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# Propositional logic, MFCS -2010, Mihaiela Lupea

4. Formal (axiomatic) system of propositional logic P = (Zp, Fp, Ap,Rp) where:

&,

,UE

{

. I"
-

=Var _propos

uCu{(,)}

_

vocabulary

-propos = {pr,p2,...} - aset of propositional variables - c = {- (negation), n (conjunction), v (crisjunction),-+ (imprication),+> (equivatece)}

var

t Fp: the set of well formed formulas, which is the smallest
satis\$zing the ru1es:

;

set

of

formula

-base: pi e Fp,i =1,2,...; -induction: if u,rt
e

to then:
(J<>VeFo

-UeFr,UnVeFr, UvVe Fr, (J_+VeFr,

-closure: all formulas from Fp are obtained by applying the rules above in a finite number of times.

.

Ap = {A1, A2, A3} _ the set

of axioms of propositional logic

A1: U -+ (V -+ U) A2: (U -+ (V -+ Z)) -+ ((U _+V) A3:
1U
_+

(u

+

Z))

-+V) -+ (-V -+ -U)

axiomatic schemes, where (J,v,z can formulas, generating an infinite number of axioms .

These axioms are

in fact

be arbitrarv

t

{mp} - the set of inference(deduction) rules containing modus ponens rule. Notation: u,u -+vl-nprt , with the meaning: ,,from the facts ry and, u _+v we
Rp =

deduce

(infer) v ',.
obtained using the axiomatic schemes A:,A2.A3 are

Remark: All the axioms
tautologies (valid formulas).

Y/

n.f.f4 are initial formulas (hypotheses)..rJ2. AO .. .V -+ Z 1.D. such that A!U (or FU) iscalled theorem.Propositional logic. "Is a given propositional formulaU a theorem or not?" "Is a siven formula V deductible from the set of formulas Ul. called hypotheses and V be a formula.U2...) of formulas such that f.fr... il < i and i2 < i (formula is inferred existed formulas) The sequence (l .m} we have a) orb) a) .)is called the deduction using modus ponens from two of V from U1..... f5 are obtained using modus ponens.. Remark.:Y andv..... fizl.. Decision problems in propositional logic: .... MFCS -2010.*p .....f2...IJn be formulas..Fo.0v R:V f4: fi -+ z f3.f.'.f21-.U2.Un and we denote this by Ul.f5) of formulas as follows: ' fl f2: u U -+V f|. and f3.Z using the definition of deduction: We build the sequence (fl . (f....fi€ Ap (axiom)... According to the above definition...Un} (hypothesis formula). e{1. we have proved that the deduction holds. The theorems are the formulas deductible only from the axioms and using modus ponens as inference rule. b) f.R. c) ft.oz f5 z We remark that fl. e {U1.f4...lJn?" Example 5: Prove that: Ll.Un' DefinitionS: A formulaU e .f41-n..(J -+V.V' if there is a sequence or c).fr...Un l. V is deductible (derivable) from Ul. Mihaiela Lupea Definition 7: LetIJI.

from Ar: u -+ (v -+ u) repracing.from f3. D.reprac ing f4l*o u with -v and v with _U : f5: U -+v The sequence (f1. with fl.tt) . f2. building the deduction We build the sequence of formulas (f1.hypothesis formula fl.*o u _>u f5: u _+u The sequence (fl .f4: (-V -+ -U) --> (U _+.from Al u + (V _+ (J) replacing V with (J R. D. U -+ U is a theorem. Example 7.f2l.f2 l*. D' R. -u and v with -tt . We build (f7. fl. f4 l. f5) as follows: fl: -r_t --. R. Zwith U.: (u ((u u) _+ u)) _+ ((u _> (u _+u)) _+ (u _+ (J)) . Prove that R. v from -u andthe axioms. Prove that I u -+u. f5) is the deduction of u -_.Propositional logic. f5) as follows: U -+ of u U -+ ((U _> U) _+ U) . A3 (u -+ v) --> (-v u _>v -->-u. f3: f4: {u _>(U _+u))_>(u _+u) (u -+ (U _+ U)) _> (U _>U) U _+ (U _> U) . IA . -U _+ (_V _+ _(I) . Mihaiela Lupea Example 6.from A2: 11u __> (v _+ z)) _+ ((u _+ _+ _> v) (u z)) using the replacements: V with U -_>u and. _> _+ D. MFCS _2010.mp _v -+ _(J f3: -V -+ -(J . therefore -UlU-+z using the definition of deduction.from AI: u_+(V_>LD replacing V with _+Lr U . f3. f4. f5) is the deduction of u -+ty from the axioms.l. D. f4. fll. fI: from the axioms only.

(Ja-2lUn-t (Un -+Q if and only if Utl..-+ (U. then (J1.. Using example I we begin with the deduction: U...) if and only l.UrlV...(Ia-y..... -+ V).(-/ V -+V.....(Jn-71-Ur+Vthen (/1.(Ja*y.UnlV (11..I Propositional logic.Un-t -+ (Un -->V)..V -+ z | l..(u " v -+ Z) -+ (u -+ (v -+ z)) separation of the premises --> Example 8: We prove the consequences I and2.Ur -+ (Uz if + (..(U -+ (v -+ z)) -> (v nu -+ z)) reunion of the premises 5.. l-u -+ ((U'+ v) -+v) 2.. U Applying the theorem of deduction we obtain another application of the same theorem: : U | * (U -+ V) -+ V ' and we continue with lU -+ ((U -+ V)-+V) 2.. MFCS -2010.)) Consequences of the theorem of deduction: 1..V -+ Z - Lr U + V | -(V --> Z) -+ --> (U + Z) Z) -+ (U -+ Z)) l....(U -+ V) + ((V t: lr\J ..-vlU.Un-t..U"lV. Applying "n" times the theorem of deduction and its reverse we obtain: (J1..(J. ->V ' Reverse of theorem of deduction: If (J1.. l.. l.(J if and onlY if if n-1J- U n + fi if + atd onlY (J1.(u -+ (v -+ z)) -+ (v -+ (u z)) permutation of the premises 4... -+vl-^o t' 1. l. l.Uz -+ (..(U -+V)'+ ((V -+ Z) -> (U + Z)) syllogism rule 3.z -+ Z ::> Application of the theorem of deduction ::> Application of the theorem of deduction ::> Application of the theorem of deduction (J -+ ... We begin with the modus ponens rule: u.. Mihaiela Lupea Theorem of deduction: If U1.

pAr q. f6) is the deduction of q p_>r.T2 = (p n r -+ q) -+ ((p -> r) _+ (p _+ q y q l- -) There can be also obtained the following theorems: lT3 = (p n r + q) -> (p _+ ((p _+ r) _+ q))) l-74 = p -> ((p Ar -) q) -+ ((p _+ r) _+ q)) l.pAr-+ql_p_>q then p Ar (p -> r) _+ (p _+ q) then l.pAr)q.T5. R.pAr_)q. the order of moving the premises to the right side is. f6): fl: p --. f4. Plr.t/. r. Mihaiela Lupea Example 9. -) There are PAr)q.r _+ q) _+ q)) l-76 = p -+ ((p --> r) -+ ((p nr + q) ) q )) t.r + q) + (p _) q) then l* T1 = (p --> r) -+ ((p A r -+ q) -+ (p + q))___ the theorem to be proved. P. 3!:6 such possibilities (to move the premises to the right side of the metasymbol l_ ) and we prove 6 theorems: T1.pAr-)qlp_>q p)r.Z5 = (p -+ r) -) (p + ((p r. 1. pl-4 then P. g. D. f5. p Ar ) Q.@ -+ r) -+ ((p Ar _) q) _+ (p theorem of ) q)) deduction and its reverse prove stepl: we apply the reverse of the theorem of deduction to obtain the deduction to begin with: if l@ --> r) -+ (p __> q) _+ (p _> q)) then ^r p -+rl_(pnr p_)r. . f5.q we apply three times the theorem of deduction. Using Definition 7 we build the sequence of formulas: (fl . 2. l_mDr IJ: r f4: fl n f3: p r (conjunction ofthe conclusions) ^ f5: p Ar -+ q --. from the premises Step3: From the deduction p -+ p l.pAr-)ql_p_>q then p -> r l(p r.T3. p_+r if p -+ r.Propositional logic. p)r. T6.T4. MFCS _2010.T2. f5l-rroq f1 f6: q The sequence (fl' f2.p. the order of moving the premises to the risht sicle is. pAr-)q if p -+ r.premise f4.premise nl tt.pl_q + q)_>(p _+ q) then then Step2: We prove the deduction obtained at Stepl. Using the l. pl-q then p)r.premise (hypothesis) f2: p -+ r --. f4. p Ar ) Q.

I L.Propositional logic. Soundness theorem (syntactic validity implies semantic validity): If If l. An infinite set of propositional formulas is inconsistent if and only if has an inconsistent finite subset..(Jk} is inconsistent.Uz. Theorem 6. such that {UrU2.] b.t e N*.(J2. This can't be proved in a finite number of steps.. MFCS -2010. completness. An infinite set of propositional formulas is consistent if and only if all its subsets (an infinite number) are consistent.. S is consistent if and only tf { Ur } zs consistent und trJt..U r) c S such that U1..(Jrl= V.U2.. 1. S zs inconsistent if and only if !. (compactness 2) A propositional formula y is a logical consequence of an infinite sef of propositional formulas S ( S l= V ) if and only if there is a finite subsef of S.U rr} is consistent und Remarks:' .. Theorem of soundness and completness for propositional logic: l... an infinit set ofpropositionalformula. Theorem 7. The propositional logic is decidable: we can decide if apropositional formula is a theorem or nol The truth table method is a decision method.U then l: U (A theorem is a tautology)...... l-U The and I U. : Co'mpletness theorem (semantic validity implies syntactic validity) l=U then l- u (A tautology is a theorem)... . Theorem 5. {Ut. Consequences of this theorem are the following properties: The propositional logic is noncontradictory: we can't have simultaneously o o . This can be proved in a finite number of steps. propositional logic is coherenf: not every propositional formula is a theorem. soundness. Let S:{[J1.t ..tJz.. noncontradictory and decidabiliry...LIz]t is consistent und {rJt... Mihaiela Lupea The properties of propositional logic are: compactness.u if and only if 1:u .U. coherence. (compactness 1) An infinite sef of propositional formulas has a model if and only if each of its subsefs has a finite model.. 2..