial target

clipping level is to be taken as A [2].

The predetermined clipping level, denoted by A, is

related to the target clipping ratio, γ and given is by the

equation 4.1 [2].

2

2

n

A

γ =

E{ x }

Eq. 4.1

Where,

γ – Target Clipping Ratio

A – Predetermined Clipping Level

x

n

– Oversampled OFDM signal

The clipping of the peak signal results to

distortion of the original OFDM signal. The distortion of

the original signal can be assumed as the noise, which

results to an unreliable communication between the

transmitter and the receiver. The distortion caused by

clipping the original OFDM signal is categorized into two

types, namely [2] –

- In-Band Distortion.

- Out-of-Band Distortion.

The in-band distortion results in the system

performance degradation and cannot be reduced, while, the

out-of-band distortion can be minimized by filtering the

clipped signals. The signal obtained after filtering the

clipped signal is given by the equation 4.2 [2].

(i+1) (i) (i)

x = x + μc

Eq. 4.2

Where,

(i)

c

– Anti-Peak Signal at the i

th

iteration

µ – Convergence Factor

The Convergence Factor (CF), denoted by µ can

be estimated by using the equation 4.3.

(i) (i)

(i) (i)

[ c ,c ]

μ

c ,c

9

=

Eq. 4.3

Where,

µ – Convergence Factor

9 – Real Part

C

(i)

– Peak Signal above Pre- Determined

(i)

c

– Anti-Peak Signal at the i

th

iteration

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)

47

, – Complex Inner Part

The anti-peak signal at the i

th

iteration generated

for the PAPR reduction, denoted by

(i)

c , is given by the

equation 4.4 [2].

(i) (i) (i)

c = T c Eq. 4.4

Where,

(i)

c – Anti-Peak Signal at the i

th

iteration

T

(i)

– Transfer Matrix at the i

th

iteration

C

(i)

– Peak Signal above Pre-Determined

The transfer matrix at the i

th

iteration, denoted by

T

(i)

, used for generating the anti-peak signal is given by the

equation 4.5 [2].

(i) *(i) (i)

ˆ ˆ

T = Q Q Eq. 4.5

Where,

T

(i)

– Transfer Matrix at the i

th

iteration

*(i)

ˆ

Q – Conjugate of Constellation Order

(i)

ˆ

Q – Constellation Order

The original Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) signal, denoted by x

n

, is to be

clipped in order to reduce the peak signals. The clipping

signal is given by the equation 4.6.

n

j (i) (i) (i)

n n n

(i)

n

c = ( x e , x

x

u

| |÷A) | |> A

0, | |s A

Eq. 4.6

Where,

(i )

n

c

– Clipping Sample

A – Predetermined Clipping Level

θ

n

– arg(-

(i)

n

x )

The clipping level denoted by A, for the next

iteration is given by the equation 4.7 [2].

(i+1) (i)

A

A = A μ + V

Eq. 4.7

Where,

A

(i+1)

– Next Iteration Level

A

(i)

– Present Iteration Level

µ – Convergence Factor

A

V – Gradient with respect to A

The gradient with respect to the target clipping

ratio, denoted by

A

V , is given by the equation 4.8 [2].

(i) (i)

1 3

(i+1)

n

n I I

A

p

c

=

N

e

V

¿

Eq. 4.8

Where,

A

V – Gradient with respect to A

N

p

– No. of peak samples larger than A

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) is to be

calculated to the signal obtained by the equation 4.2, which

reduces the PAPR than the PAPR calculated for the

original OFDM signal or PAPR obtained of the OFDM

signal obtained by using the Clipping-Based Active

Constellation Extension (CB-ACE) Algorithm.

V. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the

original OFDM signal can be calculated by using equations

2.1 and 2.2. The simulated result obtained by using

MATLAB version 7.2.0 (R2006a) can be seen in Screen

Shot 5.1.

From the Screen Shot 5.1, the Peak-to-Average Power

Ratio (PAPR) of the original Orthogonal Frequency

Division Multiplexing signal is equal to 11.8 dB with a

CCDF of 10

-2

.

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the

original Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM) signal is very high, which is evident from the

Screen Shot 5.1. The high PAPR results to the increase in

the complexity of the Analog-to-Digital Convertors

(ADCs) and Digital-to-Analog Convertors (DACs), also

reduces the efficiency of the power amplifiers.

The high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the

original Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM) signals can be reduced by using various reduction

techniques like Clipping-Based Active Constellation

Extension (CB-ACE) Algorithm, Exponential Companding

Transform, Adaptive Active Constellation Extension

(Adaptive ACE) Algorithm and New Companding

Transform.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)

48

Screen Shot 5.1 – PAPR Vs CCDF of Original OFDM Signal

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the

clipped and filtered OFDM signal obtained by Clipping-

Based Active Constellation Extension Algorithm can be

calculated by using equations 3.1 to 3.5. The simulated

result obtained by using MATLAB version 7.2.0 (R2006a)

can be seen in Screen Shot 5.2.

From the Screen Shot 5.2, the Peak-to-Average Power

Ratio (PAPR) of the Orthogonal Frequency Division

Multiplexing (OFDM) signal obtained by using the

Clipping-Based Active Constellation Extension (CB-ACE)

algorithm is equal to 10 dB, 8.5 dB and 8.0 dB for the

target clipping ratios of 0 dB, 2 dB and 4 dB respectively

with a Complimentary Cumulative Distribution Function

(CCDF) of 10

-2

or 0.01.The other problems faced by the

Clipping-Based Active Constellation Extension (CB-ACE)

algorithm are Out-of-Band Interference (OBI) and peak re-

growth.Here, the Out-of-Band Interference (OBI) is a form

of noise or an unwanted signal, which is caused when the

original Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM) signal is clipped for reducing the peak signals

which are outside to the predetermined area and the peak

re-growth is obtained after filtering the clipped signal.

The peak re-growth results to, increase in the

computational time and computational complexity.

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the

clipped and filtered OFDM signal obtained by Adaptive

Active Constellation Extension Algorithm can be

calculated by using equations 4.1 to 4.8. The simulated

result obtained by using MATLAB version 7.2.0 (R2006a)

can be seen in Screen Shot 5.3.

From the Screen Shot 5.3, the Peak-to-Average Power

Ratio (PAPR) or Peak-to-Average Ratio (PAR) or Crest

Factor of the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

(OFDM) signal obtained by using the Adaptive Active

Constellation Extension (Adaptive-ACE) algorithm is equal

to 6.8 dB for the target clipping ratios of 0 dB, 2 dB and 4

dB with a Complimentary Cumulative Distribution

Function (CCDF) of 10

-2

or 0.01.

The table 4.1 gives a comparison of Peak-to-Average

Power Ratio (PAPR) of the original Orthogonal Frequency

Division Multiplexing (OFDM) signal and clipped &

filtered OFDM signal obtained by using CB-ACE

Algorithm and Adaptive ACE Algorithm.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)

49

Screen Shot 5.2 – PAPR Vs CCDF by using CB-ACE Algorithm

(For Different Target Clipping Ratios)

Screen Shot 5.3 – PAPR Vs CCDF by using Adaptive-ACE Algorithm

(For Different Target Clipping Ratios)

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2012)

50

Table 5.1 – Comparison of PAPR for Different Algorithms

Original

OFDM Signal

CB-ACE

Algorithm

Adaptive ACE

Algorithm

PAPR in dB

11.8

10.0 (γ = 0 dB)

8.5 (γ = 2 dB)

8.0 (γ = 4 dB)

6.8 (γ = 0 dB)

6.8 (γ = 2 dB)

6.8 (γ = 4 dB)

VI. CONCLUSIONS

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

system is equal to 11.8 dB (approximately 12 dB) without

using any algorithm. The high PAPR results to the increase

in the complexity of Analog-to-Digital Convertor (ADC)

and Digital-to-Analog Convertor (DAC), also lowers the

efficiency of power amplifiers.

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratios (PAPR) for the

target clipping ratios of 4 dB, 2 dB and 0 dB are 8.0 dB, 8.5

dB and 10.0 dB respectively by using Clipping Based

Active Constellation Extension (CB-ACE) Algorithm.

Though, the PAPR is reduced by using CB-ACE algorithm,

the minimum PAPR cannot be achieved for low target

clipping ratios.

The Peak-to-Average Power Ratios (PAPR) for the

target clipping ratios of 4 dB, 2 dB and 0 dB is 6.8 dB by

using Adaptive Active Constellation Extension (Adaptive

ACE) Algorithm. The drawbacks of CB-ACE Algorithm

are minimized by Adaptive ACE Algorithm.

References

[1] Abaurakhia S A, Badran E F and Darwish A E, “Linear Companding

Transform for the Reduction of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio of

OFDM Signals”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 55, No.

1, pp. 155 – 160, March 2009.

[2] Bae K, Andrews J G and Powers E J, “Adaptive Active

Constellation Extension Algorithm for Peak-to-Average Ratio

Reduction in OFDM”, IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 14, No.

1, pp. 39 – 41, January 2010.

[3] Hou J, Ge J, Zhai D and Li J, “Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

Reduction of OFDM Signals with Nonlinear Companding Scheme”,

IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 258 – 262,

June 2010.

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crest_factor.

[5] http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/orthogonal-

frequency-divisi on-multiplexing.

[6] http://www.dliengineering.com/downloads/crest%20factor.pdf.

[7] http://www.linktionary.com/o/ofdm.html.

[8] http://www.mobileisgood.com/ofdm.php.

[9] Ouderaa E V, Schoukens J and Renneboog J, “Peak Factor

Minimization Using a Time-Frequency Domain Swapping

Algorithm”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and

Measurement, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 145 – 147, March 1988.

- Teknik Modulasi.pptUploaded bykemas
- Lec 13 Error Rate PerformanceUploaded byfahad_shamshad
- qpskmodUploaded byarevazhagunvc
- OFDM1Uploaded bynugraha_st3
- reference.pdfUploaded byFloraDas
- W5 - AnalogUploaded byZharif Amin
- What are the Advantages and Benefits of Chirp Signals.docxUploaded byeidermutum
- Handout 9(1)Uploaded byAmmar khan
- 1modulation[1]Uploaded byKilik Arizona
- Code ModulationUploaded byHarsha
- Chapter 5 ADMUploaded byAnggoro Adi Sucipto
- Spectrum Sensing and Blind Automatic Modulation Classification in Real TimeUploaded byHamid
- 1 ModulationUploaded byanhminh81
- DOQPSK - Differential Demodulation of Filtered Offset QPSKUploaded byJamil Ahmad
- Modulation and Frequency Synthesis x Digital Wireless RadioUploaded bylcnblzr3877
- JT2316191624.pdfUploaded bylii
- celluar systemUploaded byk. akhila
- EEE461Lec16(Performance of QAM)Uploaded byKanav Sachdeva
- 400gbeUploaded bystamfordchiu
- CHAP 3Uploaded bykeane1
- PID972964[1]Uploaded bybahman_ramadan
- 100G TechnologyUploaded byrulerkhan
- Fundamentals of Spread Spectrum ModulationUploaded byBa Dong
- BER performance for BPSKUploaded byNagaintheran Seluarize
- Agilent Blackbird e3238s_wsdUploaded bymemeavelo4746
- DCN A03 Analog TransmissionUploaded bySneha Singh
- NAB Uplink Operator SeminarR9Uploaded byPrometheusUV
- communication syatemsUploaded byManojSharma
- Ericsson Tools _ LteUploaded byLAMKADEM
- Third YearUploaded byapi-3797997