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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 2 (12), pp. 172-174, December, 2012 Available online at http://www.japsonline.

com DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2012.21230 ISSN 2231-3354

Phythochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Sub Fractions Asam Kandis (Garcinia diocia Blume)
Puji Ardiningsih*, Sumarni, Risa Nofiani, and Afghani Jayuska
Department of Chemistry, Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty, Tanjungpura University Jl. A.Yani Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia.

ARTICLE INFO
Article history: Received on: 09/11/2012 Revised on: 10/12/2012 Accepted on: 22/12/2012 Available online: 30/12/2012 Key words: Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion, Garcinia diocia Blume

ABSTRACT
Fruit flesh of asam kandis Garcinia diocia Blume has been used people in Kalimantan Barat to preserve fresh fish. One of compounds which is probably responsible as a preservative agent is antimicrobial compounds. In this research, flesh fruit of asam kandis was extracted using methanol as a solvent. Furthermore, the crude extract was partitioned using various solvent such as n–hexane and ethyl acetate. On the basis of antimicrobial activity, methanolic and ethyl acetate fractions can inhibit growth of tested microorganisms. The best antimicrobial fraction was showed by ethyl acetate fraction due to inhibit all of tested microorganism but sub fraction E4 can only inhibit Candida albicans which are possibly responsible for antimicrobial activity were categorized as flavonoid.

INTRODUCTION Garcinia is one of genus from Clusiaceae family which its spread in Asia, Africa, New Caledonia and Polynesia(Merza et al., 2004). Based on review of literature and observation of herbarium specimen, Indonesia has 64 species of Garcinia (Garcinia spp.) and 25 species of Garcinia found in Kalimantan Island (Uji, 2007). Extract ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanolic from seed of Garcinia cola exhibit antibacterial against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium (Seanego and Ndip, 2012). Extract of feel, leaves, and bark Garcinia mangostana L. showing strong antibacterial against Listeria monocytogenes and S.aureus (Palakawong et al., 2010). Asam kandis (Garcinia diocia Blume) has used Dayak and Malay communities in the District of West Kalimantan province for agent preservation. Dry powder pulp of fruit flesh asam kandis combined with salt can preserve fresh fish. This treatment will be extend the shelf life of fish at room temperature for several days.
* Corresponding Author Puji Ardiningsih Email: puji_ardiningsih@yahoo.com

Preservative agents have various mechanisms to preserve foodstuffs. One of mechanisms is antimicrobial activity. The first step to find out mechanism of asam kandis fruis as preservative agent, we evaluated antimicrobial activity from its extract, fraction and sub fraction. In addition, compound class of the extract and the sub fraction is evaluated by phytochemical screening with various specific reagents. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sampling of asam kandis fruit Asam kandis fruit was collected from Mengkiang Village, Kecamatan Sanggau Kapuas Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. The sample was determined at Herbarium Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology Indonesian Institute Science, Indonesia. Preparation and extraction of sample Fruit flesh of asam kandis was sliced and dried gently. The dried sample was ground to be powder with size 60 mesh. The powder (2.5 kg) was macerated at room temperature using methanol as solvent. The maceration was carried out many times until colorless solvent. Furthermore, it was filtered using paper filter, Whatman No 1. The filtrate was concentrated using a vacuum rotary evaporator to get crude extract.

nhexane and ethyl acetate which is different the polarity. Non polar antimicrobial compounds are difficult to spread into medium so that it will give lower clear zone.39 Microorganism Test B. (+) present.25 9. However. the well was filled with 200 μg/well of the bacterial extract and incubated at 37 o C for 24 h. 2012: 172-174 Partition of the crude extract The crude extract was partitioned by various solvent.14 10.63 13. pneumoniae Salmonella sp. All of the fractions were performed antimicrobial assay.93 12. 70-230mesh) and gravity column chromatography (Si gel Merck 60. subtilis S. K. Furthermore. aureus B. The polar compound will diffuse easily into medium so that the clear zone is bigger. Wagner. Table. The antimicrobial . Fractionation of crude extract by n-hexane and ethyl acetate increased antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate fraction especially on Citrobacter freundii.20 9.= no clear zone Table.48 11. On the basis of the result.98 9.60 9. 70230mesh). Diameter of inhibition zone was measured from the edge of the colony to the edge of the clear zone and recorded.57 13. Enterobacter sp.42 8. the crude extract of asam kandis fruit can inhibit 11 of 12 microorganism tests (Table 1). The color which is formed was recorded and used to predict class-compounds in the extract/fraction. polarity of compounds shows an important role in this case. The phytochemical screening showed each fraction containing various class of compound. The active compound of antimicrobial from flesh fruit of asam kandis might be semipolar compound which dissolved in ethyl acetate solvent. activity was categorized as broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.173 Ardiningsih et al. This suggest that the fractionation removed others chemical compound which have antagonism of various compounds on each other.1999).89 9. the fraction showing antimicrobial activity is ethyl acetate fraction and methanol dissolved fraction. coli V. E. monositogenes Bacillus sp. However.76 10.. ethyl acetate fraction will be used to further purification. 2007).79 13. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Antimicrobial activity of crude extract and 3 fractions from flesh fruit of asam kandis In this study. Phytochemical test The extract was put on a white plate and added some drops of various reagents. Partial purification of the crude extracts The fraction showing antimicrobial activity was purify continuously using various chromatography technique such as vacuum column chromatography (Si gel Merck 60. and saponin (Table 2).01 10. preservative activity of asam kandis fruit is probably caused by antimicrobial activity.26 9. On the basis phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity. phenolic. which is Dragendorff. Antimicrobial assay of the extract Antimicrobial activity of bacteria extract was determined based on modified well-difusion agar methods (Valgas et al. Well with 6 diameter mm was made using a punch in plate containing nutrient agar medium then its medium was spreaded with inoculum of bacterial test. 2: Phytochemical screening of various asam kandis fractions. freundii C. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2 (12).15 Average diameter of clear zones (mm) n-Heksana fraction Ethyl acetate fraction 13. The antagonistic interactions are showed that the combine activity of two or more chemical compounds is lower than their individual activities (Nelson and Kursar.58 12.40 8.86 8.58 12.08 9. The extract having antimicrobial activity was signed with formation of inhibition zone around isolate.40 13. The crude extract and methanolic and ethyl acetate fractions showed similarity in inhibition of the number and species of tested microorganisms inhibited even though it differed in average diameter of clear zone. Phytochemical screening exhibits different distribution of compound groups in each fraction (Table 2).34 8.40 9.37 11.63 16. Generally. flavonoid. 1: Antimicrobial activity of various fractions of asam kandis (500 ug/well) Gram positive positive positive positive positive negative negative negative negative negative negative Fungi The crude extract 13. cereus L. the larger the inhibition zone that forms the greater the antimicrobial activity.92 12.10 10. The fractions were concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Mg-HCl and FeCl3. the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited interested compound class namely: alkaloid. albicans .26 11. When it was partitioned.02 Methanolic fraction 10. cholerae C. Mayer. Phytochemical Screening.90 9.65 9. Class of compound Alkaloid Flavonoid Phenolic Saponin Note. (-) absent Methanolic fraction +++ Ethyl acetate fraction + + ++ + n-hexane fraction - .40 11.

contract number :3167a/H.Pisuchpen. 12:129–135.Sophanodara.P. Souza. The best antimicrobial activity between sub fraction E and F is E if it compared to diameter of clear zone. Valgas. How to cite this article: Puji Ardiningsih. Palakawong. dan potensi jenis-jenis Garcinia di Indonesia... The compounds which are responsible for antimicrobial activity were categorized as flavonoid. 2010. Merza.. V.. 2004..A. Smania.. 2012. Molecules. albicans . REFERENCES Cowan. Clinical.C. T. and herbivores damage (Cowan. 9:81-92. 38:369-380.T.. The presence of phenolic group in plants is to protect them from microbial. 1999).A.Food Research J.54 - Sub fraction E re-fractionated by gravity column chromatography was obtained E1. It proved that n-hexane fraction do not contain phenolic group so that it is not active against tested microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of the extract and fraction is categorized as a broad spectrum but sub fraction E4 can only active against C. Table. insect.20 1. Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans. Risa Nofiani. After the second fractionation. and Afghani Jayuska. 1999..M. E5. 2 (12): 172-174. E4 only inhibits growth C. 4: Antimicrobial activity of sub fractions resulted by gravity column chromatography (20 ug/well) Tested microorganism E. Berkala Penelitian Hayati. 2007. Interactions among plant defense compounds:a method for analysis. J. Table.= no clear zone. M.51 3. 17:6569-6584 Uji. the fraction contains fewer the number of substances but the concentration each substances is increase. Pongpaichit. Le Ray.... C. M. 17:583-589 Seanego. Dumontet. J. coli B. D.Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Rondeau. albicans and categorized as narrow spectrum. On the basis of this result. Sub Fraction A B C D E F . Ndip.22.. Aumond. E2. D. 2007.. persebaran. C. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of crude extract from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. Microbiol. One of mechanism to preserve food due to antimicrobial activity. E4. 1999. 65: 2915-2920 Nelson.58 7. A. subtilis C. albicans 10. Antimicrobial activity of sub fractions fractionated by vacuum column chromatography and gravity column chromatography Ethyl acetate fraction was separated by vacuum column chromatography so that was produced 6 sub fractions (Table 3). and E6 (Table 4). The substances contained E4 are possibly categorized as flavonoid. Prenylated Xanthones and Tocotrienols from Garcinia virgata. .F. S. Seraphin dan P. albicans which is categorized as narrow spectrum.. A. Smania E. 3: Antimicrobial activity of sub fractions resulted by vacuum column chromatography (300 ug/well). Identification and antibacterial evaluation of bioactive compound from Garcinia kola (heckle) seed.N. for fully supporting this research activity through Competitive Research.. 2012.S.. Sub fraction E and F are active toward Escherichia coli.S.M.= no clear zone Average Diameter of Clear Zone (mm) for Each Tested Microorganisms E. the crude extract and fraction contain more than one antimicrobial substance. Chemoecology. Kursar.) part and some essential oils. 2012: 172-174 174 Phenolic group seems to distribute into 2 fractions namely n-methanolic and ethyl acetate which are responsible for antimicrobial activity.. albicans.. E1 Average Diameter of Clear Zone (mm) E2 E3 E4 * E5 E6 2. J App Pharm Sci. Keanekaragaman.Ardiningsih et al. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2 (12).1999. A. which each the substance has responsible at certain tested microorganisms. E3. subtilis C. T. 12(4): 564-582.. Phytochemistry. C.. Richomme..13/LK/2012 on 5 March 2012. Sumarni. Int. Microbiology Review.R. lower the concentration E4 put on the well still active against C. CONCLUSION Asam kandis fruit is potential as preservative agent.96 8. M. Phythochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Sub Fractions Asam Kandis (Garcinia diocia Blume). coli B. Plant product as antimicrobial agent.C. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors acknowledge our gratitude to Indonesian Ministry of Nasional Education.28 10.98 Therefore.