4. Formal (axiomatic) system of propositional logic P = (Zp, Fp, Ap,Rp) where:
&,
,UE
{
. I"

=Var _propos
uCu{(,)}
_
vocabulary
propos = {pr,p2,...}  aset of propositional variables  c = { (negation), n (conjunction), v (crisjunction),+ (imprication),+> (equivatece)}
var
t Fp: the set of well formed formulas, which is the smallest
satis$zing the ru1es:
;
set
of
formula
base: pi e Fp,i =1,2,...; induction: if u,rt
e
to then:
(J<>VeFo
UeFr,UnVeFr, UvVe Fr, (J_+VeFr,
closure: all formulas from Fp are obtained by applying the rules above in a finite number of times.
.
Ap = {A1, A2, A3} _ the set
of axioms of propositional logic
A1: U + (V + U) A2: (U + (V + Z)) + ((U _+V) A3:
1U
_+
(u
+
Z))
+V) + (V + U)
axiomatic schemes, where (J,v,z can formulas, generating an infinite number of axioms .
These axioms are
in fact
be arbitrarv
t
{mp}  the set of inference(deduction) rules containing modus ponens rule. Notation: u,u +vlnprt , with the meaning: ,,from the facts ry and, u _+v we
Rp =
deduce
(infer) v ',.
obtained using the axiomatic schemes A:,A2.A3 are
Remark: All the axioms
tautologies (valid formulas).
Y/
n.f.f4 are initial formulas (hypotheses)..rJ2. AO .. .V + Z 1.D. such that A!U (or FU) iscalled theorem.Propositional logic. "Is a given propositional formulaU a theorem or not?" "Is a siven formula V deductible from the set of formulas Ul. called hypotheses and V be a formula.U2...) of formulas such that f.fr... il < i and i2 < i (formula is inferred existed formulas) The sequence (l .m} we have a) orb) a) .)is called the deduction using modus ponens from two of V from U1..... f5 are obtained using modus ponens.. Remark.:Y andv..... fizl.. Decision problems in propositional logic: .... MFCS 2010.*p .....f2...IJn be formulas..Fo.0v R:V f4: fi + z f3.f.'.f21.U2.Un and we denote this by Ul.f5) of formulas as follows: ' fl f2: u U +V f. and f3.Z using the definition of deduction: We build the sequence (fl . (f....fi€ Ap (axiom)... According to the above definition...Un} (hypothesis formula). e{1. we have proved that the deduction holds. The theorems are the formulas deductible only from the axioms and using modus ponens as inference rule. b) f.R. c) ft.oz f5 z We remark that fl. e {U1.f4...lJn?" Example 5: Prove that: Ll.Un' DefinitionS: A formulaU e .f41n..(J +V.V' if there is a sequence or c).fr...Un l. V is deductible (derivable) from Ul. Mihaiela Lupea Definition 7: LetIJI.
from Ar: u + (v + u) repracing.from f3. D.reprac ing f4l*o u with v and v with _U : f5: U +v The sequence (f1. with fl.tt) . f2. building the deduction We build the sequence of formulas (f1.hypothesis formula fl.*o u _>u f5: u _+u The sequence (fl .f4: (V + U) > (U _+.from Al u + (V _+ (J) replacing V with (J R. D. U + U is a theorem. Example 7.f2l.f2 l*. D' R. u and v with tt . We build (f7. fl. f4 l. f5) as follows: fl: r_t . R. Zwith U.: (u ((u u) _+ u)) _+ ((u _> (u _+u)) _+ (u _+ (J)) . Prove that R. v from u andthe axioms. Prove that I u +u. f5) is the deduction of u _.Propositional logic. f5) as follows: U + of u U + ((U _> U) _+ U) . A3 (u + v) > (v u _>v >u. f3: f4: {u _>(U _+u))_>(u _+u) (u + (U _+ U)) _> (U _>U) U _+ (U _> U) . IA . U _+ (_V _+ _(I) . Mihaiela Lupea Example 6.from A2: 11u __> (v _+ z)) _+ ((u _+ _+ _> v) (u z)) using the replacements: V with U _>u and. _> _+ D. MFCS _2010.mp _v + _(J f3: V + (J . therefore UlU+z using the definition of deduction.from AI: u_+(V_>LD replacing V with _+Lr U . f3. f4. f5) is the deduction of u +ty from the axioms.l. D. f4. fll. fI: from the axioms only.
(Ja2lUnt (Un +Q if and only if Utl..+ (U. then (J1.. Using example I we begin with the deduction: U...) if and only l.UrlV...(Iay..... + V).(/ V +V.....(Jn71Ur+Vthen (/1.(Ja*y.UnlV (11..I Propositional logic.Unt + (Un >V)..V + z  l..(u " v + Z) + (u + (v + z)) separation of the premises > Example 8: We prove the consequences I and2.Ur + (Uz if + (..(U + (v + z)) > (v nu + z)) reunion of the premises 5.. lu + ((U'+ v) +v) 2.. U Applying the theorem of deduction we obtain another application of the same theorem: : U  * (U + V) + V ' and we continue with lU + ((U + V)+V) 2.. MFCS 2010.)) Consequences of the theorem of deduction: 1..V + Z  Lr U + V  (V > Z) + > (U + Z) Z) + (U + Z)) l....(U + V) + ((V t: lr\J ..vlU.Unt..U"lV. Applying "n" times the theorem of deduction and its reverse we obtain: (J1..(J. >V ' Reverse of theorem of deduction: If (J1.. l.. l.(J if and onlY if if n1J U n + fi if + atd onlY (J1.(u + (v + z)) + (v + (u z)) permutation of the premises 4... +vl^o t' 1. l. l.Uz + (..(U +V)'+ ((V + Z) > (U + Z)) syllogism rule 3.z + Z ::> Application of the theorem of deduction ::> Application of the theorem of deduction ::> Application of the theorem of deduction (J + ... We begin with the modus ponens rule: u.. Mihaiela Lupea Theorem of deduction: If U1.
pAr q. f6) is the deduction of q p_>r.T2 = (p n r + q) + ((p > r) _+ (p _+ q y q l ) There can be also obtained the following theorems: lT3 = (p n r + q) > (p _+ ((p _+ r) _+ q))) l74 = p > ((p Ar ) q) + ((p _+ r) _+ q)) l.pAr+ql_p_>q then p Ar (p > r) _+ (p _+ q) then l.pAr)q.T5. R.pAr_)q. the order of moving the premises to the right side is. f6): fl: p . f4. Plr.t/. r. Mihaiela Lupea Example 9. ) There are PAr)q.r _+ q) _+ q)) l76 = p + ((p > r) + ((p nr + q) ) q )) t.r + q) + (p _) q) then l* T1 = (p > r) + ((p A r + q) + (p + q))___ the theorem to be proved. P. 3!:6 such possibilities (to move the premises to the right side of the metasymbol l_ ) and we prove 6 theorems: T1.pAr)qlp_>q p)r.Z5 = (p + r) ) (p + ((p r. 1. pl4 then P. g. D. f5. p Ar ) Q.@ + r) + ((p Ar _) q) _+ (p theorem of ) q)) deduction and its reverse prove stepl: we apply the reverse of the theorem of deduction to obtain the deduction to begin with: if l@ > r) + (p __> q) _+ (p _> q)) then ^r p +rl_(pnr p_)r. . f5.q we apply three times the theorem of deduction. Using Definition 7 we build the sequence of formulas: (fl . 2. l_mDr IJ: r f4: fl n f3: p r (conjunction ofthe conclusions) ^ f5: p Ar + q . from the premises Step3: From the deduction p + p l.pAr)ql_p_>q then p > r l(p r.T3. p_+r if p + r.Propositional logic. p)r. T6.T4. MFCS _2010.T2. f5lrroq f1 f6: q The sequence (fl' f2.p. the order of moving the premises to the risht sicle is. pAr)q if p + r.premise f4.premise nl tt.pl_q + q)_>(p _+ q) then then Step2: We prove the deduction obtained at Stepl. Using the l. plq then p)r.premise (hypothesis) f2: p + r . f4. p Ar ) Q.
I L.Propositional logic. Soundness theorem (syntactic validity implies semantic validity): If If l. An infinite set of propositional formulas is inconsistent if and only if has an inconsistent finite subset..(Jk} is inconsistent.Uz. Theorem 6. such that {UrU2.] b.t e N*.(J2. This can't be proved in a finite number of steps.. MFCS 2010. completness. An infinite set of propositional formulas is consistent if and only if all its subsets (an infinite number) are consistent.. S is consistent if and only tf { Ur } zs consistent und trJt..U r) c S such that U1..(Jrl= V.U2.. 1. S zs inconsistent if and only if !. (compactness 2) A propositional formula y is a logical consequence of an infinite sef of propositional formulas S ( S l= V ) if and only if there is a finite subsef of S.U rr} is consistent und Remarks:' .. Theorem of soundness and completness for propositional logic: l... an infinit set ofpropositionalformula. Theorem 7. The propositional logic is decidable: we can decide if apropositional formula is a theorem or nol The truth table method is a decision method.U then l: U (A theorem is a tautology)...... lU The and I U. : Co'mpletness theorem (semantic validity implies syntactic validity) l=U then l u (A tautology is a theorem)... . Theorem 5. {Ut. Consequences of this theorem are the following properties: The propositional logic is noncontradictory: we can't have simultaneously o o . This can be proved in a finite number of steps. propositional logic is coherenf: not every propositional formula is a theorem. soundness. Let S:{[J1.t ..tJz.. noncontradictory and decidabiliry...LIz]t is consistent und {rJt... Mihaiela Lupea The properties of propositional logic are: compactness.u if and only if 1:u .U. coherence. (compactness 1) An infinite sef of propositional formulas has a model if and only if each of its subsefs has a finite model.. 2..