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Paragraphing and Syndesis/Asyndesis in Arabic-English Translations Waleed Ahmad Othman Al-Zaytoonah University Amman, Jordan Abstract

This paper addresses two main points in translation from Arabic into English. The first point has to do with paragraphing, the second with syndetic/asyndetic coordination. The researcher assumes that Arab translators, when translating Arabic texts into English, tend to follow the norms of the source language (i.e. Arabic) rather than those of the target language (i.e. English) as regards paragraphing and syndesis/asyndesis. For the purpose of this research, the paper makes use of an Arabic text alongside its translations (by 8 Arab translators) into English. The text is not taken as a representative of any text type or genre. Rather, it is thought of as typical Arabic written discourse, where paragraphs usually tend to be long and contain more than one idea each. The translators involved in this research represent two categories: four practitioners and four translation teachers.

‫العطف والتفقير في الترجمة من العربية إلى النجليزية‬ ‫وليد أحمد عثمان‬ ‫جامعة الزيتونة الردنية‬ ‫ملخص‬ .‫تتناول هذه الورقة أمرين رئيسين في الترجمة من اللغة العربية إلى النجليزية‬ ً ‫ وصل‬،‫ في حين يتناول الثاني العطف‬،‫المر الول يتعلق بعدد فقرات النص المترجم‬ ‫ ويفترض الباحث أن‬.(‫وفص ل ً )أي باستخدام أداة العطف أو دون استخدامها‬ ‫ إلى إتباع‬،‫المترجمين العرب يميلون عند ترجمتهم لنصوص عربية إلى النجليزية‬ ‫ وذلك‬،(‫ بدل من قواعد اللغة الهدف )النجليزية‬،(‫قواعد اللغة المصدر )العربية‬ 1

‬ويمثل المترجمون الذين قاموا على ترجمة النص فئتين‬ ‫‪ .‫فيما يتعلق بالعطف‪.‬مختلفتين‪ ،‬أربعة منهم من العاملين بالترجمة وأربعة من مدرسيها‬ ‫‪2‬‬ .‬وتقسيم النص إلى فقرات‪ .‬ولهذا الغرض‪ ،‬يستخدم البحث نصا‬ ‫عربيا وترجمات له إلى النجليزية قام بها ثمانية مترجمين‪ .‬ول يمثل هذا النص أي‬ ‫نوع من أنواع الكتابة بعينه‪ ،‬وإنما هو نموذج للكتابة العربية التي تتصف فقراتها‬ ‫بطولها وتعدد أفكارها‪ .

"a knowledge of the source language in itself is insufficient. suggested that translated texts have the tendency of deviating from original target texts in various ways. But "a source text is not simply a linguistic entity as it enters into networks of relationships of not only a linguistic. among others." (Shuttleworth. This is likely to have an impact on the comprehensibility of the translation and thus lower its acceptability among the readership. (1980:39-40. literary traditions. A translated text. is a series of sentences developing one topic. according to Toury. textual conventions. an English paragraph is not too long to comprehend. two features typical of Arabic. Sykes: 1983) In this paper. as defined in almost every English writing book. what is also essential is a close familiarity with the source culture. and so forth. An A4 sheet of paper would usually have two or more paragraphs. See also Kelly: 1979 ." Therefore.1. The topic of a paragraph is expressed in a topic sentence which also has the functions of limiting the topic and letting the reader know how the paragraph will be developed. and can be identified by its visual representation. Paragraphing A paragraph. No irrelevant sentences or digressions are expected to be present in a good paragraph as such irrelevancies and/or digressions distract or confuse the reader. Introduction Baker (1995:223). it is hypothesized that English texts translated from Arabic would be characterized by long paragraphs and syndetic coordination (coordinate structures with the use of a coordinator: Quirk et al. Most often. 1985:918). but also a textual and cultural nature. English). being intended for target language readership. 1997: 157-8). results in an output with source text features that does not qualify as a translation. as a result of nonconforming to the norms of the target language (i. 3 . which. 1984: 78). not English. needs to take target language norms into consideration.e.

the different approaches to writing are related to the culture’s thought patterns (Kaplan. In other words. However. 1983:5). a translator needs to be aware that rhetorical patterns differ from one culture to another and thus be urged by this awareness to follow the writing pattern that is native to the target language. To allow no misconception in this context. This makes it different from Arabic. See also Sapir: 1951. In an English paragraph. Complex digressions are also expected and a topic sentence is often difficult to cite. 1967). Generally speaking. the pattern of thinking follows a straight line of development. where paragraphs tend to follow parallel lines of development. it is essential that he/she understands them if his/her translation is to be rendered effectively. such differences do create a difficulty in comprehension on the part of the native speaker of English when he/she reads discourse originally written in Arabic along the lines traditionally laid down for it in the Arabic language and culture. But. 1956.This is not the case with Arabic written discourse. where the concept of the paragraph is quite recent. it is just different. what causes the difference in the methods of developing paragraphs in the first place? Differences in paragraphing stem from the fact that “ideas don’t fit together in the same way from language to language […]. For a translator to whom English thought patterns are not native. Nida: 1964. These differences exist because each culture has its own special way of thinking” (Bander. it is worth mentioning that the way Arabic paragraphs are constructed and developed is neither inferior nor superior to that of English. A translation which does not pay due attention to such "rhetorical strategies gives rise to certain communicative and textual problems" (El-Shiyab: 1992: 73) 4 . The Arabic paragraph usually holds too much information which could include two or more ideas.

To realize it. 3. (1) shows the results of the first method of analysis: 5 . asyndesis is not the normal means of coordination as the use of a conjunction (especially wa) to link phrases and clauses is the favored option. with long paragraphs and syndetic coordination. both languages employ conjunctive particles. the first of which is a short introduction (45 words). In Arabic. Constructions with a conjunction are typically regarded as syndetic parataxis. the phrases or clauses are placed next to each other without a conjunction). The Arabic text (source text) is made up of only two paragraphs (see appendix). the other four are practitioners. Analysis The method of analysis applied was two-fold: First. to count the number of paragraphs in the English translations against those in the original Arabic text. coordination is marked by means of juxtaposition of syntagms with no words linking them (i. 1995: 216).e. 2003). coordination without an overt linker is termed asyndetic. four of whom are teachers of translation. The text has about 750 words in two paragraphs. The sample text is not to be thought of as a certain text type or genre. The Sample Text The sample text is an Arabic newspaper article published in the Jordanian Addustour daily newspaper (Sept. where a combination of syndesis/asyndesis is required –stylistically and even grammatically (Holes. It is simply a representative of typical Arabic writing. 2. 17. Grouping the translators into two categories (practitioners and teachers of translation) is meant to give a hint of the impact of translation theory on translation practice. This is unlike the pattern in English. Sometimes.Syndetic / asyndetic Coordination Coordination is a grammatical phenomenon present in both Arabic and English. Table No. The English translations of the article were provided by eight translators. however.

said that the article needed a concluding paragraph that would lead the readers to a conclusion.e. By so doing. who is also young and inexperienced in the field of translation practice. two paragraphs making the body of the article. One of those two translations was carried out by a young teacher of translation who holds an MA in Translation. The other translation was provided by a practitioner.e. the practitioners) have 6 . when asked why he opted for three paragraphs. and a concluding paragraph. instead of two. 2 years). making the total number of paragraphs in the translated version 3 altogether. 1986:1) Column B in table (1) shows that only one translator chose to divide the second Arabic paragraph into two. Again. These translations were provided by four translators.Table (1): Number of paragraphs in the translated versions of the sample text: No. rather than leave them wandering about the purpose of this piece of writing. Two translations opted for the same pattern of paragraphing present in the source language text (Column A). which is not typical of a well-developed English paragraph (O'donnell. He has also been practicing translation as a freelancer for about the same period. two of whom have been teachers of translation for more than five years. a failure according to a sound English writing style. The translator who carried out this job has been a teacher of translation for about five years. The other two (i. Both translators thought they needed not change the paragraphing pattern of the Arabic text. The four translations (under Column C) were each divided into four paragraphs: an introductory paragraph (the same as in the source text). of paragraphs frequency A 2 paragraphs 2 translations B 3 paragraphs 1 translation C 4 paragraphs 4 translations D 7 paragraphs 1 translation Table (1) above shows a discrepancy in paragraphing the target language text. the second paragraph in this translated version of the text housed more than one idea. It is interesting to know that this translator. but has a short experience (i. they had more than one idea in one paragraph.

By so doing.e. three chose to change the paragraphing pattern of the source text. The introductory paragraphs in their translations were the same as that of the Arabic text. The following paragraph. which surely suggests a considerable (perhaps equal) impact of both theory and practice on the process and output of translation. as well as the writer's astonishment about it and the questions he raised. A word of caution is vital in this context: It should not be understood that the mere slicing of 7 . the last of which made the conclusion to the article. They all divided the other Arabic paragraph into three paragraphs. the translators managed to imitate the way English speakers usually arrange their ideas following a direct line of development. all the translators broke their paragraphs and started new ones similarly. as mentioned above. Regardless of the number of paragraphs in the six translations (i. has only been teaching for two years. Looking more closely at the results above. This translator came out with seven paragraphs. the main idea was the declaration Perez made. Three of the four practitioners also decided to have more paragraphs in the target text than there is in the source text. The last translation (Column D) was supplied by a practitioner who has been practicing translation for five years. they have made it easier for readers to follow the line of thought of the writer. by paragraphing. i. answered the writer's questions by recounting facts and events. That is. The fourth. those with more than two paragraphs). the first in the body of the article. In their second paragraphs. The translators thought it would be wise to cut a long paragraph (as the one in the source text) into three paragraphs.been in the field for more than ten years.e. the second in the body. one could reach the following conclusion: Of the four translation teachers. What attracted our attention in these translated versions of the article is that the paragraphing pattern in the four of them is just the same. it is interesting to know that the decision of chopping pieces of writing into smaller units was taken by both teachers of translation and translation practitioners alike.

A bird's eye inspection of articles in some current magazines and newspapers will show that some writers do break their paragraphs for no apparent reason. the text with only two paragraphs that contain more than one main idea each).a text into paragraphs would render it comprehensible. This last hypothesis (the effect of paragraphing on comprehension) was further authenticated by a reading comprehension test prepared by the researcher. the writer does not seem to bother about paragraphing his text though he presents more than one idea in the body of the text. Table (2): Number of syndetic coordination instances in the eight translations: Translation No. These results clearly show that the number of paragraphs did have an influence on the student's decisions and comprehensibility of the text. In the first and second 8 . to read the 4-paragraph version of the target text. 24 of which are instances of wa. 7 out of ten of the second group thought there were four ideas. Of the first group. except that they feel the old paragraph has run on long enough. The students were asked to write down what they thought the main ideas of the texts at hand were. In the case of the Arabic text of this study. The total number of syndetically coordinated clauses in the Arabic text amounted to (32) instances (see appendix).e. (In this paper we are only interested in coordination of clauses). He asked ten 4th-year students of English to read the 2-paragraph version of the target text. 7 out of ten thought there were only two main ideas. The second analysis procedure adopted in this paper was to mark every case of syndetic coordination in the Arabic text to see how it was rendered in the English translations. and ten other students of the same level. of syndetic coordination instances 1 14 2 16 3 6 4 7 5 7 6 6 7 6 8 5 The table above shows the number of syndetic coordination instances in each of the eight translations of the sample text. which suggests that ideas are more readily noticed in a well-paragraphed text than in a poorly-paragraphed one (i. No.

As for the other six translators.21. into a dependent relative clause. See the appendix.5. e. they (the Palestinians) will get nothing. The remaining cases were mostly rendered asyndetically. the following techniques were observed: I – Changing the second coordinated unit. which were done by the two novice translators cited in column A of table (1). For the remaining instances of coordination in the source text. the number of syndetic coordination instances ranged from (5) to (7). by those in the Palestinian Authority.g. mostly with the use of and. led by Yaser Arafat. Most translators opted for coordinating particles in translating particles number(1. (3): 9 . we could count (14) and (16) tokens of syndetic coordination.9. which is an independent clause. who took upon themselves the rejection of … II – Using subordinators to replace coordinators: e.31). (2): ‫ وال فإنهم لن يحصلوا‬،‫وان على الفلسطينيين أن يقبلوا بما تعطيهم إياه إسرائيل‬ ‫على شيء‬. without the use of any conjunctive devices.16. The translators here opted for syndesis in about half of the coordination cases in the source text which amounted to (32). (1): ‫ أدركوا هذه الحقيقة ولو‬،‫ولن القيادة الفلسطينية وعلى رأسها ياسر عرفات‬ ‫ وانبروا لرفض الملءات السرائيلية ومواجهتها‬،‫متأخرا‬ This is a fact that has been realized.g. i. as table (2) above shows.12. e.23. although late. Unless the Palestinians accept what Israel offers them.e.g.translations.14.

g. (5):‬‬ ‫‪،‬فخرج ليصرح أن السرائيليين نجحوا في »خوزقة« الفلسطينيين‬ ‫… ‪Getting the point.. … they only want‬‬ ‫‪III – Using the present participial in English to replace coordinators in‬‬ ‫‪Arabic:‬‬ ‫‪e.g.‬‬ ‫‪e.‬‬ ‫‪… not only to recognize Israel. having turned into hell‬‬ ‫‪e.‬‬ ‫‪V – Using apposition:‬‬ ‫‪e. Perez went‬‬ ‫‪IV – Using paired conjunctions:‬‬ ‫‪e.g. (6):‬‬ ‫‪،‬أن يعترف بعضها بإسرائيل‪ ،‬ويقيم معها علقات سياسية واقتصادية ‪. (8):‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ . (7):‬‬ ‫وان على الفلسطينيين أن يقبلوا بما تعطيهم إياه إسرائيل‪ ،‬وال فإنهم لن يحصلوا‬ ‫‪.g. but also to establish political and economic‬‬ ‫‪relations with it. (4):‬‬ ‫وبعد أن اغتصبوا ثلثة أرباع أراضي الضفة الغربية وقطاع غزة‪ ،‬وبعد أن طبعوا‬ ‫القدس العربية بطابعهم الصهيوني والتوراتي وأعلنوها عاصمة أبدية لدولتهم‪ ،‬وبعد‬ ‫‪،‬أن أحالوا حياة الفلسطينيين إلى جحيم ل يطاق‬ ‫‪… usurped three quarters of the West Bank and Gaza Strip.‫وبعد أن أحالوا حياة الفلسطينيين إلى جحيم ل يطاق‪ ،‬وباتوا يستبيحون الحرمات‬ ‫والرواح‪ ،‬لم يعد ثمة ما يهمهم سوى إسدال الستار على القضية الفلسطينية‬ ‫‪،‬وتصفيتها نهائيا‬ ‫… ‪Now that they have turned the Palestinians’ life into hell.‬على شيء‬ ‫‪… either accept what Israel offers them or they won’t get anything. declared ….. imparted the Zionism‬‬ ‫… ‪character on Jerusalem.g.

‫ استطاع الصهاينة‬،‫وهل حقا‬ 11 . I ……….. we were able to achieve in ten years what we … In the following sentence. sponsored by the US.. e.g. (9): ‫ فما لم نقدر على فعله طوال‬:‫لقد نجحنا في »خوزقة«الفلسطينيين وأضاف‬ ‫ استطعنا أن ننجزه في عشر سنوات‬،‫سنوات الحتلل‬، We managed to entrap the Palestinians.g.. Actually. has given the Israelis what they had never even dreamt of ‫ ـ‬The Palestinians have recognized the Hebraic State and its right to exist and live in peace in the region. VII – Rendering coordinators asyndetically: e.. (10):: ‫ قد حققت‬،‫إن اتفاقية اوسلو التي رعتها الوليات المتحدة وتعهدت بتنفيذها بالكامل‬ ‫ فبموجب هذه التفاقية اعترف‬،‫للسرائيليين ما لم يحلموا به على الطلق‬ ‫الفلسطينيون بالدولة العبرية وحقها في الوجود والعيش بسلم وامن في المنطقة‬، Oslo Agreement. (11): ‫ والحقيقة أنني توقفت طويل أمام هذا التصريح‬.g. a recognition that led a number of Arab and Muslim countries … VI – Using punctuation marks: In the following sentence. a dash was used to replace the Arabic fa e.‫اعترف الفلسطينيون بالدولة العبرية وحقها في الوجود والعيش بسلم وامن في‬ ‫ وان هذا العتراف دفع عددا من الدول العربية والسلمية وحتى الدول‬،‫المنطقة‬ ‫الجنبية الصديقة للفلسطينيين أن يعترف بعضها بإسرائيل‬، The Palestinians recognized the State of Israel and its right to exist … .g.. the translator used a semicolon to give the meaning of the particle fa: e. (12): ‫؟‬.

17. it functions as an “indicator of topic continuity ensuring coherent transition from one discourse into another” (Hamdan.g. 1999: 593). turned … . However. unlike the case in English. Conclusions The present paper has shown that:  Both experienced practitioners and teachers of translation tend to change the paragraphing pattern of an Arabic text when rendering it into English. the wa is dropped for another reason (i. imparted … . Novice translators. 32) the wa is resumptive. on the other hand. 12 .e. 22. The wa in this example is additive. paragraphing should not be misunderstood as the mere chopping up of a lengthy discourse or text into small units without understanding the actual function and organization of the paragraph. declared … . the wa is not resumptive in this example). In the example below. are subject to influences which come from the source text paragraphing style. and … 4. 8.Were the Zionists really able to …? In the two Arabic examples cited above (as well as in five other instances 6. where only the last instance of and is retained: e. The only sound option before a translator if he/she is to create an understandable and effective target text is to follow the norms of writing in the target language. In English. the use of a resumptive 'and' is rare. that is. which justifies the translators' decision of leaving such instances out. (13): ‫ وبعد أن طبعوا‬،‫وبعد أن اغتصبوا ثلثة أرباع أراضي الضفة الغربية وقطاع غزة‬ ‫ وبعد‬،‫القدس العربية بطابعهم الصهيوني والتوراتي وأعلنوها عاصمة أبدية لدولتهم‬ ‫ وباتوا يستبيحون الحرمات‬،‫أن أحالوا حياة الفلسطينيين إلى جحيم ل يطاق‬ ‫ لم يعد ثمة ما يهمهم سوى إسدال الستار على القضية الفلسطينية‬،‫والرواح‬ ‫وتصفيتها نهائيا‬، Having usurped … . which is repeated in Arabic before all coordinated units (phrases or clauses). however.

Ostler (1987) found that long sentences conjoined with coordinating conjunctions are typical of Arabic Writing. It is worth-mentioning. they did manage to make their translations more sophisticated. Everything within such limited paragraphs leads to a smooth comprehension and helps the reader get to the point intended by the writer. mature. paired conjunctions. When paragraphs are not too long. Along similar lines. Such studies should include discourse from different genres. apposition and punctuation marks to replace instances of coordination. Spanish. parallelism. 1991:165) 5. including subordination. Kaplan compared rhetorical and syntactic styles of English and Arabic and found that in English subordination is considered more elegant than. Reid (1992) did a computer text analysis on essays by both native English speakers and non-native speakers from Arabic. the translators who opted for methods other than coordination. the reader can readily follow the main theme therein. This has been proved by the reading comprehension test mentioned above.  Both experienced practitioners and teachers of translation opt for other techniques rather than coordination when dealing with a highlycoordinated Arabic text. that Arabic favors coordination more than subordination. were on the right track. Therefore. in this context. and Chinese language backgrounds. Readers find it easier to elicit ideas from such discourse than from longer blocks of writing where more than one idea are usually found. and found that Arabic writers use more coordinate conjunctions than writers in the other languages of the study. In 1967. while the opposite holds for Arabic (Kaplan. present participials. This would entail paying due 13 . 1967). Such techniques include the use of subordination. Well-developed pieces of writing are more easily comprehended. Prospective translators ought to be made aware of paragraphing conventions in both English and Arabic. and hence preferable to. This tendency is not a drawback of Arabic. Suggestions   More descriptive and contrastive studies on paragraphing and coordination are needed. interesting and effective (Oshima.

(See also Othman: 2004)  In longer research projects more extended texts could be surveyed and analyzed through the use of massive amounts of computerized collections of texts that are currently available on the Internet.attention to the concept of cultural thought patterns employed in the writing process of both languages. 14 .  Prospective translators should also be made aware of the coordination/subordination preferences in both English and Arabic.

Teresa D. Waleed. and Ann Houge (1991). Jihad and Shehdeh Fareh. El-Shiyab. in Robert de Beaugrande. 261-272) Newbury Park. Louis G. Al-Basaer. Holes. “Academic and Ethnic background as factors affecting writing performance” in A. (1992). Hamdan. Reihart & Winston. Independent Writing. The True Interpreter: A History of Translation Theory and Practice in the West. Vol. "Subordination and Coordination in English-Arabic Translation" . Illinois: Scott Foresman and Company. Functions and Varieties. “Corpora in Translation Studies: An Overview and Some Suggestions for Future Research”. (1979). Tesol Quarterly 1:3. (1987). 26:2. Purves (Ed. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. 2: 12-33. Oshima. Toward a Science of Translating. O'donnell. 8-No. Writing Academic English. London: Longman.). Target. "The Rhetoric of Paragraphing across Cultures: Some Effects on Translation". (1967). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. “The Translation of Arabic Wa into English: Some Problems and Implications” in Dirasat. Paiva (1986). 2nd ed. A. Discourse and Translation in the West and Middle East. CA: Sage Othman. London Ostler. (1964). Abdulla Shunnaq & Mohamed Helmy Heliel (eds. (1985). al. 7:2. 590-601. (1995). New York: Holt. S. Clives. Kelly. Kaplan. Eugene. Rober G. Vol. Glenview. Writing across Languages and Cultures: Issues in Contrastive Rhetoric (pp. “Contrastive Rhetoric and the Teaching of Composition”.) Language. Human and Social Sciences. 73-77. (1993). Robert B. London: Longman 15 . 223-243. Nida. (1995). & Judith L. Vol.Bibliography Baker. (1999). Said M. (2004). Quirk et. Leiden: Brill. 10-16. American English Rhetoric: 3rd ed. Modern Arabic: Structure. Mona. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Bander.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Jerome Publishing Sykes. 1(2). (1980). 79-107 Sapir. Toury. John B. ____. Language. in E. Tel Aviv: The Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics.S. (1997). Edward. Toury. Journal of Second Language Writing. Shuttleworth. Gideon. Shaffer (ed.) The Translator's Handbook. In search of a Theory of Translation. Cambridge University Press. "Translation. Joy. Mark and Moira Cowie. Dictionary of Translation Studies. (1965). "The Intellectual Tools Employed". (1983). Culture. (1984). Gideon. New York: Harcourt. in Catriona Picken (ed.Reid. Manchester. (1951). London: Aslib. Literary Translation and Pseudotranslation".) Comparative Criticism 6. (1992). "Cohesion is not coherence". 16 . St. Brace and Company. Lnaguage and Personality. UK. 73-85.

‬عرفات‬ ‫أتدرون ما قاله بيريز الحائز على جائزة نوبل للسلم!! لقد قال في نشوة‬ ‫عارمة وفرح ل حدود له‪ ،‬وبلغة سوقية غاية في الوقاحة والنحطاط وقلة الدب‪:‬‬ ‫لقد نجحنا في «خوزقة» الفلسطينيين )‪(2‬وأضاف‪(3) :‬فما لم نقدر على فعله طوال‬ ‫سنوات الحتلل‪ ،‬استطعنا أن ننجزه في عشر سنوات‪ ،‬أي منذ اتفاقية أوسلو حتى‬ ‫الن‪ ،‬وتحت مظلة السلطة الفلسطينية!!‪(4) .‫‪Appendix‬‬ ‫بقلم ‪ :‬ابراهيم العبسي‬ ‫بذاءة الثعلب‬ ‫ما قاله شمعون بيرس‪ ،‬الثعلب الكثر خبثا ودهاء في معسكر الحرس‬ ‫الصهيوني القديم‪(1) ،‬ونشرته صحيفة الشرق الوسط اللندنية قبل يومين‪ ،‬هو‬ ‫الخطر من كل هذا الضجيج الذي يمل الساحة الفلسطينية والعربية والدولية حول‬ ‫قرار حكومة شارون اليمينية المتطرفة بطرد أو إبعاد الرئيس الفلسطيني ياسر‬ ‫‪.‬والحقيقة أنني توقفت طويل أمام هذا‬ ‫التصريح المفاجئ لرجل ظل يدعي حرصه على السلم طوال الوقت‪(5) ،‬وشارك‬ ‫بحماس منقطع النظير في صياغة اتفاقية أوسلو إلى جانب اسحق رابين‪(6) ،‬وأنا‬ ‫اسأل نفسي‪ :‬ما الذي يرمي إليه هذا الرجل الثعلب بمثل هذا التصريح المثير‬ ‫والبذيء؟ )‪ (7‬وهل حقا‪ ،‬استطاع الصهاينة بحكوماتهم «اليسارية» واليمينية أن‬ ‫ينجحوا في «خوزقة» الفلسطينيين وكيف!! هل كانت اتفاقية أوسلو التي اعتبرها‬ ‫بعضهم فتحا عظيما‪« ،‬خازوقا» صهيونيا للفلسطينيين!! )‪(8‬والواقع أنني لم أكن‬ ‫بحاجة إلى وقت كبير لكتشف أن اتفاقية أوسلو التي رعتها الوليات المتحدة )‬ ‫‪ (9‬وتعهدت بتنفيذها بالكامل‪ ،‬قد حققت للسرائيليين ما لم يحلموا به على الطلق‪،‬‬ ‫)‪ (10‬فبموجب هذه التفاقية اعترف الفلسطينيون بالدولة العبرية وحقها في الوجود‬ ‫‪17‬‬ .

‫والعيش بسلم أمن في المنطقة‪(11) ،‬وان هذا العتراف دفع عددا من الدول‬ ‫العربية والسلمية وحتى الدول الجنبية الصديقة للفلسطينيين أن يعترف بعضها‬ ‫بإسرائيل‪(12) ،‬ويقيم معها علقات سياسية واقتصادية‪(13) ،‬وان يقيم بعضها الخر‬ ‫علقات اقتصادية وتجارية مع تل أبيب‪ ،‬هذه الدول التي ظلت ترفض العتراف‬ ‫بإسرائيل طوال الوقت‪(14) ،‬أو تقيم معها أي نوع من العلقات‪ ،‬ما دامت تحتل‬ ‫أراضي الفلسطينيين )‪ (15‬وتصادر حقوقهم‪ .‬كما تمكنت الدولة العبرية وتحت مظلة‬ ‫هذه التفاقية من تهويد القدس العربية بالكامل بعد أن عزلتها عن بقية المدن‬ ‫الفلسطينية في الضفة )‪(16‬وأحاطتها بغابات من السمنت‪ ،‬أطلقوا عليها مسمى‬ ‫«مستوطنات» لستيعاب المهاجرين الجدد من اليهود‪ ،‬إضافة إلى اقتطاع مساحات‬ ‫واسعة من الراضي الفلسطينية في الضفة والقطاع‪ ،‬وإقامة البؤر الستيطانية‬ ‫الجديدة فوقها‪ ،‬بما يزيد كثيرا عما كانت قد اقتطعته منذ احتلل ‪ 1967،‬حتى‬ ‫التوقيع على اتفاقية أوسلو‪(17) ،‬والهم من ذلك أن إسرائيل أوهمت العالم‪(18) ،‬‬ ‫وأوهمت الفلسطينيين والعرب‪ ،‬أن هناك سلطة وجيشا للفلسطينيين مقابل‬ ‫السلطة السرائيلية والجيش السرائيلي‪ ،‬المر الذي أطلق يد الجيش السرائيلي‬ ‫في استمرار اجتياح المدن والمخيمات والقرى الفلسطينية‪ ،‬وتصفية واغتيال رموز‬ ‫وكوادر المنظمات الفلسطينية‪ ،‬وحتى القضاء على المؤسسات المنية الفلسطينية‬ ‫التابعة للسلطة تحت ذريعة أن هنالك دولتين تتصارعان‪ ،‬في الحين الذي تؤكد فيه‬ ‫الحقائق أن الشعب الفلسطيني‪ ،‬والسلطة الفلسطينية ذات المكانيات المتواضعة‬ ‫جدا‪ ،‬كانا تحت الحتلل السرائيلي‪ ،‬وفي قبضة الجيش السرائيلي‪ ،‬وتحت السلطة‬ ‫المباشرة للحكومات السرائيلية‪ ،‬وآخرها حكومة الليكود بقيادة شارون‪ ،‬الذي ألغى‬ ‫اتفاقية اوسلو وما بعدها من اتفاقيات وتفاهمات‪ ،‬حتى وصل إلى دفن خريطة‬ ‫‪18‬‬ .

‬تصريحه البذيء‬ ‫‪19‬‬ .‬المر الذي التقطه بيريز بعد أن‬ ‫انتظره طويل‪(25) ،‬فخرج ليصرح أن السرائيليين نجحوا في «خوزقة»‬ ‫الفلسطينيين‪(26) ،‬فبعد أن اعترفت بهم معظم دول العالم‪ ،‬ومنها دول عربية‪) ،‬‬ ‫‪(27‬وبعد أن اغتصبوا ثلثة أرباع أراضي الضفة الغربية وقطاع غزة‪(28) ،‬وبعد أن‬ ‫طبعوا القدس العربية بطابعهم الصهيوني والتوراتي )‪(29‬وأعلنوها عاصمة أبدية‬ ‫لدولتهم‪(30) ،‬وبعد أن أحالوا حياة الفلسطينيين إلى جحيم ل يطاق‪(31) ،‬وباتوا‬ ‫يستبيحون الحرمات والرواح‪ ،‬لم يعد ثمة ما يهمهم سوى إسدال الستار على‬ ‫القضية الفلسطينية وتصفيتها نهائيا‪ ،‬متوجين ذلك بطرد أو إبعاد أو قتل الرئيس‬ ‫الفلسطيني ياسر عرفات‪(32) ،‬ولعل ذلك بالضبط هو ما قصده شمعون بيرس في‬ ‫‪.‬غير أن شارون وكل جنرالت وساسة الكيان‬ ‫الصهيوني بمن فيهم شمعون بيرس ل يطيقون مجرد الحديث عن دولة فلسطينية‬ ‫حتى على الورق‪(20) ،‬وان على الفلسطينيين أن يقبلوا بما تعطيهم إياه إسرائيل‪) ،‬‬ ‫‪(21‬وال فإنهم لن يحصلوا على شيء‪(22) .‬ولن القيادة الفلسطينية وعلى رأسها‬ ‫ياسر عرفات‪ ،‬أدركوا هذه الحقيقة ولو متأخرا‪(23) ،‬وانبروا لرفض الملءات‬ ‫السرائيلية ومواجهتها‪ ،‬بإرادة شعبهم ولحم رجالهم‪(24) ،‬فقد قررت حكومة الليكود‬ ‫طرد ياسر عرفات والتخلص منه معتقدة أنها بإبعاد عرفات يمكن أن تنجح في‬ ‫تصفية القضية الفلسطينية على النحو الذي تراه‪ .‫الطريق التي تعطي الفلسطينيين مجرد أمل أو وهم بإقامة دولة لهم على جزء‬ ‫صغير جدا من أرضهم التاريخية‪(19) .